[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess long-term clinical effectiveness of uterine artery embolization (UAE) compared with abdominal myomectomy.
Women who received UAE (n = 87) or abdominal myomectomy (n = 98) for symptomatic uterine leiomyomata between 2000 and 2002 at a single institution were consecutively enrolled in this study. Patients whose procedures were performed within 5 years before the study were included. Symptom evaluations with symptom severity scores, pregnancy rates, and satisfaction with the procedures were obtained via institutional review board-approved questionnaires. Chart reviews were performed to supplement analyses.
The retrospective cohort included 185 patients, of whom long-term follow-up was completed by 89 patients (48.1%), 48 being treated with UAE, and 41 with myomectomy. Follow-up ranged from 50 to 83 months. A higher but not statistically significant number of patients received repeat interventions after abdominal myomectomy (14%) versus UAE (8%; P = .204). Significantly higher symptom severity score improvements were seen in patients treated with UAE versus abdominal myomectomy (34 vs 31; P = .02). UAE recipients were less likely to attempt to get pregnant (P = .02), but those who did had a 66.7% success rate compared with 58.8% for patients who underwent myomectomy. Similar numbers of patients between groups were satisfied with the procedure (P = .57), reported effectiveness of symptom relief (P = .43), and would recommend the procedure to others (P = .37).
UAE results in long-term clinical success with outcomes comparable or superior to those of abdominal myomectomy.
Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR 07/2010; 21(7):1011-7. · 1.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients' views of their risk for the development or progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are poorly characterized.
To assess perceived risk and concern regarding CKD development or progression among high-risk patients seen in primary care, identify predictors of perceptions, and correlate perceptions with adherence to high blood pressure management.
Cross-sectional study of 195 patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial on hypertension management in 40 Maryland primary care practices.
We assessed independent predictors (sociodemographics, health literacy, clinical presence of CKD, co-morbid conditions, and health behaviors) of perceived susceptibility (assessed via questionnaire) and adherence (assessed via Hill-Bone blood pressure adherence scale) in multivariable analyses.
In this hypertensive majority African American (63%) population, many participants had uncontrolled blood pressure (44%) or diabetes (42%). Few (20%) felt "very likely" to develop CKD and one third (33%) were "very concerned" about developing CKD. Participants who were female and had low health literacy had lower perceived susceptibility to CKD compared to males and those with higher health literacy. Race and diabetes were also associated with perceived susceptibility. Greater perceived susceptibility was associated with poorer blood pressure management adherence scores.
Many high-risk patients have low perceived susceptibility to CKD. Poor blood pressure therapy adherence scores among those with greatest perceived susceptibility suggest fatalistic attitudes about CKD. If our findings are confirmed in larger studies, interventions targeting patient perceptions of CKD risk and other attitudes associated with these perceptions could impact adherence to therapies and health outcomes.
Journal of General Internal Medicine 09/2009; 24(10):1123-9. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association of hemodialysis dosage with patient survival is controversial. Here, we tested the hypothesis that methods for survival analysis may influence conclusions regarding dialysis dosage and mortality. We analyzed all-cause mortality by proportional hazards and accelerated failure time regression models in a cohort of incident hemodialysis patients who were followed for 9 yr. Both models identified age, race, heart failure, physical functioning, and comorbidity scores as important predictors of patient survival. Using proportional hazards, there was no statistically significant association between mortality and Kt/V (hazard ratio 0.72; 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 1.14). In contrast, using accelerated failure time models, each 0.1-U increment of Kt/V improved adjusted median patient survival by 3.50% (95% confidence interval 0.20 to 7.08%). Proportional hazard models also yielded less accurate estimates for median survival. These findings are consistent with an additive damage model for the survival of patients who are on hemodialysis. In this conceptual model, the assumptions of the proportional hazard model are violated, leading to underestimation of the importance of dialysis dosage. These results suggest that future studies of dialysis adequacy should consider this additive damage model when selecting methods for survival analysis. Accelerated failure time models may be useful adjuncts to the Cox model when studying outcomes of dialysis patients.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2009; 20(9):2034-43. · 8.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of peritoneal dialysis (PD) has declined in the United States over the past decade and technique failure is also reportedly higher in PD compared to hemodialysis (HD), but there are little data in the United States addressing the factors and outcomes associated with switching modalities from PD to HD.
In a prospective cohort study of 262 PD patients enrolled from 28 peritoneal dialysis clinics in 13 U.S. states, we examined potential predictors of switching from PD to HD (including demographics, clinical factors, and laboratory values) and the association of switching with mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess relative hazards (RH) of switching and of mortality in PD patients who switched to HD.
