G Caimi

Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Sicily, Italy

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Publications (219)449.44 Total impact

  • C Urso, S Brucculeri, G Caimi
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    ABSTRACT: Hyponatraemia, the most common electrolyte imbalance occurring in hospitalized subjects, is usually classified as hypovolaemic, euvolaemic or hypervolaemic. Hyponatraemia is a predictor of death among subjects with chronic heart failure and cirrhosis. The inappropriate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone (AVP) seems to be of pivotal importance in the decline of serum sodium concentration in these clinical conditions. The objective of this review was to summarize recent progress in management of hyponatraemia in SIADH, cirrhosis and heart failure. Literature searches were conducted on the topics of hyponatraemia and vasopressin receptor antagonists, using PubMed, pharmaceutical company websites and news reports. The information was evaluated for relevance and quality, critically assessed and summarized. The initial treatment of severe hyponatraemia is directed towards the prevention or management of neurological manifestations and consists of an intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline. Fluid restriction is indicated in oedematous states. Diuretics alone or in combination with other specific drugs remain the main strategy in the management of volume overload in heart failure. In resistant cases, ultrafiltration can lead to effective removal of isotonic fluid preventing new episodes of decompensation; however, aquapheresis is associated with increased costs and other limits. In several trials, the efficacy of vasopressin receptor antagonists in euvolaemic patients (inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion) or in hypervolaemic hyponatraemia (chronic heart failure, cirrhosis) has been evaluated. It was found that vaptans, which promote aquaresis, were superior to a placebo in raising and maintaining serum sodium concentrations in these subjects. Combined with conventional therapy, vasopressin receptor antagonists (AVP-R antagonists) are able to increase the excretion of electrolyte-free water and the sodium concentration. Further studies are needed to assess efficacious outcomes of aquaresis compared with aquapheresis and with conventional therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12279 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities are a frequent and potentially dangerous complication in subjects with congestive heart failure. This may be due either to the pathophysiological alterations present in the heart failure state leading to neurohumoral activation (stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathoadrenergic stimulation), or to the adverse events of therapy with diuretics, cardiac glycosides, and ACE inhibitors. Subjects with heart failure may show hyponatremia, magnesium, and potassium deficiencies; the latter two play a pivotal role in the development of cardiac arrhythmias. The early identification of these alterations and the knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms are very useful for the management of these patients.
    Heart Failure Reviews 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10741-015-9482-y · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular events and stroke. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are endopeptidases involved in extracellular matrix degradation and then in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to evaluate plasma levels of gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) in a group of subjects with OSAS. We enrolled 48 subjects (36 men and 12 women; mean age 49.7 ± 14.68 yrs) with OSAS diagnosed with a 1-night cardiorespiratory study and then we subdivided these subjects into two subgroups according to the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI): Low (L = 21 subjects with AHI <30) and High (H = 27 subjects with AHI >30). We measured plasma concentration of the gelatinases and their inhibitors using ELISA kits. We observed a significant increase in plasma concentration of MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in the entire group of OSAS subjects and in the two subgroups, with higher levels in the H in comparison with the L subgroup. In the whole group of OSAS subjects we also noted a significant decrease in MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in comparison with normal controls. Only MMP-9 was significantly correlated with the severity of the disease, expressed as AHI, with the oxygen desaturation index and also with the mean oxygen saturation. MMPs pattern is altered in OSAS and significantly influenced by the severity of the disease; it probably contributes to the vascular remodeling that leads to the atherosclerotic disease and cardiovascular complications.
    Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 03/2015; DOI:10.3233/CH-151928 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Considering that oxidative stress is involved in endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis development, our aim was to examine lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, two parameters of oxidative status, in a group of subjects with OSAS. We consecutively enrolled 48 patients (36 men and 12 women; mean age 49.7±14.6 yrs) with OSAS, subsequently subdivided according to the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) value in two subgroups: Low (L= 21 subjects with AHI<30) and High (H= 27 subjects with AHI>30). We examined lipid peroxidation, expressed as TBARS, and protein oxidation, measured as carbonyl groups in plasma samples from fasting venous blood. We observed that TBARS and carbonyl groups were significantly higher in subjects with AHI > 30 in comparison with the L subgroup and the whole group of OSAS subjects. In addition, we found that these parameters were positively correlated with neck and waist circumference, with the AHI value and with the oxygen desaturation index, and negatively correlated with the mean oxygen saturation. Lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in OSAS patients are significantly correlated with the severity of the disease.
