[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: These Guidelines have been developed by the American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) and the International Society of Feline Medicine (ISFM) as a resource for veterinary practitioners who want to better understand and manage the important clinical condition of house-soiling in their feline patients. The Guidelines offer straightforward, practical solutions that, in most cases, will help veterinarians and cat owners prevent, manage or entirely remediate feline house-soiling behavior.
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 06/2014; 16(7):579-598. · 1.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New concepts: Ideas about the causes of lower urinary tract signs (LUTS) in cats have changed significantly in the past 40 years. Recent research is challenging the conventional view that the bladder is always the perpetrator of LUTS, and suggests that the bladder can also be one victim of a systemic process associated with a sensitized central stress response system. Aim: In this article the authors provide their perspective on the implications of these findings for the diagnosis and treatment of cats with LUTS, provide some historical context, and suggest ways that the veterinary profession might work together to better understand the disorders underlying these signs, and possibly reduce their prevalence.
Journal of feline medicine and surgery. 05/2014; 16(5):385-94.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective-To evaluate the performance of a veterinary urine dipstick paddle (UDP) for diagnosis and identification of urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs and cats. Design-Prospective, randomized, blinded study. Sample-207 urine specimens. Procedures-UDPs were inoculated by 2 investigators and incubated according to manufacturer's instructions. Results, including presence or absence of bacterial growth, organism counts, and identification of uropathogens, were compared between investigators and with microbiology laboratory results. A subset of UDPs with bacterial growth was submitted to the laboratory for confirmation. Results-The laboratory reported 64 (30.9%) specimens had growth of bacteria. Bacterial growth was reported for 63 (30.4%) and 58 (28.0%) of the UDPs by investigators 1 and 2, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of the UDP for detection of bacterial growth were 97.3% and 98.6%, respectively, for investigator 1 and 89.1% and 99.3%, respectively, for investigator 2. For UPDs with ≥ 10(5) colony-forming units/mL, organism counts correlated well between the laboratory and investigators 1 (r = 0.95) and 2 (r = 0.89). Pathogen identification was not always accurate. Only 25 of 33 (75.8%) UDPs submitted for confirmation yielded bacteria consistent with those isolated from the original bacterial culture of urine. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-The veterinary UDP system was a sensitive test for screening patients for bacterial UTI, but uropathogen identification was not always accurate. When UDPs have bacterial growth, a fresh urine specimen should be submitted to the laboratory to confirm the identity of the organisms and to permit antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 04/2014; 244(7):814-9. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ectopic ureters are the most common cause of urinary incontinence in young dogs but should be considered as a differential in any incontinent dog for which the history is not known. Ectopic ureters can be diagnosed with excretory urography, fluoroscopic urethrography or ureterography, abdominal ultrasonography, cystoscopy, helical computed tomography, or a combination of these diagnostic procedures. Other congenital abnormalities can also occur in dogs with ectopic ureters, including renal agenesis or dysplasia, hydronephrosis, and/or hydroureter and vestibulovaginal anomalies; therefore, the entire urinary system must be evaluated with ultrasonography if cystoscopy is the only other diagnostic tool used before surgery. Novel surgical techniques and adjunctive medical management have improved the prognosis for dogs with urinary ectopia.
Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 01/2014; 44(2):343–353. · 1.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective-To determine the mineral composition and anatomic location of urinary calculi and to investigate sex and reproductive status as predisposing factors for development of urolithiasis in potbellied pigs. Design-Retrospective case series Samples-Urinary calculi from 50 purebred and crossbred potbellied pigs. Procedures-Laboratory records for urinary calculi of potbellied pigs submitted to the University of California-Davis Stone Laboratory from 1982 through 2012 were reviewed. Mineral composition of calculi was determined by polarized light microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and, in some cases, x-ray diffractometry. Results-Of the 48 urinary calculi analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, 21 (44%) were composed primarily of amorphous magnesium calcium phosphate; another 9 (19%) were primarily composed of calcium phosphate in the form of apatite. Of 50 urinary calculi, 22 (44%), 14 (28%), 10 (20%), 3 (6%), and 1 (2%) were removed from the urinary bladder only, urethra, both urinary bladder and urethra, urine, and renal pelvis, respectively. Sex of 6 potbellied pigs was not recorded. For 44 urinary calculi, 41 (93%) were from males (11 sexually intact males and 30 castrated) and 3 (7%) were from females (2 sexually intact females and 1 spayed). Among males, 73% (30/41) of submissions were from castrated males. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-In contrast to results from studies in commercial pigs, the most common composition of urinary calculi identified in purebred and crossbred potbellied pigs was amorphous magnesium calcium phosphate. Potential predisposing factors for urolithiasis in potbellied pigs may be similar to those for urolithiasis in commercial pigs. These include diet, urinary tract infections, and sex. Thus, prevention of urolithiasis should target these potential predisposing factors.