[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conclusions Overall, no increase in risk of glioma or meningioma was observed with use of mobile phones. There were suggestions of an increased risk of glioma at the highest exposure levels, but biases and error prevent a causal interpretation. The possible effects of long-term heavy use of mobile phones require further investigation.
International Journal of Epidemiology 01/2010; 39(3):675. · 6.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methods An interview-based case-control study with 2708 glioma and 2409 meningioma cases and matched controls was conducted in 13 countries using a common protocol. Results A reduced odds ratio (OR) related to ever having been a regular mobile phone user was seen for glioma [OR 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.94] and meningioma (OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.68-0.91), possibly reflecting participation bias or other methodological limitations. No elevated OR was observed >= 10 years after first phone use (glioma: OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.76-1.26; meningioma: OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.61-1.14). ORs were < 1.0 for all deciles of lifetime number of phone calls and nine deciles of cumulative call time. In the 10th decile of recalled cumulative call time, >= 1640 h, the OR was 1.40 (95% CI 1.03-1.89) for glioma, and 1.15 (95% CI 0.81-1.62) for meningioma; but there are implausible values of reported use in this group. ORs for glioma tended to be greater in the temporal lobe than in other lobes of the brain, but the CIs around the lobe-specific estimates were wide. ORs for glioma tended to be greater in subjects who reported usual phone use on the same side of the head as their tumour than on the opposite side. Conclusions Overall, no increase in risk of glioma or meningioma was observed with use of mobile phones. There were suggestions of an increased risk of glioma at the highest exposure levels, but biases and error prevent a causal interpretation. The possible effects of long-term heavy use of mobile phones require further investigation.
International Journal of Epidemiology 01/2010; 39(3):675-694. · 6.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phones increases the incidence of gliomas, meningiomas and acoustic neuromas in adults. The incident cases were of patients aged 19-69 years who were diagnosed during 2001-2002 in Southern Norway. Population controls were selected and frequency-matched for age, sex, and residential area. Detailed information about mobile phone use was collected from 289 glioma (response rate 77%), 207 meningioma patients (71%), and 45 acoustic neuroma patients (68%) and from 358 (69%) controls. For regular mobile phone use, defined as use on average at least once a week or more for at least 6 months, the odds ratio was 0.6 (95% confidence interval 0.4-0.9) for gliomas, 0.8 (95% confidence interval 0.5-1.1) for meningiomas and 0.5 (95% confidence interval 0.2-1.0) for acoustic neuromas. Similar results were found with mobile phone use for 6 years or more for gliomas and acoustic neuromas. An exception was meningiomas, where the odds ratio was 1.2 (95% confidence interval 0.6-2.2). Furthermore, no increasing trend was observed for gliomas or acoustic neuromas by increasing duration of regular use, the time since first regular use or cumulative use of mobile phones. The results from the present study indicate that use of mobile phones is not associated with an increased risk of gliomas, meningiomas or acoustic neuromas.
European Journal of Cancer Prevention 05/2007; 16(2):158-64. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To validate short term recall of mobile phone use within Interphone, an international collaborative case control study of tumours of the brain, acoustic nerve, and salivary glands related to mobile telephone use.
Mobile phone use of 672 volunteers in 11 countries was recorded by operators or through the use of software modified phones, and compared to use recalled six months later using the Interphone study questionnaire. Agreement between recalled and actual phone use was analysed using both categorical and continuous measures of number and duration of phone calls.
Correlations between recalled and actual phone use were moderate to high (ranging from 0.5 to 0.8 across countries) and of the same order for number and duration of calls. The kappa statistic demonstrated fair to moderate agreement for both number and duration of calls (weighted kappa ranging from 0.20 to 0.60 across countries). On average, subjects underestimated the number of calls per month (geometric mean ratio of recalled to actual = 0.92, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.99), whereas duration of calls was overestimated (geometric mean ratio = 1.42, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.56). The ratio of recalled to actual use increased with level of use, showing underestimation in light users and overestimation in heavy users. There was substantial heterogeneity in this ratio between countries. Inter-individual variation was also large, and increased with level of use.
Volunteer subjects recalled their recent phone use with moderate systematic error and substantial random error. This large random error can be expected to reduce the power of the Interphone study to detect an increase in risk of brain, acoustic nerve, and parotid gland tumours with increasing mobile phone use, if one exists.
