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ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that mood-disorder-related personality traits predict depressive mood changes (DMC) in nonclinical populations.
In this study we examined the predictability of DMC in a nonclinical sample consisting of 351 Japanese company employees, with temperament and melancholic type personality as measured by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego and the Munich Personality Test. We also analyzed the mediating roles of dysfunctional attitudes and coping styles. Subjects were assessed for depressive mood, temperament and personality traits in May 2002 (time 1) and May 2004 (time 2), and dysfunctional attitudes and coping styles at time 2.
Results of hierarchical multiple regressions showed that depressive, cyclothymic and hyperthymic temperaments and melancholic type at time 1 significantly predicted DMC from time 1 to time 2, after controlling for demographic variables and the level of depressive mood at time 1. Path analysis results showed that depressive, cyclothymic and hyperthymic temperaments and melancholic type significantly predicted DMC, a certain part of the influence of depressive, cyclothymic and hyperthymic temperaments and melancholic type was significantly mediated via coping styles and that the influence of melancholic type was also mediated via dysfunctional attitudes. These findings provide clues for the targeting of interventions.
Psychopathology 07/2009; 42(4):249-56. DOI:10.1159/000224148 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In Japan, Kraepelin's descriptions on four "fundamental states" of manic depressive illness, the concepts of schizoid temperament by Kretschmer and obsessional and melancholic type temperament by Shimoda and Tellenbach have been widely accepted. This research investigates the construct validity of these temperaments through factor analysis.
TEMPS-A measured depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic and irritable temperaments and MPT rigidity, esoteric and isolation subscales measured, respectively, melancholic type and schizoid temperaments. Factor analysis was implemented with TEMPS-A alone and TEMPS-A and MPT combined data.
With TEMPS-A alone analysis, Factor 1 included 1 depressive, 11 cyclothymic and 12 irritable temperament items with a factor loading higher than 0.4; Factor 2 included 1 depressive and 10 hyperthymic temperament items; and Factor 3 included 2 depressive temperament items only. With TEMPS-A and MPT combined data, Factor 1 included 3 depressive, 11 cyclothymic and 5 irritable temperament items with a factor loading higher than 0.4 (interpreted as the central cyclothymic tendency for all affective temperaments along Kretschmerian lines and accounting for 11.7% of the variance); Factor 2 included 6 hyperthymic temperament items (6.22% of variance); Factor 3 included 1 cyclothymic, 7 irritable and 1 schizoid temperament items (interpreted as the irritable temperament and accounting for 3.24% of the variance); Factor 4 included 1 depressive temperament and 5 melancholic type items (interpreted as the latter, accounting for 2.66% of the variance); Factor 5 included 5 depressive temperament items, along interpersonal sensitivity and passivity lines, and accounting for 2.31% of the variance; and Factor 6 included 4 schizoid temperament items accounting for 2.07% of the variance.
We did not use the Kasahara scale, which some believe to better capture the Japanese melancholic type. Sample was 70% male.
These analyses confirm the factor validity of depressive, hyperthymic, cyclothymic and irritable temperaments (TEMPS-A), as well as the melancholic type and the schizoid temperament (MPT). Traits of the depressive and melancholic types emerge as rather distinct. Indeed, our results permit the delineation of an interpersonally sensitive type that "gives in to others" as the core features of the depressive temperament; this is to be contrasted with the higher functioning, perfectionistic, work-oriented melancholic type. Mood dysregulation is represented by the largest number of traits in this population. Contrary to a widely held belief that the melancholic type with its devotion to work and to others is the signature temperament in Japan, cyclothymic traits account for the largest variance in this nonclinical population. Hyperthymic temperament, melancholic type and schizoid temperaments appear largely independent of mood dysregulation. In this Japanese population, TEMPS-A may identify temperament constructs more comprehensively when implemented with melancholic type and schizoid temperament question items added to it. The proposed new Japanese Temperament and Personality (JTP) Scale has self-rated items divided into six subscales.
Journal of Affective Disorders 04/2005; 85(1-2):93-100. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2004.01.011 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In Japan, TEMPS-A has gathered much attention, because Kraepelin's concepts on "fundamental states" of mood disorder and temperaments have been widely respected.
TEMPS-A was translated into Japanese (and after the approval of the English back translation by H.S.A.), it was administered to 1391 non-clinical subjects, and 29 unipolar and 30 bipolar patients in remission. Of the non-clinical sample, 426 were readministered the instrument again in 1 month. A control group matched for gender and age was drawn from the non-clinical sample.
