J A Sherwood

Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Nairobi Province, Kenya

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Publications (17)87.3 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently, an association was described between the density of Plasmodium falciparum asexual parasitemia in Kenyan children and the entomologic inoculation rate (EIR) measured prior to measurement of asexual parasitemia. This study examined whether transmission pressure, as represented by the EIR, was associated with the prevalence or density of gametocytemia in Kenyan children. Each month for 19 months, a cohort of approximately 50 children was given a radical cure and enrolled in the study. Blood films were taken on days 0, 7, and 14. The EIR was calculated for the 28-day period ending 14 days prior to enrollment: the relationship between blood film data from day 7 and exposure variables was explored. We found that younger children were more likely to be gametocytemic than older children and, if gametocytemic, were more likely to have a dense gametocytemia. There was an inverse relationship between the number of infective bites per night received and prevalence but not density of gametocytemia, even after age adjustment. Concordance of gametocytemia prevalence on days 0 (64%), 7 (66%), and 14 (52%) was poor; 84% of the children were positive on at least one day. This indicates that in many subjects the detectable gametocytemia varied over the 14 days. Under these holoendemic transmission conditions, the EIR is inversely correlated with prevalence of gametocytemia, and point measurements of gametocytemia by conventional microscopy underestimate the number of infective donor hosts.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 03/1997; 56(2):133-6. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been hypothesized that antibody induced by Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein vaccine would be effective against endemic human malaria. In a malaria endemic region of Kenya, 76 volunteers, in 38 pairs sleeping adjacently, were immunized with subunit circumsporozoite protein Asn-Ala-Asn-Pro tetrapeptide repeat-pseudomonas toxin A, or hepatitis B vaccine. After quinine and doxcycycline, volunteers were followed for illness daily, parasitemia weekly, antibody, T-lymphocyte responses, and treated if indicated. Anopheles mosquitoes resting in houses were collected, and tested for P. falciparum antigen, or dissected for sporozoites and tested for blood meal ABO type and P. falciparum antigen. Vaccine was safe, with side-effects similar in both groups, and immunogenic, engendering IgG antibody as high as 600 μg ml−1, but did not increase the proportion of volunteers with T-lymphocyte responses. Estimation of P. falciparum challenge averaged 0.194 potentially infective Anopheles bites/volunteer/day. Mosquito blood meals showed no difference in biting intensity between vaccine and control groups. Both groups had similar malaria-free survival curves, cumulative positive blood slides, cumulative parasites mm−3, and numbers of parasites mm−3 on first positive blood slide, during three post-vaccination observation periods. Every volunteer had P. falciparum parastiemia at least once. Vaccinees had 82% and controls 89% incidences of symptomatic parasitemia (P=0.514, efficacy 9%, statistical power 95% probability of efficacy <50%). Vaccine-induced anti-sporozoite antibody was not protective in this study. Within designed statistical precisions the present study is in agreement with efficacy studies in Colombia, Venezuela and Tanzania.
    Vaccine 06/1996; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To facilitate design of vaccine trials, malaria was studied in 6-month- to 6-year-old Kenyans during high (HI) and low intensity transmission seasons. During 84 days after cure, exposure to infected mosquitoes was 9-fold greater in the HI group, yet incidence of P. falciparum infection was increased only 2-fold, with no age effect. The density of recurrent P. falciparum was 14-fold greater in the HI group, and there was a striking association between age and parasitemia > or = 5000/microL. Fever was the only clinical manifestation attributable to parasitemia and only when the parasite density was > or = 5000/microL. Sixty-four percent of children with > or = 20,000 parasites/microL versus 10% with 1-4999/microL were febrile when parasitemic. Recurrent P. falciparum infection as a vaccine trial end point can be studied year-round among children < or = 6 years [corrected] in western Kenya. However, high-grade parasitemia (> or = 5000 or 20,000/microL) with or without elevated temperature will be optimally studied in the high transmission season among children < 2 years.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 10/1995; 172(4):1047-54. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains a major health problem in Kenya and other parts of Africa, Central America and Asia. Currently, splenic aspirate smear and culture are the standard methods of monitoring therapy and relapse. Acute phase reactant markers, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A protein (SAA) and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were evaluated as less invasive techniques for monitoring therapy in 59 patients with VL before, during and after therapy. CRP, SAA and AGP were elevated in VL patients at admission and the concentrations decreased with effective therapy to reach normal levels by the end of therapy (SAA and AGP) or by 3 months follow-up (CRP). Two groups of patients were selected on the basis of rate of parasite clearance. The acute phase protein concentrations were significantly raised in those slower to clear parasites. Analysis of sensitivity and specificity of acute phase proteins as predictors of parasite clearance suggested that they might represent useful non-invasive markers for monitoring disease activity, response to therapy and relapse in VL.