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    ABSTRACT: Venous leg ulcers are common in subjects with chronic venous insufficiency. The increased intraluminal pressure causes alteration of the skin microcirculation, leukocyte activation and release of proteolytic enzymes leading to ulceration. An impaired expression and activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) might influence extracellular matrix degradation and deposition in chronic venous ulcers with the failure of the healing process. Our aim was to evaluate plasma concentration of gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and their inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) in subjects with venous leg ulcers before and after the compression therapy. We enrolled 36 subjects (12 men and 24 women, mean age 67.38 ± 12.7 yrs) with non-infected venous leg ulcers (CEAP C6), which underwent a color Duplex scan examination of the veins and arteries of the inferior limbs and were treated with a multi-layer bandaging system. The ulcer healing was obtained in 23 subjects only (9 men and 14 women). We evaluated, on fasting venous blood, the plasma levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 using ELISA kit, before and after the treatment. We observed a significant increase in plasma concentration of gelatinases and their inhibitors and in MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio in subjects with leg ulcers in comparison with normal controls. In subjects with healed ulcers we found a decrease in MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels and in MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio compared to the baseline values, although higher levels of all the examined parameters in comparison with normal controls. In conclusion, plasma MMPs profile is impaired in subjects with venous leg ulcers and it improves after the healing, persisting anyway altered in respect to healthy controls.
    Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 08/2014; DOI:10.3233/CH-141863 · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • Atherosclerosis 08/2014; 235(2):e235-e236. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.05.702 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to examine some parameters of oxidative status, gelatinases, and their inhibitors and to evaluate their interrelationships in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). We enrolled 65 MS subjects, subdivided according to the presence or not of diabetes mellitus. We examined lipid peroxidation (expressed as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, TBARS), protein oxidation (expressed as carbonyl groups), nitric oxide metabolites (NO x ), total antioxidant status (TAS), MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2. We found that MS subjects, diabetics and nondiabetics, showed an increase in TBARS, PC, and NO x . A significant decrease in TAS was observed only in nondiabetic MS subjects in comparison with diabetic MS subjects. We observed increased concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, higher in diabetic subjects. Our data showed a positive correlation between TAS and MMP-2, TAS and MMP-9, and TAS and MMP-9/TIMP-1 and a negative correlation between TBARS and MMP-2 in diabetic MS subjects in the entire group. In MS subjects a prooxidant status and increased levels of gelatinases and their inhibitors are evident although the correlations between oxidative stress and MMPs or TIMPs are controversial and need further investigation.
    Mediators of Inflammation 07/2014; 2014:510619. DOI:10.1155/2014/510619 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims Our purpose was to examine the total antioxidant status (TAS) in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) subdivided according to the presence or not of diabetes mellitus. Methods We enrolled 106 subjects (45 women, 61 men) with MS subsequently subdivided in diabetics (14 women, 29 men) and nondiabetics (31 women, 29 men). TAS was obtained using an Assay kit which relies on the ability of plasma antioxidant substances to inhibit the oxidation of 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid) to the radical ABTS Results In the group of MS subjects a significant decrease in TAS (p < 0.05) in comparison with normal controls was evident. This difference was present between normal subjects and nondiabetic subjects with MS (p < 0.001) but not between normal and diabetic subjects with MS. Examining the linear regression among TAS, age, anthropometric profile, blood pressure values and glycometabolic pattern, conflicting data were found. Conclusions Although we know that TAS includes several enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants, we retain that the difference observed in the two subgroups of subjects with MS must be looked in particular into two pathophysiological aspects regarding bilirubin and uric acid.
    Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome Clinical Research and Reviews 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.dsx.2014.04.013
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to evaluate lipid peroxidation, expressed as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite + nitrate) expressed as NO x , and TBARS/NO x ratio in a group of subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). In this regard we enrolled 106 subjects with MS defined according to the IDF criteria, subsequently subdivided into diabetic (DMS) and nondiabetic (NDMS) and also into subjects with a low triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) index or with a high TG/HDL-C index. In the entire group and in the four subgroups of MS subjects we found an increase in TBARS and NO x levels and a decrease in TBARS/NO x ratio in comparison with normal controls. Regarding all these parameters no statistical difference between DMS and NDMS was evident, but a significant increase in NO x was present in subjects with a high TG/HDL-C index in comparison with those with a low index. In MS subjects we also found a negative correlation between TBARS/NO x ratio and TG/HDL-C index. Considering the hyperactivity of the inducible NO synthase in MS, these data confirm the altered redox and inflammatory status that characterizes the MS and suggest a link between lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and insulin resistance, evaluated as TG/HDL-C index.
    Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 06/2014; 2014:824756. DOI:10.1155/2014/824756 · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • Rosalia Lo Presti, Eugenia Hopps, Gregorio Caimi
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    ABSTRACT: Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.
    Korea-Australia rheology journal 05/2014; 26(2):199-204. DOI:10.1007/s13367-014-0021-5 · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to evaluate nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite and nitrate), expressed as NOx, and erythrocyte deformability, expressed as elongation index, in a group of subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We enrolled 48 subjects (36 men and 12 women; mean age 50.3 ± 14.68 yrs) with OSAS diagnosed after a 1-night cardiorespiratory sleep study. OSAS severity was assessed evaluating the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) and subjects were subdivided in two subgroups: Low (L = AHI <30) and High (H = AHI >30). NOx was examined converting nitrate into nitrite with a nitrate reductase and then assessing nitrite with spectrophotometry after the addition of Griess reagent. The elongation index was obtained using the diffractometer Rheodyn SSD of Myrenne at shear stresses of 30 and 60 Pa and it was expressed as elongation index (EI). We found no difference in NOx among the entire group of OSAS subjects and normal controls, while we observed a NOx decrease in the H subgroup in comparison with L subgroup, but not in comparison with normal controls. We noted a significant decrease in EI at each shear stress in the entire group and also in the two subgroups in comparison with controls. The decrease in NO bioavailability and in erythrocyte deformability might contribute to explain the increased cardiovascular risk in OSAS subjects.
    Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 02/2014; DOI:10.3233/CH-141815 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determined the concentration of nitric oxide metabolites (NO2-+NO3-), expressed as NOx, in several clinical conditions. Regarding this, we have examined 25 subjects with arterial hypertension, 41 subjects with chronic kidney disease in conservative treatment, 106 subjects with metabolic syndrome subdivided according to the presence (n = 43) or not (n = 63) of diabetes mellitus, 48 subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), 14 women with systemic sclerosis complicated with Raynaud's phenomenon, 42 dialyzed subjects and 105 young subjects with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In subjects with arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, metabolic syndrome, systemic sclerosis, as well as, in dialyzed and AMI subjects, we found at baseline a NOx increase. In dyalized subjects after a standard dialysis session, we observed a decrease in NOx. The increase in NOx in juvenile AMI was significantly influenced by cigarette smoking and less by cardiovascular risk factors and the extent of coronary lesions; at 3 and 12 months later than the initial event, we observed a decrease of NOx that remains significantly higher than the control group. In subjects with OSAS no difference in NOx was noted in comparison with normal controls, although their subdivision according to the apnea/hypopnea index operates a clear distinction regarding NOx concentration.
    Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 09/2013; 56(4). DOI:10.3233/CH-131758 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic, progressive, multifactorial disease mostly affecting large and medium-sized elastic and muscular arteries. It has formerly been considered a bland lipid storage disease. Currently, multiple independent pathways of evidence suggest this pathological condition is a peculiar form of inflammation, triggered by cholesterol-rich lipoproteins and influenced both by environmental and genetic factors. The Human Genome Project opened up the opportunity to dissect complex human traits and to understand basic pathways of multifactorial diseases such as AS. Population-based association studies have emerged as powerful tools for examining genes with a role in common multifactorial diseases that have a strong environmental component. These association studies often estimate the risk of developing a certain disease in carriers and non-carriers of a particular genetic polymorphism. Dissecting out the influence of pro-inflammatory genes within the complex pathophysiology of AS and its complications will help to provide a more complete risk assessment and complement known classical cardiovascular risk factors. The detection of a risk profile will potentially allow both the early identification of individuals susceptible to disease and the possible discovery of potential targets for drug or lifestyle modification; i.e. it will open the door to personalized medicine.