Among 262 PD patients, 24.8% switched to HD; with more than 70% switching within the first 2 years. Infectious peritonitis was the leading cause of switching. Patients of black race and with higher body mass index were significantly more likely to switch from PD to HD, RH (95% CI) of 5.01 (1.15-21.8) for black versus white and 1.09 (1.03-1.16) per 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI, respectively. There was no difference in survival between switchers and non-switchers, RH (95% CI) of 0.89 (0.41-1.93).
Switching from PD to HD occurs early and the rate is high, threatening long-term viability of PD programs. Several patient characteristics were associated with the risk of switching. However, there was no survival difference between switchers and non-switchers, reassuring providers and patients that PD technique failure is not necessarily associated with poor prognosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depressive symptoms are known to affect functioning in early pregnancy. We estimated the effect of a change in depressive symptoms status on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) throughout pregnancy and after delivery.
Longitudinal study of 200 women. The independent variable was depressive symptoms, defined as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) score of > or =16. The dependent variable was HRQoL from 8 domains of the Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36) Short Form. Women were categorized based on the change in CES-D score: (1) never depressed, (2) became well, (3) became depressed and (4) always depressed. A random effects model was used to (1) estimate the effect of a change in depressive symptomatology from the first to the second trimester on HRQOL in the second trimester and (2) estimate the change in depressive symptomatology from the second to the third trimester on HRQoL in the third trimester and after delivery, adjusting for covariates. Intra-individual correlations were accounted for using generalized estimating equations (GEE).
The proportion of women with depressive symptoms was 15%, 14%, and 30% in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively, and 9% after delivery. Women who became depressed had scores in the social domains that were 10-23 points and 19-31 points lower in the second and third trimesters, respectively, compared to women with no depressive symptoms. Women who became well had scores that were 3-31 points lower, compared to women with no depressive symptoms.
Alterations in depressive symptomatology have a substantial effect on functioning during pregnancy and after delivery.
Maternal and Child Health Journal 10/2008; 13(5):577-87. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A hospital's clinical information system may require a specific environment in which to flourish. This environment is not yet well defined. We examined whether specific hospital characteristics are associated with highly automated and usable clinical information systems.
This was a cross-sectional survey of 125 urban hospitals in Texas, United States using the Clinical Information Technology Assessment Tool (CITAT), which measures a hospital's level of automation based on physician interactions with the information system. Physician responses were used to calculate a series of CITAT scores: automation and usability scores, four automation sub-domain scores, and an overall clinical information technology (CIT) score. A multivariable regression analysis was used to examine the relation between hospital characteristics and CITAT scores.
We received a sufficient number of physician responses at 69 hospitals (55% response rate). Teaching hospitals, hospitals with higher IT operating expenses (>$1 million annually), IT capital expenses (>$75,000 annually) and hospitals with larger IT staff (> or = 10 full-time staff) had higher automation scores than hospitals that did not meet these criteria (p < 0.05 in all cases). These findings held after adjustment for bed size, total margin, and ownership (p < 0.05 in all cases). There were few significant associations between the hospital characteristics tested in this study and usability scores.
Academic affiliation and larger IT operating, capital, and staff budgets are associated with more highly automated clinical information systems.
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 10/2008; 8:39. · 1.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sought to determine whether there was an association between sickle cell disease (SCD) and dental caries in African-American adults. A sample of 102 African-American adult patients with SCD from Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, were matched to 103 African-American adult subjects, who did not have SCD. The match was by age, gender and recruitment location. Each subject underwent a standardized oral examination as well as an interview to ascertain risk factors for dental caries. For individuals with incomes of less than $15,000, subjects with SCD had more decayed (10.36 versus 1.58) and fewer filled (2.86 versus 8.45) surfaces compared to subjects without SCD with both differences being statistically significant (p<0.05) after adjusting for age and gender. The results suggest that low-income African Americans with SCD may be at increased risk for dental caries and are less likely to receive treatment with a restoration.
