Dale T Umetsu

Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (233)1919.94 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease with several phenotypes, including an allergic asthma phenotype characterized by TH2 cytokine production and associated with allergen sensitization and adaptive immunity. Asthma also includes nonallergic asthma phenotypes, such as asthma associated with exposure to air pollution, infection, or obesity, that require innate rather than adaptive immunity. These innate pathways that lead to asthma involve macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer T cells, and innate lymphoid cells, newly described cell types that produce a variety of cytokines, including IL-5 and IL-13. We review the recent data regarding innate lymphoid cells and their role in asthma.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 04/2014; 133(4):943-950. · 12.05 Impact Factor
  • Mei-Sing Ong, Dale T Umetsu, Kenneth D Mandl
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of asthma has increased alarmingly in the past 2 to 3 decades. Increased antibiotic use in infancy has been suggested to limit exposure to gastrointestinal microbes and to predispose to asthma in later life. To evaluate the association between antibiotic exposure during the first year of life and the development of asthma up to the age of 7 years. A retrospective population-based study of a cohort of children enrolled in a nationwide employer-provided health insurance plan from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2006, in the United States (n = 62,576). We evaluated the association between antibiotic exposure during the first year of life and subsequent development of 3 asthma phenotypes: transient wheezing (began and resolved before 3 years of age), late-onset asthma (began after 3 years of age), and persistent asthma (began before 3 years of age and persisted through 4-7 years of age). Antibiotic use in the first year of life was associated with the development of transient wheezing (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-2.2; P < .001) and persistent asthma (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.5-1.7; P < .001). A dose-response effect was observed. When 5 or more antibiotic courses were received, the odds of persistent asthma doubled (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.6; P < .001). There is no association between antibiotic use and late-onset asthma. Antibiotic use in the first year life is associated with an increased risk of early-onset childhood asthma that began before 3 years of age. The apparent effect has a clear dose response. Heightened caution about avoiding unnecessary use of antibiotics in infants is warranted.
    Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 03/2014; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an adipose-derived hormone with anti-inflammatory activity. Following subacute ozone exposure (0.3 ppm for 24-72 h), neutrophilic inflammation and IL-6 are augmented in adiponectin deficient (Adipo(-/-)) mice. The IL-17/G-CSF axis is required for this increased neutrophilia. We hypothesized that elevated IL-6 in Adipo(-/-) mice contributes to their augmented responses to ozone via effects on IL-17A expression. Therefore, we generated mice deficient in both adiponectin and IL-6 (Adipo(-/-)IL-6(-/-)) and exposed them to ozone or air. In ozone exposed mice, BAL neutrophils, IL-6, and G-CSF, and pulmonary Il17α mRNA expression were greater in Adipo(-/-) versus wildtype mice, but reduced in Adipo(-/-)IL-6(-/-) versus Adipo(-/-) mice. IL-17A+ F4/80+ cells and IL-17A(+) γδ T-cells were also reduced in Adipo(-/-)IL-6(-/-) versus Adipo(-/-) mice exposed to ozone. Only BAL neutrophils were reduced in IL-6(-/-) versus WT mice. In wildtype mice, IL-6 was expressed in Gr-1(+)F4/80(-)CD11c(-) cells, whereas in Adipo-/- mice, F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells also expressed IL-6, suggesting that IL-6 is regulated by adiponectin in these alveolar macrophages. Transcriptomic analysis identified serum amyloid A3 (Saa3), which promotes IL-17A expression, as the gene most differentially augmented by ozone in Adipo(-/-) versus wildtype mice. After ozone, Saa3 mRNA expression was markedly greater in Adipo(-/-) versus wildtype mice, but reduced in Adipo(-/-)/IL-6(-/-) versus Adipo(-/-) mice. In conclusion, our data support a pivotal role of IL-6 in the hyperinflammatory condition observed in Adipo(-/-) mice after ozone exposure, and suggest that this role of IL-6 involves its ability to induce Saa3, IL-17A and G-CSF.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 12/2013; · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with the development of asthma, which is often difficult to control. To understand the immunological pathways that lead to obesity-associated asthma, we fed mice a high-fat diet for 12 weeks, which resulted in obesity and the development of airway hyperreactivity (AHR), a cardinal feature of asthma. This AHR was independent of adaptive immunity, as it occurred in obese Rag1(-/-) mice, which lack B and T cells, and was dependent on interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and the NLRP3 inflammasome, as it did not develop in obese Il17a(-/-) or Nlrp3(-/-) mice. AHR was also associated with the expansion of CCR6(+) type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) producing IL-17A (ILC3 cells) in the lung, which could by themselves mediate AHR when adoptively transferred into Rag2(-/-); Il2rg(-/-) mice treated with recombinant IL-1β. Macrophage-derived IL-1β production was induced by HFD and expanded the number of lung ILC3 cells. Blockade of IL-1β with an IL-1 receptor antagonist abolished obesity-induced AHR and reduced the number of ILC3 cells. As we found ILC3-like cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of individuals with asthma, we suggest that obesity-associated asthma is facilitated by inflammation mediated by NLRP3, IL-1β and ILC3 cells.