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 01/1995; 89(6):678-81. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of an oral 8-aminoquinoline (8-[[6-(diethylamino)hexyl]amino]-6-methoxy-4-methylquinoline) (WR6026) in the treatment of 16 patients with kala azar was evaluated. The first 8 patients received therapy for 2 weeks at a dosage of 0.75-1.00 mg/(kg.d); 1 patient was cured, and in regard to the other 7, a 1-logarithm decrease in the number of splenic parasites and clinical improvement were noted. The next 8 patients received therapy for 4 weeks at the same daily dosage (1 mg/[kg.d]); 4 were cured, and for the other 4, 1- to 2-log decreases in the number of parasites and clinical improvement (in regard to weight, liver and spleen size, hemoglobin level, and leukocyte count) were noted. The therapy was associated with minimal toxicity; adverse effects included gastrointestinal distress, headache, and methemoglobinemia. The fact that one-half of the patients were cured indicates that future trials with longer regimens and higher dosages are warranted and should include patients for whom existing treatment methods have failed.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 01/1995; 19(6):1034-9. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The extent of structural conservation of the Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite surface protein gene, STARP, recently characterized in the T9/96 clone, has been analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction. Results from Ivory Coast and Thai clones, field isolates originating from Brazil and Kenya and laboratory-maintained strains strongly suggest that this gene has a highly conserved structure throughout this species. This structure includes a complex repetitive central domain consisting of a mosaic region followed by tandem 45-amino acid-encoding (Rp45) and 10-amino acid-encoding (Rp10) repeat regions. Limited size variation in this domain appeared to result from highly localized duplication events in the Rp45 and Rp10 regions. No size variation was observed in the 5' and 3' coding non-repetitive regions, but minor size polymorphism was found in the single intron at the 5' end of the gene. No evidence was found of distinct families of polymorphic types, as has been observed with the blood-stage MSA-1, MSA-2 and S-antigens. The sequence of the STARP homologue in the phylogenetically close chimpanzee parasite, Plasmodium reichenowi, has also been elucidated and reveals high sequence conservation, although interesting differences were detected in the composition of the Rp10 region, known in P. falciparum to contain B- and T-cell epitopes. Finally, DNA hybridization reveals the presence in rodent malaria species of sequences containing homology to the STARP non-repetitive (though not the repetitive) regions, which would suggest that a similar, conserved gene may exist in these species.
    Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 11/1994; 67(2):255-67. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The level of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia at clinical presentation has repeatedly been shown to correlate with severity of disease. Using data collected in western Kenya over 21 months, we examined associations between exposure variables, especially exposure to infective mosquitoes, and prevalence and density of P. falciparum parasitemia among 1,007 children six months to six years of age. The prevalence of P falciparum infection was similar at all exposure levels, but there was a correlation between exposure to sporozoite-infected mosquitoes over the previous 28-day period, and geometric mean parasite density of each cohort (Spearman rank coefficient = 0.724, P = 0.002). The relative odds of having a parasite density > or = 5,000/microliters was increased almost two-fold among individuals exposed to more than 10 infective bites during the prior 28-day period. Children enrolled during the highest incidence period were 80% more likely to have a density > or = 5,000/microliters relative to individuals enrolled during periods of lower incidence. The data suggest that measures, such as malaria vaccines, that reduce parasite densities by limiting numbers of sporozoites reaching the liver, or merozoites released from the liver, will reduce malaria-associated morbidity and mortality, even when they do not prevent all infections.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 11/1994; 51(5):523-32. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Relationships between Plasmodium falciparum incidence and entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs) were determined for a 21-month period in Saradidi, western Kenya, in preparation for malaria vaccine field trials. Children, ranging in age from six months to six years and treated to clear malaria parasites, were monitored daily for up to 12 weeks to detect new malaria infections. Overall, new P. falciparum infections were detected in 77% of 809 children. The percentage of children that developed infections per two-week period averaged 34.7%, ranging from 7.3% to 90.9%. Transmission by vector populations was detected in 86.4% (38 of 44) of the two-week periods, with daily EIRs averaging 0.75 infective bites per person. Periods of intense transmission during April to August, and from November to January, coincided with seasonal rains. Relationships between daily malaria attack rates and EIRs indicated that an average of only 7.5% (1 in 13) of the sporozoite inoculations produced new infections in children. Regression analysis demonstrated that EIRs accounted for 74% of the variation in attack rates. One of the components of the EIR, the human-biting rate, alone accounted for 68% of the variation in attack rates. Thus, measurements of either the EIR or the human-biting rate can be used to predict corresponding attack rates in children. These baseline epidemiologic studies indicate that the intense transmission patterns of P. falciparum in Saradidi will provide excellent conditions for evaluating malaria vaccine efficacy.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 06/1994; 50(5):529-36. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania donovani, is endemic in Baringo District, Kenya. The disease has a focal distribution in the dry, hot areas below 1500 metres. Infections may be characterized as follows: 1) asymptomatic, 2) subclinical and self-limiting (not medically identifiable), and 3) clinically manifest disease (that is medically identifiable). Half of the reported VL patients are between 5 and 14 years of age and 66% of them are males. The reasons for the focal distribution and for the age and sex preference are discussed. Phlebotomus martini is the vector of the parasite, and man is the only known reservoir. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), due to Leishmania major, is rare in humans, but underreporting is likely. The vector, Phlebotomus duboscqui, is mainly found in animal burrows where it feeds on rodents which are frequently infected. A human case of a mixed L. donovani and L. major infected. A human case of a mixed L. donovani and L. major infection has been reported in this dual focus of VL and CL.
    Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1994; 46(3):129-33.
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    ABSTRACT: The leishmanin skin test (LST) was applied in 26 clusters of an average of 97 individuals in Baringo District, Kenya. These clusters were centered around recent cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Of 2,411 individuals tested, 254 (10.5%, 155 males and 99 females) had a positive reaction. Among cured VL patients, the frequency was approximately 30% and no sex difference was observed. In the population as a whole, LST positivity increased with age to a stable level from approximately 15 years of age, reflecting an endemic situation. The level of LST positivity was 25-30% and 10-15% in males and females, respectively. Uninfected household contacts of VL cases had a higher frequency of LST reactivity than the rest of the population. This relationship was significant only in females and children, the prevalence ratio being 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.3-4.1), 1.9 (1.1-3.5), and 1.4 (0.8-2.5) for females, children, and males, respectively. The frequency of LST positivity was higher individuals living in wood houses than in individuals living in house with mud or stone walls. Again, this difference was significant only in females and children (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04), but not in males (P = 0.7). The results suggest that children and women are exposed to the parasite in or around their houses, whereas adult males are, in addition, exposed elsewhere.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 02/1994; 50(1):78-84. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-four Kenyan patients with visceral leishmaniasis were treated for 30 days with either conventional therapy (daily pentavalent antimony, n = 14) or experimental immunochemotherapy (daily antimony plus interferon-gamma [IFN-gamma] every other day, n = 10). All 24 patients responded clinically to treatment, and microscopic splenic aspirate scores rapidly decreased in both groups. As judged by splenic aspirate culture results, IFN-gamma-treated patients responded more quickly (50% versus 22% culture-negative after one week and 75% versus 58% culture-negative after two weeks). While not statistically significant, these differences raise the possibility that combination therapy using IFN-gamma, which was safe and well-tolerated, may accelerate the early parasitologic response in patients with visceral leishmaniasis.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 06/1993; 48(5):666-9. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have identified a new rural focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica in Muruku sublocation, Salama location, Laikipia district, Rift Valley province, Kenya. Based on a few available case histories, previous reports of L. tropica in Kenya indicated a tentative geographical distribution. Recently 6 indigenous Kenyans from the new focus, who had never travelled outside Kenya, developed cutaneous lesions on the face and/or extremities found to contain Leishmania by culture and smear. Most of the patients manifested the typical 'urban' dry sore which grew slowly into a nodule measuring 2 x 1 cm to 9.5 x 3 cm, and after some months formed a central crust surrounded by small satellite papules. After treatment with Pentostam (sodium stibogluconate), about 40% of the sores failed to heal completely, either scarring centrally with fulminating papules at the edges and spreading peripherally, or healing but then recrudescing at the edge of the scar. Stationary-phase promastigotes from culture isolates were analysed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Isoenzyme profiles of 6 isolates were compared with those of World Health Organization reference strains using 12 enzyme loci; they were indistinguishable from those of 2 L. tropica reference strains. All 6 case sites lay within a radius of 4 km. Several other suspected cases from the same area are being investigated.