Special Care in Dentistry 06/2008; 26(3):95 - 100.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between self-perceived loss of control as measured by dental external locus of control summary scores, with the amount of untreated dental decay in African American adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) and African Americans adults without SCD. The sample included 102 subjects with SCD and 103 subjects without SCD matched on age, sex, and recruitment location (mean age of all subjects 35.4 years, 55.6% female). Subjects with SCD in the highest quartile for dental external locus of control summary scores had 2.58-fold (CI 1.05, 6.34) as much untreated decay as those in the lowest quartile (p<.05) in multivariable analysis using the negative binomial regression model. For subjects without SCD, those in the highest quartile for dental external locus of control summary scores had 3.00-fold (CI 1.38, 6.49) as much untreated decay as those in the lowest quartile (p<.05) using similar analysis. This study showed that higher dental external locus of control is associated with increased untreated tooth decay, both for African Americans with and without SCD and that the magnitude of the association did not differ across groups.
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 09/2006; 17(3):641-51. · 1.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein has been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) through multiple pathways in experimental and animal studies. STAT3 gene variation was examined as a predictor of incident CVD in a subcohort of 529 incident white dialysis patients. Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the STAT3 gene were genotyped. Haplotypes were estimated using software PHASE 2.1, and associations with first CVD event were tested using Cox proportional hazards analysis. Adjusted global tests of haplotype association with incident CVD and inflammation markers were performed using permutated P value in R-package Haplo.score. An a priori specified additive genetic model was assumed for haplotype analysis. Both genotypes (four single nucleotide polymorphisms with P < 0.001) and haplotypes (P = 0.002 overall) were associated with incident CVD. Two major haplotype blocks, blocks A and C, were identified. Compared with common haplotype A-1, A-3 was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51 to 0.94) for CVD events after adjustment for covariates including C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6. Compared with common haplotype C-1, C-3 was associated with an adjusted HR of 2.12 (95% CI 1.25 to 3.57) for CVD events. Associations were independent of inflammation markers, but IL-6 levels were 14% lower (geometric mean ratio 0.86; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96) per copy of haplotype A-3 compared with haplotype A-1 in block A after adjustment for CRP and other risk factors (P = 0.008). Variation in the STAT3 gene is associated with the risk for CVD among white dialysis patients independent of serum IL-6 and CRP levels.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2006; 17(8):2285-92. · 8.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although medically underserved groups bear a heavy burden of cancer disease and governmental agencies have required inclusion of minorities and women in cancer clinical trials since 1993, many of these groups are underrepresented in cancer prevention or treatment clinical trials. To assess and enhance recruitment of underrepresented populations into cancer-related clinical trials, investigators and governmental agencies need consistent measurement approaches for recruitment that can be applied to diverse settings where trials are conducted. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate what measurement approaches were used to evaluate the success of recruitment of underrepresented groups into cancer prevention or treatment trials, and whether these recruitment goals were stated a priori. Only two articles reported an a priori recruitment goal. The recruitment measurement approaches varied considerably, with no consistent standard, especially for individual trials. By using the empiric evidence from this review in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines, we constructed a framework for choosing consistent a priori recruitment goals for underrepresented groups based on the research question and study location. Using consistent measurement approaches for underrepresented groups will improve comparability of recruitment strategies across trials, improve equity in distribution of benefits and burdens of cancer-related clinical trials, and may improve applicability of trial results to multiple populations.
Cancer 04/2006; 106(6):1197-204. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examines trends in drug development times. Longer clinical trial times have been described as one factor leading to higher drug prices. Previous reports on development times have been based on proprietary data. We examined trends in development times for 168 drugs with data collected from publicly available sources. The median clinical trial and regulatory review periods for drugs approved between 1992 and 2002 were 5.1 and 1.2 years, respectively. Clinical trial periods have not increased during this time frame, and regulatory review periods have decreased. Therefore, it is unlikely that longer clinical trial times are contributing to rising prescription drug prices.
Health Affairs 01/2006; 25(2):461-8. · 4.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the past 2 decades, randomized trials have proved the efficacy of several treatments for non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACSs), including aspirin, beta blockers, and coronary revascularization. However, the cumulative effectiveness of these evolving therapies in actual clinical practice remains unknown. The Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) surveillance study uses rigorous prospective community surveillance to monitor the epidemiology of coronary heart disease among subjects who are 35 to 74 years of age and reside in 4 United States communities, with a population totaling 370,000 subjects. We identified 6,379 ARIC surveillance patients who were hospitalized with NSTE-ACS (defined as cardiac chest pain and ST depression or T-wave inversion on the presenting electrocardiogram) between 1987 and 2000 and then analyzed 30-day and 1-year mortalities by calendar year of admission. Using logistic regression, 30-day mortality was modeled first using predictor variables of the calendar year, ARIC community, and indicators of severity and co-morbidity and then by adding variables for treatment with aspirin, beta blockers, and coronary revascularization to this model. Crude 30-day mortality decreased from 8.6% in 1988 to 3.6% in 2000 (p for trend <0.001), a trend that remained significant (p = 0.006) after adjustment for case severity and co-morbidity. The trend became nonsignificant after adjustment for treatment variables, suggesting that newer treatments may explain the improved survival. In conclusion, 30-day mortality from NSTE-ACS has decreased as treatment has improved.