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 08/2013; 243(3):389-93. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Case Description-An 8-month-old castrated male mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of hematuria, stranguria, and dysuria of approximately 2 weeks' duration that developed immediately following elective castration. Clinical Findings-Results of physical examination, ultrasonography, retrograde double-contrast cystourethrography, and urethroscopy were consistent with a traumatic urethral stricture immediately proximal to the os penis resulting in a partial obstruction of urine outflow. Results of ultrasonographic examination of abdominal organs were considered normal. Digital radiography revealed no evidence of calculi. Treatment and Outcome-Balloon dilation of the urethral stricture was performed and was followed by 2 bougienage procedures during the subsequent 2 weeks when clinical signs returned. The owners declined scrotal urethrostomy, and a self-expanding, covered nitinol stent was placed approximately 3 weeks after the initial evaluation, resulting in amelioration of clinical signs. Results of follow-up urethroscopy and contrast cystourethrography 1 year after stent placement revealed a statically positioned, patent urethral stent, although a small number of polypoid mucosal structures were identified distal to the stent and 1 small structure consistent with tissue ingrowth into the stent was identified. Clinical Relevance-Placement of a covered nitinol stent resulted in long-term resolution of clinical signs associated with traumatic stricture of the penile urethra in this young dog. Because the os penis in dogs limits radial expansion of the urethra, its presence may limit the use of stents in this location.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 04/2013; 242(8):1117-21. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ten of 12 red-bellied short-necked turtles from a single clutch presented at 9 months of age with multiple white to tan nodules on their feet. Histologically, the nodules were composed of large periarticular deposits of mineralized crystalline material that extended into the joint spaces of interphalangeal joints and was surrounded by granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis. Crystallographic analysis determined the material to be apatite (calcium phosphate hydroxide) consistent with the tumoral calcinosis form of hydroxyapatite deposition disease (HADD). HADD has previously been described in aquatic turtles and rarely lizards and must be differentiated from gout in reptiles. A cause for the tumoral calcinosis lesions in these turtles could not be determined; however, based on previous reports in this species, a species-specific predilection, in conjunction with unknown environmental factors, is suspected. The use of the terms HADD, pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease), and calcinosis circumscripta has been inconsistent, creating confusion in the literature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guidelines rationale: A cat's level of comfort with its environment is intrinsically linked to its physical health, emotional wellbeing and behavior. Having a basic understanding of the cat's species-specific environmental needs and how cats interact with their environment will provide a foundation for addressing these fundamental requirements. Environmental needs: Addressing environmental needs is essential (not optional) for optimum wellbeing of the cat. Environmental needs include those relating not only to the cat's physical surroundings (indoors or outdoors; in the home environment or at the veterinary practice) but also those affecting social interaction, including responses to human contact. Five 'pillars' framework: The authorship panel has organized the Guidelines around five primary concepts ('pillars') that provide the framework for a healthy feline environment. Understanding these principles and the unique environmental needs of the cat will help veterinarians, cat owners and care-givers to reduce stress, the incidence of stress-related disorders, and unwanted behavior in their feline patients and pets. The recommendations in the Guidelines apply to all pet cats, regardless of lifestyle.
Journal of feline medicine and surgery. 03/2013; 15(3):219-30.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between urolithiasis and growth of bacteria in the urine or urolith has not been recently evaluated in the past 15 years, and the effects of antimicrobial administration on urolith cultures have not been reported. As well, laboratory techniques for urolith cultures have not been critically evaluated. The objectives of the current study were to 1) report bacterial isolates from uroliths and their association with signalment, urolith composition, antimicrobial use, and urine cultures and 2) evaluate laboratory techniques for urolith cultures. For the first objective, a retrospective search of bacterial isolates cultured from uroliths submitted to the laboratory as well as the signalment, urine culture results, and antimicrobial use were recorded. For the second objective, 50 urolith pairs were cultured by washing each urolith either 1or 4 times and culturing the core. Five hundred twenty canine and 168 feline uroliths were reviewed. Struvite-containing uroliths had an increased prevalence of a positive culture compared to nonstruvite-containing uroliths (P < 0.0001, odds ratio [OR] = 5.4), as did uroliths from female dogs (P < 0.0001, OR = 2.9). No significant difference between culture results and previous antimicrobial administration was found (P = 0.41). Eighteen percent of cases with negative urine cultures had positive urolith cultures. There was no significant difference in core culture results whether the urolith was washed 1 or 4 times. (P = 0.07). Urolith culture outcome was not always influenced by previous antimicrobial administration, and bacterial culture of a urolith may not yield the same results as those obtained from the urine. The modified protocol, which requires less time and expense for urolith cultures, may be an acceptable alternative.
Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 02/2013; · 1.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complications associated with the Stamey percutaneous loop cystostomy catheter (Cook Medical), including exposure of the most proximal side-hole and leakage of urine from the bladder, were encountered following percutaneous placement in three cats. In all cats, surgical exploration for removal of the catheter was performed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) in dogs usually are treated with antimicrobial drugs for 10-14 days. Shorter duration antimicrobial regimens have been evaluated in human patients.
A high dose short duration (HDSD) enrofloxacin protocol administered to dogs with uncomplicated UTI will not be inferior to a 14-day treatment regimen with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.
Client-owned adult, otherwise healthy dogs with aerobic bacterial urine culture yielding ≥ 10(3) CFU/mL of bacteria after cystocentesis.
Prospective, multicenter, controlled, randomized blinded clinical trial. Enrolled dogs were randomized to group 1 (enrofloxacin 18-20 mg/kg PO q24h for 3 days) or group 2 (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 13.75-25 mg/kg PO q12h for 14 days). Urine cultures were obtained at days 0, 10, and 21. Microbiologic and clinical cure rates were evaluated 7 days after antimicrobial treatment was discontinued. Lower urinary tract signs and adverse events also were recorded.
There were 35 dogs in group 1 and 33 in group 2. The microbiologic cure rate was 77.1 and 81.2% for groups 1 and 2, respectively. The clinical cure rate was 88.6 and 87.9% for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Cure rates between groups did not differ according to the selected margin of noninferiority.
HDSD enrofloxacin treatment was not inferior to a conventional amoxicillin-clavulanic acid protocol for the treatment of uncomplicated bacterial UTI in dogs. Further research is warranted to determine if this protocol will positively impact owner compliance and decrease the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 04/2012; 26(3):506-12. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: Calcium oxalate (CaOx) containing stones are among the most common of the urinary tract stones identified in cats. RISK FACTORS: Risk factors for CaOx stone formation include such things as breed, gender and diet; stress and obesity have also been hypothesized to be risk factors for this disease. MANAGEMENT APPROACH: A tailored, individual management strategy for preventing CaOx stone recurrence is important and should include addressing the diet, environment and any other comorbid conditions present. Increasing the cat's moisture intake is one of the key mechanisms for preventing recurrence. CLINICAL CHALLENGES: CaOx ureterolithiasis has emerged as a difficult and sometimes life-threatening problem for cats. In those cats where stones are found incidentally, periodic monitoring may be required to assess for disease progression. Interventional procedures such as ureteral stent placements are now increasingly being performed for recurrent cases or those with larger stone burdens. Periodic radiographs for more severe cases and frequent client communication can help ensure successful outcomes for cats with lower and upper CaOx stone disease. EVIDENCE BASE: Limited evidence-based studies are published regarding management of feline upper and lower urinary tract CaOx stone disease, making this a difficult condition to manage in some cats. Studies designed to evaluate the relationship to dietary modifications, medical management, stress, obesity and surgical techniques are warranted in cats with upper and lower urinary tract CaOx stones.
Journal of feline medicine and surgery. 09/2011; 13(9):651-60.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to characterize the signalment, clinicopathologic data, and diagnostic imaging of cats with urate urolithiasis, as well as the salts of uric acid present in the uroliths. A retrospective analysis of feline urate uroliths submitted to the GV Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory between 2000 and 2008 was included. From these data, records were assimilated from referring veterinarians (143); furthermore, all recorded cases from within the William R Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (16) were included. Median values for the complete blood count and chemistry panels available were within the reference intervals, when provided, with only a few outliers present. Of all cases evaluated, seven had a portosystemic shunt (PSS). Cats with urate uroliths and a PSS were younger than cats without a PSS (2 years vs 7 years). The pathogenesis of urate uroliths in cats is poorly understood. Most cats were not completely evaluated for a PSS, however, clinicopathologic parameters indicating hepatic dysfunction were seldom noted; more sensitive diagnostics such as serum bile acids were rarely performed to confirm or negate the presence of a shunt. Studies are warranted to evaluate pathogenesis of urate uroliths to tailor proper management and breeding strategies.
Journal of feline medicine and surgery. 08/2011; 13(10):725-32.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare values of urodynamic measurements of cats with idiopathic cystitis (IC) with previously published data for healthy female cats.
11 female cats with IC.
