Eileen Fairbanks

University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States

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Publications (16)20.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: People using long-term indwelling urinary catheters experience multiple recurrent catheter problems. Self-management approaches are needed to avoid catheter-related problems. The aim was to determine effectiveness of a self-management intervention in prevention of adverse outcomes (catheter-related urinary tract infection, blockage, and accidental dislodgement). Healthcare treatment associated with the adverse outcomes and catheter-related quality of life was also studied. A randomized clinical trial was conducted. The intervention involved learning catheter-related self-monitoring and self-management skills during home visits by a study nurse (twice during the first month and at 4 months-with a phone call at 2 months). The control group received usual care. Data were collected during an initial face-to-face home interview followed by bimonthly phone interviews. A total of 202 adult long-term urinary catheter users participated. Participants were randomized to treatment or control groups following collection of baseline data. Generalized estimating equations were used for the analysis of treatment effect. In the intervention group, there was a significant decrease in reported blockage in the first 6 months (p = .02), but the effect did not persist. There were no significant effects for catheter-related urinary tract infection or dislodgment. Comparison of baseline rates of adverse outcomes with subsequent periods suggested that both groups improved over 12 months. A simple-to-use catheter problems calendar and the bimonthly interviews might have functioned as a modest self-monitoring intervention for persons in both groups. A simplified intervention using a self-monitoring calendar is suggested-with optimal and consistent fluid intake likely to add value.
    Nursing research. 01/2015; 64(1):24-34.
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: The study was designed to determine whether a urinary catheter self-management intervention could 1) decrease catheter-related problems of urinary tract infection, blockage, accidental dislodgement of the catheter and their associated healthcare costs; and 2) improve catheter-related quality of life. Design/methods: The study was a randomized single-blinded experimental design in New York state of 202 long-term, community-living, indwelling urinary catheter users, half in the self-management group and half in the control group receiving usual care. Self-reported data were obtained for both groups through an initial home visit interview and 6 bimonthly phone call interviews, in which participants kept a simple catheter calendar over 12 months of follow-up. The final sample was 150, for a 74% completion rate. Results: The longitudinal GEE analyses for repeated measures indicated that there was a significantly positive (P= 0.017) decrease only in percent of blockage in the intervention group in the first 6 months of the study, but this effect did not last for 12 months. Comparisons of between and within group rates at intake, for the first 6 months, second 6 months, and full study of 12 months provided additional information and indicate that both groups improved over time for all catheter problems’ outcomes. Catheter-related quality of life did not differ significantly for group comparisons at baseline, 6, or 12 months’ follow-up. Conclusion: Both groups appeared to have improved during the study. A simple to use catheter problems’ calendar and the bimonthly interviews might have functioned like a modest form of a self-monitoring intervention for controls. Intervention participants might have needed additional support/teaching from the study nurse beyond the 4 months’ timeframe for the intervention. Teaching self-monitoring skills to long-term urinary catheter users could help minimize catheter problems, and there might be additional benefit in promoting optimal and consistent fluid intake.
    46th Annual Conference of the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Society 2014; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Many adolescents suffer serious asthma related morbidity that can be prevented by adequate self-management of the disease. The accurate symptom monitoring by patients is the most fundamental antecedent to effective asthma management. Nonetheless, the adequacy and effectiveness of current methods of symptom self-monitoring have been challenged due to the individuals' fallible symptom perception, poor adherence, and inadequate technique. Recognition of these limitations led to the development of an innovative device that can facilitate continuous and accurate monitoring of asthma symptoms with minimal disruption of daily routines, thus increasing acceptability to adolescents.
    JMIR mHealth and uHealth. 01/2014; 2(2):e27.
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    ABSTRACT: Effective screening and recruitment are essential to the success of randomized clinical trials. This report is to describe key screening and recruitment strategies in a two site randomized clinical trial (RCT) conducted in community settings with a vulnerable chronically ill population and to suggest valuable approaches when planning trials. Differences between sites in a complex study with two considerably different environments (academic versus home care) and their participant pools presented challenges which required different screening and recruitment methods. A high level of communication between sites, creative problem solving and the ability to be flexible when problems were encountered were needed for successful screening and recruitment.
    Applied Nursing Research. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A long-term indwelling urinary catheter intervention was tested in a randomized trial that is described in this article. The perceived value of the intervention to the catheter users, one of the study's specific aims, was assessed at the end of their 12-month participation and is reported here. Study participants' responses, our findings, and implications for home healthcare are discussed.
    Home healthcare nurse 10/2013; 31(9):465-473.
  • Hyekyun Rhee, Eileen Fairbanks, Arlene Butz
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    ABSTRACT: This study was to describe symptoms, feelings, activities and medical use reported by adolescents with uncontrolled asthma on their 24-hour asthma diaries. Adolescents with uncontrolled asthma (13-17years, N=29) completed asthma diaries and audio-recorded symptom sounds for 24hours. A variety of symptoms were reported, and the most frequently reported symptoms were coughing followed by wheezing. Most self-reported coughing and wheezing were verified by audio-recordings. Participants reported predominantly negative feelings and low levels of activities. High discordance between self-reports and medical records in medications was noted, raising a concern of poor treatment adherence in this vulnerable group.
    Journal of pediatric nursing 05/2013; · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterise a sample of 202 adult community-living long-term indwelling urinary catheter users, to describe self-care practices and catheter problems, and to explore relationships among demographics, catheter practices and problems. Long-term urinary catheter users have not been well studied, and persons using the device indefinitely for persistent urinary retention are likely to have different patterns of catheter practices and problems. The study was a cross-sectional descriptive and exploratory analysis. Home interviews were conducted with catheter users who provided information by self-reported recall over the previous two months. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and tests of association between demographics, catheter practices and catheter problems. The sample was widely diverse in age (19-96 years), race and medical diagnosis. Urethral catheters were used slightly more often (56%) than suprapubic (44%), for a mean of six years (SD 7 years). Many persons were highly disabled, with 60% having difficulty in bathing, dressing, toileting and getting out of the bed; 19% also required assistance in eating. A high percentage of catheter problems were reported with: 43% experiencing leakage (bypassing of urine), 31% having had a urinary tract infection, 24% blockage of the catheter, 23% catheter-associated pain and 12% accidental dislodgment of the catheter. Treatments of catheter-related problems contributed to additional health care utilisation, including extra nurse or clinic visits, trips to the emergency department or hospitalisation. Symptoms of catheter-associated urinary tract infections were most often related to changes in the colour or character of urine or generalised symptoms. Catheter-related problems contribute to excess morbidity and health care utilisation and costs. More research is needed in how to minimise catheter-associated problems in long-term catheter users. Information from this study could help inform the development of interventions in this population.
    Journal of Clinical Nursing 02/2013; 22(3-4):356-67. · 1.32 Impact Factor
  • Mark Sterling, Hyekyun Rhee, Eileen Fairbanks, Mark Bocko
    American Thoracic Society 2012 International Conference, May 18-23, 2012 • San Francisco, California; 05/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Despite rapid proliferation of hospital-based palliative care consultation services (PCCSs) across the country, there is little description of the dynamic processes that the PCCS and the non-PCCS hospital cultures experience during the institutionalization of a successful PCCS. To describe the institutionalization of a new PCCS in a quaternary care academic medical center (AMC) and highlight two themes, cost and quality, that pervaded the dynamics involved from the inception to the successful integration of the service. Ethnography using longitudinal field observations, in-depth interviews, and the collection of artifacts. The study was performed in a 750-bed quaternary care AMC in the northeastern region of the U.S. Participants were a purposefully selected sample (n=79) of 1) senior-level institutional administrators, including clinical leaders in nursing, medicine, and social work, 2) clinicians who used the PCCS, either commonly or rarely, and 3) members of the PCCS core and extended teams. Key infrastructure components that contributed to the successful integration of the PCCS included top level interprofessional administrative buy-in to the quality and cost arguments for PCCS, PCCS leadership selection, robust data collection strategies emphasizing quality outcome data, the adoption of the "physician referral only" rule, and incremental and sustainable growth. The PCCS service grew an average of 23% per year from 2003 to 2009. An in-depth understanding of the dynamic interaction of the infrastructures and processes of a successful institutionalization, in their unique complexity, may help other PCCSs identify and negotiate attributes of their own circumstances that will increase their chances for successful and sustainable implementation.
    Journal of pain and symptom management 05/2011; 42(5):680-90. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the processes through which interventions work for mothers of premature infants is necessary for the advancement of science and the translation of efficacious interventions into clinical practice settings. To test a theoretical model examining the processes through which an educational-behavioral intervention program (Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment [COPE]) influences mothers' anxiety and depression 2 months after discharge of their premature infants from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A secondary analysis was conducted using data from a randomized controlled trial with 246 mothers of low-birth-weight preterm infants who were assigned randomly to COPE or placebo control conditions. Measures included mothers' stress in the NICU, mothers' anxiety and depression, and mothers' beliefs about their infants and their role. Observers blind to study group condition also rated the quality of mother-infant interaction in the NICU. Structural equation modeling suggested that the model tested provided a reasonable fit to the data, chi2(64) = 97.67, p = .004, root mean square error of approximation = .046, comparative fit index = .97. Participation in COPE was both directly and indirectly, via associations with increased maternal beliefs and less maternal depression and anxiety in the NICU, related to mothers' decreased posthospital depression and anxiety. Participation in the COPE program also was associated with higher mother-infant interaction scores. Implementation of COPE could lessen postdischarge maternal anxiety and depression, which may improve outcomes for both mothers and preterm infants.