The American Journal of Cardiology 11/2005; 96(10):1349-55. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lengthy development times are cited by the pharmaceutical industry as one reason for high drug prices.
We compared the prices of different groups of drugs after accounting for development time, government support, market size, and other drug characteristics.
We conducted a retrospective study of 180 human therapeutic drugs categorized into 8 drug groups by assembling data on drug development times, government support, drug characteristics, and prices.
First, we compared the development time and level of government support across the 8 drug groups. Second, we assessed the independent effect of drug group on median price per day in a multivariable analysis, controlling for development time and all other variables.
Thirty percent of antiretroviral drugs had government patents compared with 16% of other infectious disease drugs, 6% of cancer drugs, and less than 6% of any other drug group (P < 0.002). Fifty percent of antiretrovirals had NIH trials listed in the new drug application for approval by the Food and Drug Administration compared with less than 6% of any other drug group (P < 0.001). More antiretroviral and cancer drugs received fast track status and accelerated review during regulatory review by the Food and Drug Administration (P < 0.001). The median price of antiretrovirals was 8 US dollars per day more, cancer drugs 11 US dollars per day more, than the reference group after adjustment for other variables (P < 0.001). Development time was not associated with drug price.
Antiretroviral and cancer drugs, even after accounting for development time, are among the most highly priced medications. Notably, drugs with rapid development and more government support did not have lower drug prices.
Medical Care 08/2005; 43(8):753-62. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Control of high blood pressure (BP) in older adults is an important part of public health efforts at prevention.
To assess recent time trends in the awareness, treatment, and control of high BP and in the use of medications to treat high BP.
In the Cardiovascular Health Study, 5888 adults 65 years and older were recruited from 4 US centers. At baseline, participants underwent an extensive examination that included the measurement of BP, use of medications, and other risk factors. Participants were followed up with annual visits that assessed BP and medication use from baseline in 1989-1990 through the examination in 1998-1999. The primary outcome measures were control of BP to levels lower than than 140/90 mm Hg and the prevalence of use of various classes of antihypertensive medications.
The awareness, treatment, and control of high BP improved during the 1990s. The proportions aware and treated were higher among blacks than whites, though control prevalences were similar. For both groups combined, the control of high BP to lower than 140/90 mm Hg increased from 37% at baseline to 49% in 1999. The 51% whose BP was not controlled generally had isolated mild to moderate elevations in systolic BP. Among treated persons, the improvement in control was achieved in part by a mean increase of 0.2 antihypertensive medications per person over the course of 9 years. Improved control was also achieved by increasing the proportion of the entire Cardiovascular Health Study population that was treated for hypertension, from 34.5% in 1990 to 51.1% in 1999. Time trends in antihypertensive drug use were pronounced. Among those without coronary disease, the use of low-dose diuretics and beta-blockers decreased, while the use of newer agents, such as calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and alpha-blockers increased.
While control of high BP improved in the 1990s, about half the participants with hypertension had uncontrolled BP, primarily mild to moderate elevations in systolic BP. Low-dose diuretics and beta-blockers--the preferred agents since 1993 according to the recommendations of the Joint National Committee on the Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure--remained underused. More widespread use of these agents will be an important intervention to prevent the devastating complications of hypertension, including stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure.
Archives of Internal Medicine 12/2002; 162(20):2325-32. · 11.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the association between a residential area' socioeconomic status (SES), race, and advanced-stage breast cancer in New York City.
The cross-sectional study design used breast cancer information for 37 921 cases diagnosed in New York City from 1986 to 1995. Residential education and income levels were based on the 1990 census and ascribed to each case by zip code. Associations between race, area SES, and advanced-stage breast cancer stage, and the interaction between race and SES, were evaluated in bivariate and multivariate analyses.
After adjusting for age and year at diagnosis, living in areas with lower levels of education and income increased the odds of presenting with advanced-stage breast cancer by 50% for Black women and by 75% for White women. No significant qualitative interaction was present between area SES and race.