2 sequential cystometrograms and 2 urethral pressure profiles were obtained for each cat. All tracings were evaluated for evidence of overactive urinary bladder (OAB). Maximum urethral pressure (MUP), maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP), and functional profile length were recorded.
Only 3 cats had obvious micturition events. None of the 11 cats had evidence of OAB. Although not significant, threshold pressure was lower in cats with IC than in healthy cats (mean ± SD, 89.0 ± 12.0 cm H(2)O vs 75.7 ± 16.3 cm H(2)O, respectively); however, the total volume infused was significantly lower in cats with IC (4.8 ± 2.1 mL/kg vs 8.3 ± 3.2 mL/kg). The MUCP was significantly higher in cats with IC than in healthy cats (158.0 ± 47.7 cm H(2)O vs 88.9 ± 23.9 cm H(2)O, respectively). The MUP was also significantly higher in all portions of the urethra in cats with IC.
No evidence of OAB was identified in any cat evaluated; therefore, medications used to target this abnormality did not appear justified. The high MUCP in cats with IC suggested that α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists or skeletal muscle relaxants may be useful in this disease, and if these data were applicable to male cats, then α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonism may help prevent recurrent obstructive IC. Further studies are indicated to determine the effects, if any, these drugs might have in cats with IC.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 04/2011; 72(4):578-82. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate trends in urolith composition and urolithiasis in dogs during the past 21 years.
Retrospective case series.
25,499 uroliths and the dogs from which they were obtained.
Database of the Gerald V. Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory was searched from January 1985 through December 2006. All uroliths from dogs and the accompanying submission forms were evaluated. Age, sex, breed, and urolith location were recorded.
Minerals identified in uroliths included struvite, calcium oxalate (CaOx), urate, apatite, brushite, cystine, silica, potassium magnesium pyrophosphate, sulfa drug, xanthine, and newberyite. Although more struvite-containing uroliths were submitted during this period, a significant decrease in the proportion of struvite-containing uroliths submitted as a percentage of all uroliths submitted was detected. Also, a significant increase in the proportion of CaOx-containing uroliths submitted over time was detected. There was a significant nonlinear decrease in submission of urate-, silica-, and cystine-containing uroliths. The CaOx-, cystine-, and silica-containing uroliths were obtained significantly more often from male dogs; struvite- and urate-containing uroliths were obtained significantly more often from female dogs.
An increase in the proportion of CaOx uroliths submitted over time was detected. Reasons for long-term changes in this trend were likely multifactorial and could have included alterations in diet formulations and water consumption and possibly the fact that people favor ownership of breeds more prone to developing CaOx-containing uroliths. The decrease in metabolic uroliths could have been related to better breeding practices and increased awareness of results of genetic studies.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 01/2010; 236(2):193-200. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Grass awns are a common cause of foreign body disease in animals, but little is known about their presence in the lower urinary tract. The ultrasonographic features of grass awns in vivo and in vitro have been described in detail. The purpose of this report is to describe the clinical and sonographic features of grass awns in the urinary bladder of dogs and cats. Three male Yorkshire terriers (one of which was examined twice) and one female domestic short-haired cat were evaluated for signs of lower urinary tract disease, and an intravesicular grass awn was suspected based on ultrasound examination. The grass awn appeared ultrasonographically as a bladder stone (n = 1) or a linear hyperechoic structure (n = 4) with or without acoustic shadowing that was easy to identify due to contrast with surrounding urine. The presence of a grass awn within the urinary bladder was confirmed during exploratory surgery. In all patients, the route of entry of the grass awn was thought to have been retrograde migration from the urethral opening. The ultrasonographic appearance of grass awns in the bladder is consistent with that in other tissues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Canine prostatic disease is commonly evaluated with abdominal ultrasound and radiographs. Mineralization of the prostate is often reported, but the clinical relevance of this finding is currently not known. The-purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between ultrasonographic and radiographic prostate mineralization and the final diagnosis. Medical records of 55 dogs with evidence of prostatomegaly or prostatic mineralization and a cytologic diagnosis were evaluated. Radiographs and ultrasound images were assessed for caudal retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, vertebral lesions, or other signs of metastasis, and mineralization was assessed semiquantitatively. Twenty-two of 55 (40%) dogs had prostatic neoplasia. Regarding neoplasia, mineralization in neutered dogs had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 50%, and a sensitivity and specificity of 84% and 100%, respectively. Mineralization in intact dogs had a PPV of 22%, an NPV of 96%, and a sensitivity and specificity of 67% and 77%, respectively. All neutered dogs with prostatomegaly but not prostatic neoplasia had bacterial prostatitis and were castrated within the previous 3 months. Intact dogs with prostatomegaly and mineralization but not neoplasia had paraprostatic cysts (n = 3), benign prostatic hyperplasia (n = 2) or prostatitis (n = 2). Mineralization score was not indicative of neoplasia. In conclusion, neutered dogs with prostatic mineralization were very likely to have prostatic neoplasia. Intact dogs were unlikely to have prostatic neoplasia if no mineralization was found on radiographs or ultrasound.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laser lithotripsy has been used as an alternative to surgical removal of uroliths.
