[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) exerts its actions via four subtypes of the PGE receptor, EP1-4. We show that mice deficient in EP1 exhibited significantly attenuated Th1 response in contact hypersensitivity induced by dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB). This phenotype was recapitulated in wild-type mice by administration of an EP1-selective antagonist during the sensitization phase, and by adoptive transfer of T cells from sensitized EP1-/- mice. Conversely, an EP1-selective agonist facilitated Th1 differentiation of naive T cells in vitro. Finally, CD11c+ cells containing the inducible form of PGE synthase increased in number in the draining lymph nodes after DNFB application. These results suggest that PGE2 produced by dendritic cells in the lymph nodes acts on EP1 in naive T cells to promote Th1 differentiation.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/2007; 204(12):2865-74. DOI:10.1084/jem.20070773 · 12.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keratinocytes are the major target of sunlight, and they produce prostaglandin (PG) E(2) upon ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Although indomethacin, one of cyclooxygenase inhibitors, is known to suppress UV-induced acute skin inflammation, it remains uncertain whether endogenous PGE(2) is responsible for UV-induced skin inflammation, and which subtype of PGE(2) receptors mediates this process. UV-induced skin inflammation was investigated by using genetically and pharmacologically PGE(2) receptor-deficient mice. We applied UV-induced skin inflammation model to genetical and pharmacological PGE(2) receptor-deficient mice. We exposed UVB on these mice at 5 kJ/m(2), and examined the ear swelling and the histological findings. We also measured the blood flow using a laser doppler device to assess the intensity of UVB-induced inflammatory change. The UV-induced ear swelling at 48 h after exposure was significantly reduced in EP2(-/-), EP4(-/-) or wild-type mice treated with the EP4 antagonist compared to control mice. Consistently, inflammatory cell infiltration into the local skin, and local blood flow after UV exposure were significantly reduced by EP2 or EP4 signaling blockade. These data suggest that PGE(2)-EP2/EP4 signaling is mandatory in UV-induced acute skin inflammation, presumably by enhancing blood flow in the microenvironment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antigen-specific immune responses in the skin are initiated by antigen uptake into Langerhans cells and the subsequent migration of these cells to draining lymph nodes. Although prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is produced substantially in skin exposed to antigen, its role remains unclear. Here we show that although Langerhans cells express all four PGE receptor subtypes, their migration to regional lymph nodes was decreased only in EP4-deficient (Ptger4-/-) mice and in wild-type mice treated with an EP4 antagonist. An EP4 agonist promoted the migration of Langerhans cells, increased their expression of costimulatory molecules and enhanced their ability to stimulate T cells in the mixed lymphocyte reaction in vitro. Contact hypersensitivity to antigen was impaired in Ptger4-/- mice and in wild-type mice treated with the EP4 antagonist during sensitization. PGE2-EP4 signaling thus facilitates initiation of skin immune responses by promoting the migration and maturation of Langerhans cells.
Nature Medicine 07/2003; 9(6):744-9. DOI:10.1038/nm872 · 27.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Topical immunotherapy is effective for severe alopecia areata. However, there are patients with alopecia areata refractory to topical immunotherapy alone. We tried SADBE (squaric acid dibutylester) topical immunotherapy combined with topical dry ice cryotherapy, carpronium chloride (a parasympathetic nerve stimulant) and/or oral cepharanthin (a biscoclaur alkaloid) in alopecia areata refractory to topical SADBE. Seventeen patients with alopecia areata (3 multiple, 3 ophiasis, 5 totalis and 6 universalis) were treated with SADBE in our department in 1999 to 2001. In 3 cases (2 multiple and 1 universalis) out of the 17 cases, cosmetically acceptable regrowth of hair was observed in several months with topical SADBE alone. In the other 14 cases, the SADBE therapy alone for several months (mean: 6.9 months) resulted in no or poor regrowth of hair. However, with subsequent combination therapy of topical SADBE for several months (mean: 7.6 months), satisfactory regrowth of hair was observed in 6 of the 14 cases. Our cases indicate that combination therapy of topical SADBE with other therapies can be a choice for alopecia areata which is refractory to topical SADBE therapy alone.
The Journal of Dermatology 11/2002; 29(10):661-4. DOI:10.1111/j.1346-8138.2002.tb00199.x · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used mice deficient in each of the eight types and subtypes of prostanoid receptors and examined the roles of prostanoids in dextran sodium sulfate-induced (DSS-induced) colitis. Among the prostanoid receptor-deficient mice, only EP4-deficient mice and not mice deficient in either DP, EP1, EP2, EP3, FP, IP, or TP developed severe colitis with 3% DSS treatment, which induced only marginal colitis in wild-type mice. This phenotype was mimicked in wild-type mice by administration of an EP4-selective antagonist (AE3-208). The EP4 deficiency impaired mucosal barrier function and induced epithelial loss, crypt damage, and aggregation of neutrophils and lymphocytes in the colon. Conversely, administration of an EP4-selective agonist (AE1-734) to wild-type mice ameliorated severe colitis normally induced with 7% DSS, while that of AE3-208 suppressed recovery from colitis and induced significant proliferation of CD4+ T cells. In vitro AE3-208 enhanced and AE1-734 suppressed the proliferation and Th1 cytokine production of lamina propria mononuclear cells from the colon. DNA microarray analysis revealed elevated expression of genes associated with immune response and reduced expression of genes with mucosal repair and remodeling in the colon of EP4-deficient mice. We conclude that EP4 maintains intestinal homeostasis by keeping mucosal integrity and downregulating immune response.