Regarding test-retest reliability, Spearman's coefficients for depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious temperaments were 0.79, 0.84, 0.87, 0.81 and 0.87, respectively; regarding internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.69, 0.84, 0.79, 0.83 and 0.87, respectively. The unipolar and bipolar groups showed significantly higher depressive, cyclothymic and anxious temperament scores than the control group. Curiously, the bipolar group showed significantly lower hyperthymic score than the control group; irritable temperament scores showed no significant differences. Depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperament scores showed significant correlations with each other. Between the unipolar and bipolar groups, there was little difference regarding the temperament scores. Also the inter-temperament correlations showed the same pattern in the unipolar and bipolar groups.
The clinically well cohort was 70% male.
TEMPS-A showed a high reliability and validity (internal consistency) in a Japanese non-clinical sample. By and large, the hypothesized five temperament structure was upheld. Depressive, cyclothymic and anxious temperaments showed concurrent validity with mood disorder. Irritable temperament may represent a subtype of depressive, cyclothymic or anxious temperaments. There may be a temperamental commonality between unipolar and bipolar disorders. TEMPS-A will open new possibilities for international research on mood disorder and personality traits.
Journal of Affective Disorders 04/2005; 85(1-2):85-92. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2003.10.001 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 1. To investigate whether depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic and irritable temperaments as identified by TEMPS-A are characteristic to monopolar or bipolar disorder. 2. To investigate the independency and to discuss the clinical validity of the temperaments. 3. To replicate the previous studies whether Typus Melancholicus is characteristic to monopolar disorder. 4. To investigate the relationship between Typus Melancholicus and mood dysregulation, and the relationship, if any, is characteristically observed with monopolar disorder. 5. To discuss the difference between monopolar and bipolar disorder in terms of personality character.
Monopolar and bipolar groups were recruited consecutively from the patients who received outpatient treatment at Kanto Medical Center between September and November, 2001. The age is between 18 and 60. The exclusion criteria were psychotic disorder, organic disorder, grave physical illness and non-remitted mood symptoms (HRSD > 11 and MRS > 13). Control group was selected from 1391 company employees who participated in TEMPS-A research project between May 2001 and May 2002, matching gender and age with monopolar and bipolar groups. The exclusion criterion was marked depressive symptom (CES-D > 16).
The statistical analyses were done with Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni's correction regarding the difference among the groups. Spearman coefficients were examined regarding the independency of temperaments. The relationship between Typus Melancholicus and mood dysregulation was examined by mono-regression analysis.
Depressive and cyclothymic temperaments scores did not differ significantly between monopolar and bipolar. These scores were significantly higher in monopolar and bipolar than in control. Therefore, these temperaments are evidenced to be characteristic with mood disorder. But between monopolar and bipolar there was no significant difference. Irritable temperament score did not differ significantly among the three groups. This score showed a highly significant correlation with cyclothymic and depressive temperaments. Irritable temperament seems closely related with the personality character of mood disorder, however this temperament itself was not characteristic. Hyperthymic temperament score was mildly significantly lower in bipolar than in control. There was no other significant inter-group difference. This temperament hardly showed a correlation with other temperaments. Though hyperthymic temperament may be hypothesized characteristic with manic patients, the result did not support this hypothesis. Typus Melancholicus score did not differ significantly among three groups. This result contradicts with a number of previous studies. It seems that the prevalence of Typus Melancholicus among the groups should be further investigated. Typus Melancholicus showed a mild correlation with depressive temperament in monopolar and with depressive, cyclothymic and irritable and temperaments in bipolar. Regarding mono-regression analysis, no temperament predicted Typus Melancholicus formation in monopolar. Depressive, cyclothymic and irritable temperaments predicted significantly in bipolar. In control group, hyperthymic temperament predicted midly significantly, but the prediction rate was as small as 7%. These results seem to support the theories of Shimoda and Matussek that Typus Melancholicus characters are related with bipolar disorder. Between monopolar and bipolar, there was not much significant difference in terms of personality characteristics. This seems to suggest no marked personality character difference between these groups and supports Akiskal's concept of Bipolar Spectrum.
1. Depressive and Cyclothymic temperaments are characteristic with mood disorder. 2. Hyperthymic temperament is independent, but not characteristic with mood disorder. 3. Irritable temperament may be modifying the personality character of mood disorder. 4. Typus Melancholicus was not characteristic to monopolar disorder. 5. Significant relationship between Typus Melancholicus and mood dysregulation was observed in bipolar group. 6. There seems no substantial difference between monopolar and bipolar disorders in terms of personality character.
Seishin shinkeigaku zasshi = Psychiatria et neurologia Japonica 01/2003; 105(5):533-43.