    Current Atherosclerosis Reports 06/2013; 15(6):329. DOI:10.1007/s11883-013-0329-5 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An imbalance between oxidative processes and antioxidant systems has been widely demonstrated in chronic kidney diseases (CKD). In this study we enrolled 26 healthy subjects, 27 patients with CKD on conservative treatment (CT-CKD) with various degrees of renal failure, and 31 CKD subjects in haemodialysis treatment (HD-CKD), evaluated before and after a standard haemodialysis session. In each group we measured protein carbonyl groups (PC) as an index of protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and two plasma markers of leukocyte activation, elastase and myeloperoxidase (MPO). In CT-CKD subjects the PC level was significantly higher than in normal controls, and it was negatively correlated with creatinine clearance. In HD-CKD patients the PC concentration was significantly increased also in comparison with CT-CKD. An increase in TBARS was present both in CT-CKD and in HD-CKD patients, but in HD-CKD patients TBARS were lower than in CT-CKD. Elastase was increased in both CKD groups, while MPO was not different among control and patient groups. In HD-CKD patients the HD session was followed by a further increase in PC, as well as by an increase in elastase and MPO, whereas TBARS did not change. Protein oxidation accelerates the glycation processes and seems to be connected with the chronic inflammatory state detectable in renal failure, although we did not observe any significant correlation between PC level and leukocyte activation markers.
    Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 05/2013; 54(4). DOI:10.3233/CH-131739 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIM: To evaluate matrix metalloproteases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 in a group of subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) subdivided according to the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We examined in 90 subjects (51 men and 39 women) with MS, defined following the International Diabetes Federation criteria, and subsequently subdivided into diabetic subjects (22 men and 11 women) and nondiabetic subjects s (29 men and 28 women), the plasma concentrations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. RESULTS: We found a significant increase in plasma concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in the whole group of MS subjects (P < 0.001) and in both subgroups of MS subjects with diabetes mellitus (P < 0.001) and without diabetes mellitus (P < 0.001) in comparison with healthy controls. We also noted higher concentrations of all the examined parameters in the MS subjects with diabetes mellitus in comparison with the MS subjects without diabetes mellitus. Matrix metalloproteases and TIMPs showed some significant correlations with body mass index and waist circumference and with metabolic parameters in the whole group of MS subjects. CONCLUSION: An altered pattern of MMPs and their inhibitors is demonstrated in MS; the presence of diabetes mellitus strongly influences the concentration of MMP and TIMP, contributing probably to the increased cardiovascular risk of MS subjects.
    Journal of Investigative Medicine 05/2013; DOI:10.231/JIM.0b013e318294e9da · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Physical exercise influences the body's oxidative status. The modifications can involve lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, and different effects seem to be induced by regular and acute exercise respectively. We examined protein oxidation, expressed as concentration of protein carbonyl groups (PC), in trained subjects before (time 0), 10 min (time 1) and 24 hours (time 2) after a cardiopulmonary test performed on a cycloergometer. We enrolled 38 trained subjects (26 men and 12 women), subdivided in two groups (A1 and B1) of 19 subjects each, according to the median value of VO2max, and in two groups (A2 and B2) of 19 subjects each, according to the median value of PC at baseline. PC concentration was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The groups A1 and B1 did not differ from each other as regards the basal PC level and groups A2 and B2 were not different as regards the VO2max. At time 1 PC showed a significant increase in comparison with baseline in trained subjects as a whole group, as well as in each subgroup. At time 2, PC were decreased in comparison with both times 0 and 1 in the whole group and in subgroups A1 and B2, whereas in subgroups A2 and B1 the PC value at time 2 was not different compared to time 0. The percentage increase of PC at time 1 vs time 0, as well as the percentage decrease at time 2 vs time 1 and time 0 respectively, were not different between subgroups A1 and B1. On the contrary, the percentage variations observed at each interval were significantly different between subgroups A2 and B2. The results suggest a reaction of antioxidant systems to acute exercise in trained subjects, influenced by basal PC levels more than by aerobic fitness.
    Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 04/2013; DOI:10.3233/CH-131721 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 03/2013; 23(5). DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2013.01.010 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: In chronic kidney disease (CKD) cardiovascular risk is increased. Oxidative stress is strictly involved in the pathophysiology of this enhanced risk as well as leukocytes' activation. To better elucidate these phaenomena we evaluated some parameters of leukocyte activation and oxidative state on fasting blood samples obtained from CKD patients on conservative or hemodialysis (HD) treatment, compared to those obtained from control subjects. Methods:We enrolled 41 patients (25 men and 16 women, mean age 64.7±11.1 years) with CKD and 42 patients (21 men and 21 women, mean age 66.83±14.8 years) with CKD on hemodialysis (HD) treatment. Hemodialyzed patients were evaluated before and after a standard HD session. Leukocyte activation was evaluated by determining plasma elastase and myeloperoxidase level employing ELISA methods. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant status using spectrophotometry. Results: Elastase was higher in CKD on conservative and on HD treatment and its value increased after the HD session. Myeloperoxidase did not show any variation in CKD on conservative and HD treatment while after HD its value was increased. Lipid peroxidation was increased in CKD on conservative and on HD therapy and its value after dialysis showed no significant variation. Total antioxidant status was increased in CKD on HD treatment and significantly decreased after the HD session; no variation between normal controls and CKD subjects on conservative therapy was observed. Conclusion: Several aspects derive from these data considering the role of oxidative stress in the cardiovascular events that accompany CKD.
    Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology 03/2013; 65(1):69-76. · 0.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the protein oxidation, marker of the oxidative stress, in metabolic syndrome (MS). We enrolled 106 subjects (45 women and 61 men) with MS of which 43 (14 women and 27 men) were with diabetes mellitus and 63 (31 women and 32 men) were without diabetes mellitus, and 54 subjects (19 women and 35 men) as control group. The protein oxidation, expressed as carbonyl groups, was measured by an enzyme-like immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (BioCell PC test kit, Enzo Life Sciences AG, Switzerland). In the whole group of MS subjects, in comparison with control group, a significant increase in carbonyl groups was present. The same datum was also evident between control group and diabetic subjects with MS and between control group and nondiabetic subjects with MS. No difference was observed between the two subgroups (diabetic and nondiabetic subjects with MS) about NOx. Few information were obtained examining the linear regression among carbonyl groups, age, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure values and metabolic pattern of MS subjects. In MS subject we observed an increase of protein oxidation not influenced by diabetes mellitus. Several strategies may be employed to reduce this parameter.
    01/2013; 7(1):38-41. DOI:10.1016/j.dsx.2013.02.013
  • S Brucculeri, C Urso, G Caimi
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    ABSTRACT: Lactic acidosis (LA) is the most common form of metabolic acidosis defined by values of lactate greater than 5 mmol / l and by a pH <7.34. The pathogenesis of LA involves hypoxic (type A) and non hypoxic (type B) causes which are often coexisting. Lactic acidosis is usual in hospitalized population especially in subjects in intensive care units, in which lactate levels on admission could be predictors of mortality even in the absence of organ dysfunction or shock. The outcome is mainly dependent on the cardiovascular effects of acidosis. In subjects with cardiogenic shock, the increased lactate/pyruvate ratio, detectable at onset, is correladed with mortality. An early assessment of blood and tissue lactate levels could play a role in the therapeutic management as well as in outcome. LA could be a unfavorable prognostic factor in cancer. The lactate would act also as "signal molecule" and as a promoting factor in angiogenesis and tumor progression. In the presence of risk factors for LA the role of metformin may be overrated. Despite the doctrinal progress to understand the pathogenesis and pathophysiology, there is not univocal consensus on the therapeutic treatment of LA. The identification and the attempt to remove the cause of acidosis are main aims; treatment with sodium bicarbonate is a matter of debate as the data on the cardiovascular effects and mortality are unclear. The therapy with carbicarb, dichloroacetate or THAM has shown no specific advantages in terms of mortality. In experimental models of LA and shock the use of sodium-hydrogen exchanger-1 (NHE1) selective inhibitors reduces cell damage and inflammatory cytokines synthesis; it also improves cardiac performance and decreases mortality. Clin Ter 2013; 164(3):e223-238. doi: 10.7417/CT.2013.1572.
    La Clinica terapeutica 01/2013; 164(3):e223-e238. DOI:10.7417/CT.2013.1572 · 0.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
449.44 Total Impact Points


  • 1994–2015
    • Università degli Studi di Palermo
      • • Department of internal medicine and medical specialties (DIMIS)
      • • Dipartimento di Discipline Chirurgiche, Oncologiche e Stomatologiche (Di.Chir.On.S.)
      Palermo, Sicily, Italy
  • 2005
    • Istituzione Leonardo Da Vinci
      Santa Rosalía de Guagua, Huila, Colombia
  • 1992
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy