[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the last years the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been examined in cardiovascular disorders and in particular in coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Now we examined this parameter in subjects with juvenile myocardial infarction at the initial stage and after 3 and 12 months. We enrolled 123 young subjects (112 men and 11 women, mean age 39.4 ± 5.8 yrs) with AMI. The time interval between the AMI onset and the investigation was 13 ± 7 days. The mean value of NLR observed in young AMI subjects was significantly increased compared to normal controls (N = 1.817 ± 0.711; young AMI subjects = 2.376 ± 0.873, p < 0.0001). NLR does not discriminate STEMI (2.427 ± 0.878) and non STEMI (2.392 ± 0.868) or diabetics (2.604 ± 1.000) and non diabetics (2.324 ± 0.853), but it differentiates smokers (2.276 ± 0.853) and non smokers (2.837 ± 1.072). NLR at the initial stage is not correlated with the number of cardiovascular risk factors or with the extent of the coronary disease. In this study we found a significant decrease of neutrophil count at 3 and 12 months later AMI without any significant variation of lymphocyte and consequently we observed a decrease in NLR at these two intervals of time in comparison with the initial stage. Despite some limitations present in this study, it is interesting to underline that also in juvenile myocardial infarction this low-cost haematological marker may be considered together with other inflammatory indicators.
Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 10/2015; DOI:10.3233/CH-151968 · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is dilutional hyponatremia, a variant of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), characterized by a plasma concentration of sodium lower than 135 mEq/L. The prevalence of EAH is common in endurance (<6 hours) and ultra-endurance events (>6 hours in duration), in which both athletes and medical providers need to be aware of risk factors, symptom presentation, and management. The development of EAH is a combination of excessive water intake, inadequate suppression of the secretion of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (due to non osmotic stimuli), long race duration, and very high or very low ambient temperatures. Additional risk factors include female gender, slower race times, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Signs and symptoms of EAH include nausea, vomiting, confusion, headache and seizures; it may result in severe clinical conditions associated with pulmonary and cerebral edema, respiratory failure and death. A rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment with a hypertonic saline solution is essential in the severe form to ensure a positive outcome.
Journal of Clinical Medicine 08/2015; 3(4):1258-75. DOI:10.3390/jcm3041258
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are involved in the development and the progression of atherosclerosis and are related to an elevated risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. An altered profile of MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) has been demonstrated in arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular disorders, such as coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure.
The aim of this review was to examine the literature data regarding the possible effects of some molecules, commonly employed in subjects with cardiovascular disease, on the expression and the activity of MMPs and TIMPs. A search was conducted with PubMed, Medline, using combinations of the terms "matrix metalloproteases," "TIMP," "activity regulation," "pharmacological therapy," "cardiovascular disease," "antihypertensives," "antidiabetic drugs," "statins" and "antiplatelet agents". Review articles were also searched.
Several drugs, and in particular diuretics, calcium-channel blocker, angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, antidiabetic and antiplatelet agents, seem to influence, in different ways, the MMP pattern with beneficial effects on cardiovascular outcomes.
Keeping in mind these findings, the therapeutic strategy must be reconsidered in order to obtain a sensible MMP inhibition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities are a frequent and potentially dangerous complication in subjects with congestive heart failure. This may be due either to the pathophysiological alterations present in the heart failure state leading to neurohumoral activation (stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathoadrenergic stimulation), or to the adverse events of therapy with diuretics, cardiac glycosides, and ACE inhibitors. Subjects with heart failure may show hyponatremia, magnesium, and potassium deficiencies; the latter two play a pivotal role in the development of cardiac arrhythmias. The early identification of these alterations and the knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms are very useful for the management of these patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular events and stroke. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are endopeptidases involved in extracellular matrix degradation and then in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to evaluate plasma levels of gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) in a group of subjects with OSAS. We enrolled 48 subjects (36 men and 12 women; mean age 49.7 ± 14.68 yrs) with OSAS diagnosed with a 1-night cardiorespiratory study and then we subdivided these subjects into two subgroups according to the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI): Low (L = 21 subjects with AHI <30) and High (H = 27 subjects with AHI >30). We measured plasma concentration of the gelatinases and their inhibitors using ELISA kits. We observed a significant increase in plasma concentration of MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in the entire group of OSAS subjects and in the two subgroups, with higher levels in the H in comparison with the L subgroup. In the whole group of OSAS subjects we also noted a significant decrease in MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in comparison with normal controls. Only MMP-9 was significantly correlated with the severity of the disease, expressed as AHI, with the oxygen desaturation index and also with the mean oxygen saturation. MMPs pattern is altered in OSAS and significantly influenced by the severity of the disease; it probably contributes to the vascular remodeling that leads to the atherosclerotic disease and cardiovascular complications.
Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 03/2015; DOI:10.3233/CH-151928 · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Considering that oxidative stress is involved in endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis development, our aim was to examine lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, two parameters of oxidative status, in a group of subjects with OSAS.
We consecutively enrolled 48 patients (36 men and 12 women; mean age 49.7±14.6 yrs) with OSAS, subsequently subdivided according to the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) value in two subgroups: Low (L= 21 subjects with AHI<30) and High (H= 27 subjects with AHI>30). We examined lipid peroxidation, expressed as TBARS, and protein oxidation, measured as carbonyl groups in plasma samples from fasting venous blood.
We observed that TBARS and carbonyl groups were significantly higher in subjects with AHI > 30 in comparison with the L subgroup and the whole group of OSAS subjects. In addition, we found that these parameters were positively correlated with neck and waist circumference, with the AHI value and with the oxygen desaturation index, and negatively correlated with the mean oxygen saturation.
Lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in OSAS patients are significantly correlated with the severity of the disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Venous leg ulcers are common in subjects with chronic venous insufficiency. The increased intraluminal pressure causes alteration of the skin microcirculation, leukocyte activation and release of proteolytic enzymes leading to ulceration. An impaired expression and activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) might influence extracellular matrix degradation and deposition in chronic venous ulcers with the failure of the healing process. Our aim was to evaluate plasma concentration of gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and their inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) in subjects with venous leg ulcers before and after the compression therapy. We enrolled 36 subjects (12 men and 24 women, mean age 67.38 ± 12.7 yrs) with non-infected venous leg ulcers (CEAP C6), which underwent a color Duplex scan examination of the veins and arteries of the inferior limbs and were treated with a multi-layer bandaging system. The ulcer healing was obtained in 23 subjects only (9 men and 14 women). We evaluated, on fasting venous blood, the plasma levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 using ELISA kit, before and after the treatment. We observed a significant increase in plasma concentration of gelatinases and their inhibitors and in MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio in subjects with leg ulcers in comparison with normal controls. In subjects with healed ulcers we found a decrease in MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels and in MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio compared to the baseline values, although higher levels of all the examined parameters in comparison with normal controls. In conclusion, plasma MMPs profile is impaired in subjects with venous leg ulcers and it improves after the healing, persisting anyway altered in respect to healthy controls.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to examine some parameters of oxidative status, gelatinases, and their inhibitors and to evaluate their interrelationships in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). We enrolled 65 MS subjects, subdivided according to the presence or not of diabetes mellitus. We examined lipid peroxidation (expressed as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, TBARS), protein oxidation (expressed as carbonyl groups), nitric oxide metabolites (NO x ), total antioxidant status (TAS), MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2. We found that MS subjects, diabetics and nondiabetics, showed an increase in TBARS, PC, and NO x . A significant decrease in TAS was observed only in nondiabetic MS subjects in comparison with diabetic MS subjects. We observed increased concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, higher in diabetic subjects. Our data showed a positive correlation between TAS and MMP-2, TAS and MMP-9, and TAS and MMP-9/TIMP-1 and a negative correlation between TBARS and MMP-2 in diabetic MS subjects in the entire group. In MS subjects a prooxidant status and increased levels of gelatinases and their inhibitors are evident although the correlations between oxidative stress and MMPs or TIMPs are controversial and need further investigation.
Mediators of Inflammation 07/2014; 2014:510619. DOI:10.1155/2014/510619 · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims
Our purpose was to examine the total antioxidant status (TAS) in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) subdivided according to the presence or not of diabetes mellitus.
We enrolled 106 subjects (45 women, 61 men) with MS subsequently subdivided in diabetics (14 women, 29 men) and nondiabetics (31 women, 29 men). TAS was obtained using an Assay kit which relies on the ability of plasma antioxidant substances to inhibit the oxidation of 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid) to the radical ABTS
In the group of MS subjects a significant decrease in TAS (p < 0.05) in comparison with normal controls was evident. This difference was present between normal subjects and nondiabetic subjects with MS (p < 0.001) but not between normal and diabetic subjects with MS. Examining the linear regression among TAS, age, anthropometric profile, blood pressure values and glycometabolic pattern, conflicting data were found.
Although we know that TAS includes several enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants, we retain that the difference observed in the two subgroups of subjects with MS must be looked in particular into two pathophysiological aspects regarding bilirubin and uric acid.
Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome Clinical Research and Reviews 07/2014; 8(3). DOI:10.1016/j.dsx.2014.04.013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to evaluate lipid peroxidation, expressed as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite + nitrate) expressed as NO x , and TBARS/NO x ratio in a group of subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). In this regard we enrolled 106 subjects with MS defined according to the IDF criteria, subsequently subdivided into diabetic (DMS) and nondiabetic (NDMS) and also into subjects with a low triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) index or with a high TG/HDL-C index. In the entire group and in the four subgroups of MS subjects we found an increase in TBARS and NO x levels and a decrease in TBARS/NO x ratio in comparison with normal controls. Regarding all these parameters no statistical difference between DMS and NDMS was evident, but a significant increase in NO x was present in subjects with a high TG/HDL-C index in comparison with those with a low index. In MS subjects we also found a negative correlation between TBARS/NO x ratio and TG/HDL-C index. Considering the hyperactivity of the inducible NO synthase in MS, these data confirm the altered redox and inflammatory status that characterizes the MS and suggest a link between lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and insulin resistance, evaluated as TG/HDL-C index.
Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 06/2014; 2014(2):824756. DOI:10.1155/2014/824756 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to evaluate nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite and nitrate), expressed as NOx, and erythrocyte deformability, expressed as elongation index, in a group of subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We enrolled 48 subjects (36 men and 12 women; mean age 50.3 ± 14.68 yrs) with OSAS diagnosed after a 1-night cardiorespiratory sleep study. OSAS severity was assessed evaluating the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) and subjects were subdivided in two subgroups: Low (L = AHI <30) and High (H = AHI >30). NOx was examined converting nitrate into nitrite with a nitrate reductase and then assessing nitrite with spectrophotometry after the addition of Griess reagent. The elongation index was obtained using the diffractometer Rheodyn SSD of Myrenne at shear stresses of 30 and 60 Pa and it was expressed as elongation index (EI). We found no difference in NOx among the entire group of OSAS subjects and normal controls, while we observed a NOx decrease in the H subgroup in comparison with L subgroup, but not in comparison with normal controls. We noted a significant decrease in EI at each shear stress in the entire group and also in the two subgroups in comparison with controls. The decrease in NO bioavailability and in erythrocyte deformability might contribute to explain the increased cardiovascular risk in OSAS subjects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of a 45 year old Caucasian malnourished male with an history of eating disorder who developed severe liver and pancreatic damage and multiorgan disfunction. At admission to our department, his body mass index (BMI) was 11.1. Biochemical evaluation showed elevated serum levels of transaminases (AST= 2291 U/L, ALT= 1792 U/L), amylase (3620 U/L), lipase (4102 U/L), CPK= 1370 U/L, LDH= 2082 U/L. No other cause of acute liver and pancreatic damage was evidenced. Haematological disorders (anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia) found on admission seem related to bone marrow hypoplasia and to gelatinous marrow transformation described in severe state of malnutrition. Although a moderate increase in liver and pancreatic enzymes are a common finding in malnourished patients, only a small number of reports describes severe liver injury and multiorgan dysfunction. After a few days of treatment (hydration and nutritional support) a marked decrease of serum transaminases, lipase, amylase, CPK, LDH occurred, despite a transient increase in these levels secondary to refeeding syndrome. The association of chronic malnutrition and a decrease in systemic perfusion may be responsible for multiorgan dysfunction. In our patient the high levels of transaminases and pancreatic enzymes were the most important biochemical abnormalities normalized after refeeding.