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 01/1992; 86(4):381-7. · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 07/1991; 85(3):369-70. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant sporozoite vaccine or placebo were administered once to 25 volunteers from an area endemic for malaria. Antibody to R32tet32 rose in 9 of 15 receiving vaccine and remained elevated in 6 for 6 months. Mean absorbance increase was 0·43 ± 0·40 with vaccine, 0·01 ± 0·23 with placebo, and 0·72 ± 0·19 in responders. Six non-responders had significantly lower pre-immunization levels (0·07 ± 0·05) than responders (0·39 ± 0·25). There was an association between an increase in immunofluorescence (n = 4) and an increase in absorbence (n = 9) among vaccine recipients (n = 15). Vaccine-induced increase in antibody to natural circumsporozoite antigen was indicated by increases in immunofluorescence and by increases in circumsporozoite precipitation score in 2 of the 5 responders with highest antibody increase measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Response to subunit sporozoite vaccine paralleled response to prior natural sporozoite exposure and was significant and prolonged in a population with prior natural exposure to malaria.
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 01/1991; 85(3):336–340. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant sporozoite vaccine or placebo were administered once to 25 volunteers from an area endemic for malaria. Antibody to R32tet32 rose in 9 of 15 receiving vaccine and remained elevated in 6 for 6 months. Mean absorbance increase was 0.43 +/- 0.40 with vaccine, 0.01 +/- 0.23 with placebo, and 0.72 +/- 0.19 in responders. Six non-responders had significantly lower pre-immunization levels (0.07 +/- 0.05) than responders (0.39 +/- 0.25). There was an association between an increase in immunofluorescence (n = 4) and an increase in absorbance (n = 9) among vaccine recipients (n = 15). Vaccine-induced increase in antibody to natural circumsporozoite antigen was indicated by increases in immunofluorescence and by increases in circumsporozoite precipitation score in 2 of the 5 responders with highest antibody increase measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Response to subunit sporozoite vaccine paralleled response to prior natural sporozoite exposure and was significant and prolonged in a population with prior natural exposure to malaria.
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 01/1991; 85(3):336-40. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify vaccine relevant T cell epitopes on the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of Plasmodium falciparum, the lymphocyte proliferative responses to 10 CS protein derived peptides were studied in 28 adult Kenyans, and correlated with resistance to malaria. Eight peptides, six of which were not overlapping, induced proliferation of lymphocytes from one to five volunteers, suggesting either genetic restriction of response to each of the T epitopes, or dominance of some T sites on the immunizing sporozoites. The 28 volunteers were radically cured of malaria and during the next 126 days 25 of the 28 were reinfected. Resistance to malaria was not correlated with antibodies to malaria Ag, but was significantly correlated with lymphocyte responses to CS protein residues 361-380 and 371-390. Among the 25 volunteers who became re-infected with malaria, lymphocytes from only two responded to a peptide including residues 361-380 of the P. falciparum CS protein, and only one to peptide 371-390. In contrast, lymphocytes from all three volunteers who did not become infected responded to peptide 361-380 (p = 0.003), and lymphocytes from two of the three responded to peptide 371-390 (p = 0.023). The significant correlation between proliferation to peptides 361-380 and 371-390 and resistance to malaria suggests that at least one epitope within these overlapping peptides is involved in a protective cellular immune response. The data support inclusion of these residues in future CS protein vaccines.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/1989; 142(4):1299-303. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A recombinant DNA Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite vaccine produced in Escherichia coli (FSV-1) was tested in doses of 10 micrograms to 800 micrograms protein in fifteen volunteers. No serious adverse reactions occurred. Antibodies that reacted with P falciparum sporozoite antigens by enzyme-linked immunoassay developed in twelve of the volunteers. The highest antibody titres induced were similar to those resulting from lifelong natural exposure to sporozoite-infected mosquitoes. Postimmunization serum samples from a majority of volunteers mediated the circumsporozoite (CS) precipitation reaction and inhibited sporozoite invasion of hepatoma cells in vitro. Serum from the three volunteers who received 800 micrograms doses reacted with the surface of sporozoites in an immunofluorescence assay. Six immunised volunteers receiving a fourth dose of FSV-1 and two non-immunised controls were challenged by bites of mosquitoes infected from cultured P falciparum gametocytes. Parasitaemia did not develop in the volunteer with the highest titre of CS antibodies, and parasitaemia was delayed in two other immunised volunteers. This study confirms that human beings can be protected by CS protein subunit vaccines and provides a framework for the further development and testing of more immunogenic sporozoite vaccines.
    The Lancet 07/1987; 1(8545):1277-81. · 39.06 Impact Factor