    Nursing research 01/2008; 57(6):383-94. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test a theoretical model examining processes through which a parent-focused educational-behavioral intervention [Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment (COPE)] relates to children's post-hospital adjustment problems. Mothers (n = 143) and their 2-7-year-old children, unexpectedly hospitalized in two pediatric intensive care units, were randomized to COPE or control conditions. Maternal measures included parental beliefs, anxiety, negative mood, and child adjustment 3 months post discharge. Observers rated maternal support of their children during hospitalization. Structural equation modeling suggested that the model tested provided a reasonable fit to the data [chi2 (97 df) = 129.43; p = .016; root mean square error of approximation = .048; comparative fit index = .95]. COPE effects on children's post-hospital externalizing behaviors were indirect, via associations with parental beliefs and maternal negative mood state. Furthermore, COPE participation was associated with more maternal support of their children, which was also associated with less internalizing and externalizing behaviors 3 months post discharge. Implementing COPE may help avert future mental health problems in this high risk population. Understanding the processes by which an already empirically validated program relates to child outcomes is likely to aid clinicians and administrators in the widespread uptake of the COPE program.
    Journal of Pediatric Psychology 06/2007; 32(4):463-74. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although low birth weight premature infants and parents are at high risk for adverse health outcomes, there is a paucity of studies that test early NICU interventions with parents to prevent the development of negative parent-infant interaction trajectories and to reduce hospital length of stay. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of an educational-behavioral intervention program (ie, Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment) that was designed to enhance parent-infant interactions and parent mental health outcomes for the ultimate purpose of improving child developmental and behavior outcomes. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 260 families with preterm infants from 2001 to 2004 in 2 NICUs in the northeast United States. Parents completed self-administered instruments during hospitalization, within 7 days after infant discharge, and at 2 months' corrected age. Blinded observers rated parent-infant interactions in the NICU. All participants received 4 intervention sessions of audiotaped and written materials. Parents in the Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment program received information and behavioral activities about the appearance and behavioral characteristics of preterm infants and how best to parent them. The comparison intervention contained information regarding hospital services and policies. Parental stress, depression, anxiety, and beliefs; parent-infant interaction during the NICU stay; NICU length of stay; and total hospitalization were measured. Mothers in the Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment program reported significantly less stress in the NICU and less depression and anxiety at 2 months' corrected infant age than did comparison mothers. Blinded observers rated mothers and fathers in the Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment program as more positive in interactions with their infants. Mothers and fathers also reported stronger beliefs about their parental role and what behaviors and characteristics to expect of their infants during hospitalization. Infants in the Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment program had a 3.8-day shorter NICU length of stay (mean: 31.86 vs 35.63 days) and 3.9-day shorter total hospital length of stay (mean: 35.29 vs 39.19 days) than did comparison infants. A reproducible educational-behavioral intervention program for parents that commences early in the NICU can improve parent mental health outcomes, enhance parent-infant interaction, and reduce hospital length of stay.
    PEDIATRICS 12/2006; 118(5):e1414-27. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing numbers of children in the United States (ie, approximately 200 children per 100,000 population) require intensive care annually, because of advances in pediatric therapeutic techniques and a changing spectrum of pediatric disease. These children are especially vulnerable to a multitude of short- and long-term negative emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes, including a higher risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a greater need for psychiatric treatment, compared with matched hospitalized children who do not require intensive care. In addition, the parents of these children are at risk for the development of PTSD, as well as other negative emotional outcomes (eg, depression and anxiety disorders). There has been little research conducted to systematically determine the effects of interventions aimed at improving psychosocial outcomes for critically ill children and their parents, despite recognition of the adverse effects of critical care hospitalization on the nonphysiologic well-being of patients and their families. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a preventive educational-behavioral intervention program, the Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment (COPE) program, initiated early in the intensive care unit hospitalization on the mental health/psychosocial outcomes of critically ill young children and their mothers. A randomized, controlled trial with follow-up assessments 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after hospitalization was conducted with 174 mothers and their 2- to 7-year-old children who were unexpectedly hospitalized in the pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) of 2 children's hospitals. The final sample of 163 mothers ranged in age from 18 to 52 years, with a mean of 31.2 years. Among the mothers reporting race/ethnicity, the sample included 116 white (71.2%), 33 African American (20.3%), 3 Hispanic (1.8%), and 2 Indian (1.2%) mothers. The mean age of the hospitalized children was 50.3 months. Ninety-nine children (60.7%) were male and 64 (39.3%) were female. The major reasons for hospitalization were respiratory problems, accidental trauma, neurologic problems, and infections. Fifty-seven percent (n = 93) of the children had never been hospitalized overnight, and none had experienced a previous PICU hospitalization. Mothers in the experimental (COPE) group received a 3-phase educational-behavioral intervention program 1) 6 to 16 hours after PICU admission, 2) 2 to 16 hours after transfer to the general pediatric unit, and 3) 2 to 3 days after their children were discharged from the hospital. Control mothers received a structurally equivalent control program. The COPE intervention was based on self-regulation theory, control theory, and the emotional contagion hypothesis. The COPE program, which was delivered with audiotapes and matching written information, as well as a parent-child activity workbook that facilitated implementing the audiotaped information, focused on increasing 1) parents' knowledge and understanding of the range of behaviors and emotions that young children typically display during and after hospitalization and 2) direct parent participation in their children's emotional and physical care. The COPE workbook, which was provided to parents and children after transfer from the PICU to the general pediatric unit, contained 3 activities to be completed before discharge from the hospital, ie, 1) puppet play to encourage expression of emotions in a nonthreatening manner, 2) therapeutic medical play to assist children in obtaining some sense of mastery and control over the hospital experience, and 3) reading and discussing Jenny's Wish, a story about a young child who successfully copes with a stressful hospitalization. Primary outcomes included maternal anxiety, negative mood state, depression, maternal beliefs, parental stress, and parent participation in their children's care, as well as child adjustment, which was assessed with the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (parent form). RESn (parent form). COPE mothers reported significantly less parental stress and participated more in their children's physical and emotional care on the pediatric unit, compared with control mothers, as rated by nurses who were blinded with respect to study group. In comparison with control mothers, COPE mothers reported less negative mood state, less depression, and fewer PTSD symptoms at certain follow-up assessments after hospitalization. In addition, COPE mothers reported stronger beliefs regarding their children's likely responses to hospitalization and how they could enhance their children's adjustment, compared with control mothers. COPE children, in comparison with control children, exhibited significantly fewer withdrawal symptoms 6 months after discharge, as well as fewer negative behavioral symptoms and externalizing behaviors at 12 months. COPE mothers also reported less hyperactivity and greater adaptability among their children at 12 months, compared with control mothers. One year after discharge, a significantly higher percentage of control group children (25.9%) exhibited clinically significant behavioral symptoms, compared with COPE children (2.3%). In addition, 6 and 12 months after discharge, significantly higher percentages of control group children exhibited clinically significant externalizing symptoms (6 months, 14.3%; 12 months, 22.2%), compared with COPE children (6 months, 1.8%; 12 months, 4.5%). The findings of this study indicated that mothers who received the COPE program experienced improved maternal functional and emotional coping outcomes, which resulted in significantly fewer child adjustment problems, in comparison with the control group. With the increasing prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and externalizing problems among children and the documented lack of mental health screening and early intervention services for children in this country, the COPE intervention could help protect this high-risk population of children from developing these troublesome problems. As a result, the mental health status of children after critical care hospitalization could be improved. With routine provision of the COPE program in PICUs throughout the country, family burdens and costs associated with the mental health treatment of these problems might be substantially reduced.
    PEDIATRICS 07/2004; 113(6):e597-607. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a parent-focused intervention program (COPE) on infant cognitive development and maternal coping. A randomized clinical trial was conducted with 42 mothers of low-birth-weight (LBW) premature infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), with follow-up at 3 months' and 6 months' corrected ages. COPE mothers received the four-phase educational-behavioral program that began 2-4 days postbirth and continued through 1 week following discharge from the NICU. Comparison mothers received audiotaped information during the same four time frames. Results indicated that COPE infants had significantly higher mental development scores at a 3 months' corrected age (M = 100.3) than did the comparison infants (M = 93.9), and this difference widened at 6 months' corrected age, with COPE infants scoring 14 points higher. COPE mothers were significantly less stressed by the NICU sights and sounds and had significantly stronger beliefs about what behaviors and characteristics to expect from their premature infants. Findings from this study support the need for further testing of early NICU interventions with parents to determine their effectiveness on parental coping and infant developmental outcomes.
    Research in Nursing & Health 11/2001; 24(5):373-89. · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • Pediatric nursing 28(5):511-6.
  • Pediatric nursing 32(5):475-81.