Occupational and environmental medicine 05/2006; 63(4):237-43. · 3.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the last decades, public concern that radiofrequency radiation (RFR) may be related to adverse reproductive outcomes has been emerging. Our objective was to assess associations between paternal occupational exposure to RFR and adverse pregnancy outcomes including birth defects using population-based data from Norway.
Data on reproductive outcomes derived from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway were linked with data on paternal occupation derived from the general population censuses. An expert panel categorized occupations according to exposure. Using logistic regression, we analyzed 24 categories of birth defects as well as other adverse outcomes.
In the offspring of fathers most likely to have been exposed, increased risk was observed for preterm birth (odds ratio (OR): 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.15). In this group we also observed a decreased risk of cleft lip (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.97). In the medium exposed group, we observed increased risk for a category of "other defects" (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.22, 4.70), and a decreased risk for a category of "other syndromes" (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.99) and upper gastrointestinal defects (OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.40, 0.93).
The study is partly reassuring for occupationally exposed fathers.
European Journal of Epidemiology 02/2006; 21(7):529-35. · 5.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is public concern that use of mobile phones could increase the risk of brain tumours. If such an effect exists, acoustic neuroma would be of particular concern because of the proximity of the acoustic nerve to the handset. We conducted, to a shared protocol, six population-based case–control studies in four Nordic countries and the UK to assess the risk of acoustic neuroma in relation to mobile phone use. Data were collected by personal interview from 678 cases of acoustic neuroma and 3553 controls. The risk of acoustic neuroma in relation to regular mobile phone use in the pooled data set was not raised (odds ratio (OR)=0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7–1.1). There was no association of risk with duration of use, lifetime cumulative hours of use or number of calls, for phone use overall or for analogue or digital phones separately. Risk of a tumour on the same side of the head as reported phone use was raised for use for 10 years or longer (OR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–3.1). The study suggests that there is no substantial risk of acoustic neuroma in the first decade after starting mobile phone use. However, an increase in risk after longer term use or after a longer lag period could not be ruled out.Keywords: neuroma, acoustic, telephone, epidemiology, aetiology
British Journal of Cancer 08/2005; 93(7):842-848. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our case-control study was conducted to investigate whether residential and occupational exposure to magnetic fields increased the risk for brain tumours in adults. Data from an occupational exposure matrix was also evaluated. The study population in this nested case-control study was made up of subjects aged 16 years and older who had resided in a broad corridor around a high-voltage power line in 1980 or during one of the years from 1986-1996. The cases were incident cases diagnosed during 1980-96. Two controls were matched to each case by year of birth, sex, municipality and first year entering the cohort. The time-weighted average exposure to residential magnetic fields generated by the power lines was calculated for the exposure follow-up from 1 January 1967 to diagnosis. In addition, job titles and branches of industry were classified as categories of hours per week in a magnetic field above background level (0.1 microT). Exposures were cumulated over occupationally active years for the exposure follow-up from 1 January 1955 to diagnosis. When residential magnetic fields are evaluated, the 2 upper residential, time-weighted, average magnetic field categories showed elevated odds ratios (ORs) for all brain tumours (OR = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.9-2.7 and OR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.7-2.3). Occupational exposure showed no association to exposure for any site. We found an elevated risk for residential exposure to magnetic fields and brain tumours, although the risk was not significant, and no clear exposure-response pattern was found. The findings for the occupational exposure groups showed an inverse association.
International Journal of Cancer 06/2005; 115(1):137-41. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate selected birth outcomes from a published Norwegian cohort study in a nested case-control design with improved exposure data.
Two controls matched for sex, year of birth, and municipality were selected randomly for children with the following defects: central nervous system (CNS) defects, cardiac defects, respiratory system defects, oesophageal defects, and clubfoot. The distances between maternal addresses, during pregnancy, and power lines were obtained from maps mainly of scale 1:5000. The magnetic fields in the residences were estimated based on distance, current, voltage, and configuration.
The highest increased risks were seen for hydrocephalus (OR 1.73, 95% CI 0.26 to 11.64) and for cardiac defects (OR 1.54, 95% CI 0.89 to 2.68).