To describe the procedure and efficacy of laser lithotripsy for removal of lower urinary tract uroliths in horses. Additionally, the ultrastructure and the differences in mineralogy and microstructure from 1 successful and 1 unsuccessful laser lithotripsy case are described.
Six client-owned horses with 7 episodes of naturally occurring urocystoliths, urethroliths, or both.
Retrospective study of all horses treated between 2006 and 2008 by laser lithotripsy. All horses were sedated followed by laser lithotripsy. Quantitative urolith analysis was performed in all cases. Ultrastructure and microstructure analyses were performed on uroliths from 2 horses.
Procedural success was achieved in 5 of 7 laser lithotripsy procedures. No complications occurred as a result of laser lithotripsy. One horse developed uroabdomen likely as a result of manual lithotrite disruption of the bladder after failure of laser lithotripsy. There were differences in microstructure between 1 urolith that was successfully fragmented by laser lithotripsy and 1 urolith that was resistant to laser fragmentation.
Laser lithotripsy is an effective procedure for removal of some urocystoliths, urethroliths, or both in horses.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 08/2009; 23(5):1079-85. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare effects of isoflurane and propofol on the cystometrogram and urethral pressure profile (UPP) in healthy female cats.
6 healthy female cats.
Cats were anesthetized, and a consistent plane of anesthesia was maintained with low and high doses of isoflurane and propofol. A 6-F double-lumen urinary catheter was placed aseptically in the urethra for cystometrogram and UPP measurements. Threshold pressure and volume were recorded for cystometrograms. Maximum urethral pressure for smooth and skeletal muscle portions of the urethra, maximum urethral closure pressure, and functional profile length were measured during each UPP measurement. Heart rate and respiratory rate were recorded.
Cats anesthetized with the low dose of propofol had consistent detrusor reflexes, compared with results for the other anesthetics. Mean +/- SD threshold pressure, volume per unit of body weight, and compliance were 75.7 +/- 16.3 cm H2O, 8.3 +/- 3.2 mL/kg, and 0.5 +/- 0.4 mL/cm H2O, respectively, for low-dose propofol. Anesthesia with either dose of propofol caused a significantly higher percentage change in heart rate during the cystometrogram, compared with results for anesthesia with isoflurane. Maximal urethral pressure in the area corresponding to skeletal muscle and the maximum urethral closure pressure were significantly higher for the low dose of propofol, compared with results for the high dose of propofol.
The low-dose propofol regimen was the easiest to titrate and maintain and yielded diagnostic-quality detrusor reflexes in all 6 cats. Anesthetic depth should be titrated appropriately when performing urodynamic procedures.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 03/2009; 70(2):290-6. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the mineral composition of calculi, anatomic locations of the calculi, and findings of urinalysis and bacteriologic culture of urine and calculi in guinea pigs with urolithiasis.
127 guinea pigs.
Records of urinary calculi that had been submitted to the University of California Stone Laboratory from 1985 through 2003 were reviewed. In addition, submissions of urinary calculi for evaluation by the laboratory were prospectively solicited from 2004 through 2007. Prospectively obtained calculi were accompanied by a urine sample for urinalysis and bacteriologic culture and a completed questionnaire. All calculi were analyzed by use of polarized light microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. A subset of calculi was examined by means of x-ray diffractometry (XRD).
83% (43/52) of calculi from the laboratory database and 93% (70/75) of calculi that were prospectively solicited were composed of 100% calcium carbonate. Analysis via XRD confirmed that 5 of 6 calculi from a subset that had the greatest gross morphologic variation were composed of 100% calcite. Although many guinea pigs had received anti-microbials before bacteriologic cultures of urine were performed, Corynebacterium renale was isolated from 5 urine samples.
Contrary to findings of other studies, urinary calculi analyzed for the present study were most commonly composed of 100% calcium carbonate, and infrared spectroscopy or XRD was necessary to differentiate this mineral from others. Treatments, including diet and husbandry practices, should be developed to help prevent development of calcium carbonate calculi in guinea pigs.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 02/2009; 234(2):214-20. · 1.72 Impact Factor