This study confirmed independent racial and socioeconomic differences in the risk of advanced-stage breast cancer in a large and diverse population. The results emphasize the need to improve screening practices and clinical treatment in both high-risk populations and high-risk geographic areas.
American Journal of Public Health 02/2002; 92(1):64-70. · 3.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Overweight older adults are often counseled to lose weight, even though there is little evidence of excess mortality in that age group. Overweight and underweight may be more associated with health status than with mortality, but few clinical trials of any kind have been based on maximizing years of healthy life (YHL), as opposed to years of life (YOL). OBJECTIVE: This paper examines the relationship of body mass index (BMI) to both YHL and YOL. Results were used to determine whether clinical trials of weight-modification based on improving YHL would be more powerful than studies based on survival. DESIGN: We used data from a cohort of 4,878 non-smoking men and women aged 65-100 at baseline (mean age 73) and followed 7 years. We estimated mean YHL and YOL in four categories of BMI: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. RESULTS: Subjects averaged 6.3 YOL and 4.6 YHL of a possible 7 years. Both measures were higher for women and whites. For men, none of the BMI groups was significantly different from the normal group on either YOL or YHL. For women, the obese had significantly lower YHL (but not YOL) than the normals, and the underweight had significantly lower YOL and YHL. The overweight group was not significantly different from the normal group on either measure. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical trials of weight loss interventions for obese older women would require fewer participants if YHL rather than YOL was the outcome measure. Interventions for obese men or for the merely overweight are not likely to achieve differences in either YOL or YHL. Evaluations of interventions for the underweight (which would presumably address the causes of their low weight) may be conducted efficiently using either outcome measure.
Current controlled trials in cardiovascular medicine 02/2002; 3(1):1. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular and all-cause mortality are higher in black than white Americans, but racial differences in clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been examined in older adults. Clinical and subclinical CVD and its risk factors were compared in 4926 white and 244 black men and women aged 65 years and older. Black participants had lower socioeconomic status and generally higher prevalences of CVD and its risk factors, except for adverse lipid profiles. Common carotid wall thickness was greater in black than white women, and ankle-arm blood pressure ratios were lower in black women and men (p < 0.01). After adjustment for CVD risk factors, common carotid walls were significantly thicker and ankle-arm ratios were lower in blacks than whites of both sexes, while internal carotid walls were significantly thinner in black women. Racial differences in clinical and subclinical CVD in older adults are similar to those reported in younger populations and do not appear to be explained by CVD risk factors.
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - J CLIN EPIDEMIOL. 01/1995; 48(9):1141-1152.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Control of high blood pressure (BP) in older adults is an important part of public health efforts at prevention.Objective
To assess recent time trends in the awareness, treatment, and control of high BP and in the use of medications to treat high BP.Methods
In the Cardiovascular Health Study, 5888 adults 65 years and older were recruited from 4 US centers. At baseline, participants underwent an extensive examination that included the measurement of BP, use of medications, and other risk factors. Participants were followed up with annual visits that assessed BP and medication use from baseline in 1989-1990 through the examination in 1998-1999. The primary outcome measures were control of BP to levels lower than than 140/90 mm Hg and the prevalence of use of various classes of antihypertensive medications.Results
The awareness, treatment, and control of high BP improved during the 1990s. The proportions aware and treated were higher among blacks than whites, though control prevalences were similar. For both groups combined, the control of high BP to lower than 140/90 mm Hg increased from 37% at baseline to 49% in 1999. The 51% whose BP was not controlled generally had isolated mild to moderate elevations in systolic BP. Among treated persons, the improvement in control was achieved in part by a mean increase of 0.2 antihypertensive medications per person over the course of 9 years. Improved control was also achieved by increasing the proportion of the entire Cardiovascular Health Study population that was treated for hypertension, from 34.5% in 1990 to 51.1% in 1999. Time trends in antihypertensive drug use were pronounced. Among those without coronary disease, the use of low-dose diuretics and β-blockers decreased, while the use of newer agents, such as calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and α-blockers increased.Conclusions
While control of high BP improved in the 1990s, about half the participants with hypertension had uncontrolled BP, primarily mild to moderate elevations in systolic BP. Low-dose diuretics and β-blockers—the preferred agents since 1993 according to the recommendations of the Joint National Committee on the Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure—remained underused. More widespread use of these agents will be an important intervention to prevent the devastating complications of hypertension, including stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure.