This study does not support the hypothesis that residential exposure to electromagnetic fields from power lines causes any of the investigated outcomes.
Occupational and environmental medicine 03/2004; 61(2):174-6. · 3.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There has been some concern that exposure to electromagnetic fields may cause birth defects. We studied risks of birth defects by residential exposure to 50-Hz magnetic fields from power lines.
We estimated the distance between residence and power lines for 161,844 Norwegian residences, and their corresponding magnetic fields in the period 1980 to 1997. Risks of 24 categories of birth defects were compared across exposure levels, adjusting for social and demographic variables.
Among those living near power lines, the greatest reductions in risk were for cardiac defects (odds ratio = 0.5; 95% confidence interval = 0.3-0.9) and respiratory defects (0.4; 0.2-0.9). The largest increase in risk was for esophageal defects (2.5; 1.0-5.9). Other associations were weaker and had wide confidence intervals.
There was little evidence that residence near power lines affected the risk of birth defects. The observed decreased risks of cardiac and respiratory defects and the increased risk of esophageal defects should be interpreted with caution given the number of endpoints, the imprecision in the calculations of the distance from the residence to the power line, and the limited information on pregnant women's change of residence.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether distance data based on calculations by use of digitalized geographical information systems (GIS) and distance data based on measurements on 1:5000 maps agree sufficiently with on site distance measurements to be used as input to magnetic field calculations in epidemiological studies. The analysis were performed by use of weighted kappa (kappa(w)) statistical method described by Bland and Altman for comparison of measures of agreement. Map measurements showed better agreement with on site measurements than GIS calculations did. However, we consider both methods appropriate for use in larger epidemiological studies if the results are interpreted with caution. GIS calculations have the advantage of being both time and cost saving.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the risk of birth defects by parental occupational exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields.
The Medical Birth Registry of Norway was linked with census data on parental occupation. An expert panel constructed a job exposure matrix of parental occupational exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields. Exposure to magnetic fields was estimated by combining branch and occupation into one of three exposure levels: <4 hours, 4-24 hours, and >24 hours/week above approximately 0.1 mu T. Risks of 24 categories of birth defects were compared across exposure levels. Out of all 1.6 million births in Norway in the period 1967-95, 836,475 and 1,290,298 births had information on maternal and paternal exposure, respectively. Analyses were based on tests for trend and were adjusted for parents' educational level, place of birth, maternal age, and year of birth.
The total risk of birth defects was not associated with parental exposure. Maternal exposure was associated with increased risks of spina bifida (p=0.04) and clubfoot (p=0.04). A negative association was found for isolated cleft palate (p=0.01). Paternal exposure was associated with increased risks of anencephaly (p=0.01) and a category of "other defects" (p=0.02).
The present study gives an indication of an association between selected disorders of the central nervous system and parental exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields. Given the crude exposure assessment, lack of comparable studies, and the high number of outcomes considered, the results should be interpreted with caution.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine 02/2002; 59(2):92-7. · 3.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The risk of breast cancer was investigated in a large dynamic population-based cohort of all 1.1 million economically active women in Norway with potential exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields at the censuses of 1960, 1970, and 1980.
The follow-up period for the cohort was 1961-1992. For each woman, date of birth and census information on occupation and socioeconomic status were ascertained. These data were linked to the breast cancer morbidity information in the Cancer Registry of Norway. Exposure to magnetic fields was assessed a priori using two different approaches. In the first approach, hours per week in a potential magnetic field above background level (0.1 microT) were classified by an expert panel. In the second approach, measured magnetic fields from a separate study of men at work were allocated to the women's census job titles. In both approaches, exposure was cumulated over the years of employment (work hours and microT-years, respectively).
The Poisson regression analysis showed a risk ratio (RR) of 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.19) in the highest exposure category compared to the lowest when using the first approach, and the corresponding RR was 1.08 (95% CI = 1.01-1.16) when using the second approach. For women younger than 50 years, RR was 1.20 (95% CI = 1.11-1.29) and 1.12 (95% CI = 0.98-1.28), respectively.
The results give some support to the hypothesis that exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields may increase the risk of breast cancer. However, since no direct information on exposure was available, no firm conclusions can be drawn.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine 08/1999; 36(1):147-54. · 1.97 Impact Factor