La Clinica terapeutica 11/2013; 164(5):e387-91. DOI:10.7417/CT.2013.1619 · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined the concentration of nitric oxide metabolites (NO2-+NO3-), expressed as NOx, in several clinical conditions. Regarding this, we have examined 25 subjects with arterial hypertension, 41 subjects with chronic kidney disease in conservative treatment, 106 subjects with metabolic syndrome subdivided according to the presence (n = 43) or not (n = 63) of diabetes mellitus, 48 subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), 14 women with systemic sclerosis complicated with Raynaud's phenomenon, 42 dialyzed subjects and 105 young subjects with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In subjects with arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, metabolic syndrome, systemic sclerosis, as well as, in dialyzed and AMI subjects, we found at baseline a NOx increase. In dyalized subjects after a standard dialysis session, we observed a decrease in NOx. The increase in NOx in juvenile AMI was significantly influenced by cigarette smoking and less by cardiovascular risk factors and the extent of coronary lesions; at 3 and 12 months later than the initial event, we observed a decrease of NOx that remains significantly higher than the control group. In subjects with OSAS no difference in NOx was noted in comparison with normal controls, although their subdivision according to the apnea/hypopnea index operates a clear distinction regarding NOx concentration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactic acidosis (LA) is the most common form of metabolic acidosis defined by values of lactate greater than 5 mmol / l and by a pH <7.34. The pathogenesis of LA involves hypoxic (type A) and non hypoxic (type B) causes which are often coexisting. Lactic acidosis is usual in hospitalized population especially in subjects in intensive care units, in which lactate levels on admission could be predictors of mortality even in the absence of organ dysfunction or shock. The outcome is mainly dependent on the cardiovascular effects of acidosis. In subjects with cardiogenic shock, the increased lactate/pyruvate ratio, detectable at onset, is correladed with mortality. An early assessment of blood and tissue lactate levels could play a role in the therapeutic management as well as in outcome. LA could be a unfavorable prognostic factor in cancer. The lactate would act also as "signal molecule" and as a promoting factor in angiogenesis and tumor progression. In the presence of risk factors for LA the role of metformin may be overrated. Despite the doctrinal progress to understand the pathogenesis and pathophysiology, there is not univocal consensus on the therapeutic treatment of LA. The identification and the attempt to remove the cause of acidosis are main aims; treatment with sodium bicarbonate is a matter of debate as the data on the cardiovascular effects and mortality are unclear. The therapy with carbicarb, dichloroacetate or THAM has shown no specific advantages in terms of mortality. In experimental models of LA and shock the use of sodium-hydrogen exchanger-1 (NHE1) selective inhibitors reduces cell damage and inflammatory cytokines synthesis; it also improves cardiac performance and decreases mortality. Clin Ter 2013; 164(3):e223-238. doi: 10.7417/CT.2013.1572.
La Clinica terapeutica 07/2013; 164(3):e223-e238. DOI:10.7417/CT.2013.1572 · 0.33 Impact Factor