Figures in this Article
IN THE mid-20th century, control of high blood pressure (BP) was initially defined as control of diastolic BP. The early clinical trials used diastolic BP alone as entry criteria.1- 3 The impressive results of these early trials focused attention on diastolic BP, while elevations of systolic BP were thought to accompany old age as a normal process.4 At the time, students of medicine were taught that age plus 100 provided an estimate of the "normal" systolic BP in older adults. In the last 15 years, interest in systolic BP has become more pronounced. Analysis of data from subjects screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial5 drew attention to the importance of systolic BP even in middle-aged adults. More recently, the treatment of isolated systolic hypertension with low-dose diuretics was effective in preventing the devastating clinical complications of untreated high systolic BP.6 The Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC) first gave prominence to systolic BP only as recently as 1993.7 In 2000, the JNC issued a clinical advisory statement on the importance of systolic BP in older Americans.8
A number of studies have suggested that control of high BP, defined as a level of 140/90 mm Hg, is less than optimal.9- 13 In the Framingham Study,9 the prevalence of a BP higher than 160/100 mm Hg declined from 18.5% in 1950 to 9.2% in 1989. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III, phase 1, in 1988-1991, suggested that among subjects with hypertension aged 18 to 74 years, the control of high BP to lower than than 140/90 mm Hg was present in only 29%,11,14 and in phase 2, conducted in 1991-1994, the proportion with controlled high BP declined slightly to 27%.14 In a recent analysis of NHANES III data, Hyman and Pavlik13 have drawn attention to the importance of uncontrolled systolic BP.
Since 1993, the JNC guidelines have also recommended diuretics and β-blockers as first-line pharmacologic therapy for uncomplicated high BP.14 The results of recent trials15- 17 and several meta-analyses18- 19 have drawn attention again to the importance of drug selection in defining appropriate care of high BP. Despite similar levels of BP lowering in the Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT),15 doxazosin was associated with higher risk of heart failure, stroke, and angina than low-dose diuretics. In a trial in patients with diabetic nephropathy,17 irbesartan was superior to both placebo and amlodipine in reducing the risk of major renal outcomes. In one meta-analysis of comparative clinical trials, calcium channel blockers were associated with higher risks of heart failure and myocardial infarction than other forms of antihypertensive therapy,18 and in another, they were associated with higher risks of coronary disease and heart failure than angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.19 In the present report, we use data from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS),20 a cohort study of older adults, to trace control of high BP and treatment trends during the last decade of the 20th century.
Archives of Internal Medicine 162(20):2325-2332. · 11.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sought to determine whether there was an association between sickle cell disease (SCD) and dental caries in African-American adults. A sample of 102 African-American adult patients with SCD from Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, were matched to 103 African-American adult subjects, who did not have SCD. The match was by age, gender and recruitment location. Each subject underwent a standardized oral examination as well as an interview to ascertain risk factors for dental caries. For individuals with incomes of less than dollars 15,000, subjects with SCD had more decayed (10.36 versus 1.58) and fewer filled (2.86 versus 8.45) surfaces compared to subjects without SCD with both differences being statistically significant (p<0.05) after adjusting for age and gender. The results suggest that low-income African Americans with SCD may be at increased risk for dental caries and are less likely to receive treatment with a restoration.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because avoidance of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is recommended for most individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), we sought to characterize patterns of NSAID use among persons with CKD in the United States.
A total of 12,065 adult (aged 20 years or older) participants in the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004) responded to a questionnaire regarding their use of over-the-counter and prescription NSAIDs. NSAIDs (excluding aspirin and acetaminophen) were defined by self-report. CKD was categorized as no CKD, mild CKD (stages 1 and 2; urinary albumin-creatinine ratio of ≥ 30 mg/g) and moderate to severe CKD (stages 3 and 4; estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Adjusted prevalence was calculated using multivariable logistic regression with appropriate population-based weighting.
Current use (nearly every day for 30 days or longer) of any NSAID was reported by 2.5%, 2.5%, and 5.0% of the US population with no, mild, and moderate to severe CKD, respectively; nearly all of the NSAIDs used were available over-the-counter. Among those with moderate to severe CKD who were currently using NSAIDs, 10.2% had a current NSAID prescription and 66.1% had used NSAIDs for 1 year or longer. Among those with CKD, disease awareness was not associated with reduced current NSAID use: (3.8% vs 3.9%, aware vs unaware; P=.979).
Physicians and other health care clinicians should be aware of use of NSAIDs among those with CKD in the United States and evaluate NSAID use in their CKD patients.
The Annals of Family Medicine 9(5):423-30. · 4.61 Impact Factor