    Nature medicine 12/2013; · 27.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peanut allergy is a major public health problem that affects 1% of the population and has no effective therapy. To examine the safety and efficacy of oral desensitization in peanut-allergic children in combination with a brief course of anti-IgE mAb (omalizumab [Xolair]). We performed oral peanut desensitization in peanut-allergic children at high risk for developing significant peanut-induced allergic reactions. Omalizumab was administered before and during oral peanut desensitization. We enrolled 13 children (median age, 10 years), with a median peanut-specific IgE level of 229 kUA/L and a median total serum IgE level of 621 kU/L, who failed an initial double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge at peanut flour doses of 100 mg or less. After pretreatment with omalizumab, all 13 subjects tolerated the initial 11 desensitization doses given on the first day, including the maximum dose of 500 mg peanut flour (cumulative dose, 992 mg, equivalent to >2 peanuts), requiring minimal or no rescue therapy. Twelve subjects then reached the maximum maintenance dose of 4000 mg peanut flour per day in a median time of 8 weeks, at which point omalizumab was discontinued. All 12 subjects continued on 4000 mg peanut flour per day and subsequently tolerated a challenge with 8000 mg peanut flour (equivalent to about 20 peanuts), or 160 to 400 times the dose tolerated before desensitization. During the study, 6 of the 13 subjects experienced mild or no allergic reactions, 5 subjects had grade 2 reactions, and 2 subjects had grade 3 reactions, all of which responded rapidly to treatment. Among children with high-risk peanut allergy, treatment with omalizumab may facilitate rapid oral desensitization and qualitatively improve the desensitization process.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 10/2013; · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between mold and asthma has been recognized for decades, but the molecular triggers of asthma generated by molds have not been fully elucidated. A glycolipid generated by Aspergillus species has recently been identified that triggers airway hyperreactivity via natural killer T cell activation. The synthesis of this glycolipid and structural variants designed to allow identification of the features of this glycolipid required for recognition by natural killer T cells is described.
    Organic Letters 10/2013; · 6.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic fungus that is ubiquitous in the environment and is commonly associated with allergic sensitization and severe asthma in humans. Although A. fumigatus is recognized by multiple microbial pattern-recognition receptors, we found that an A. fumigatus-derived glycosphingolipid, asperamide B, directly activates invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in vitro in a CD1d-restricted, MyD88-independent and dectin-1-independent fashion. Moreover, asperamide B, when loaded onto CD1d, directly stained, and was sufficient to activate, human and mouse iNKT cells. In vivo, asperamide B rapidly induced airway hyperreactivity, which is a cardinal feature of asthma, by activating pulmonary iNKT cells in an interleukin-33 (IL-33)-ST2-dependent fashion. Asperamide B is thus the first fungal glycolipid found to directly activate iNKT cells. These results extend the range of microorganisms that can be directly detected by iNKT cells to the kingdom of fungi and may explain how A. fumigatus can induce severe chronic respiratory diseases in humans.
    Nature medicine 09/2013; · 27.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Severe refractory atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, debilitating condition that is associated with elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and OX40 ligand (OX40L) are important immunologic factors involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Omalizumab, an anti-IgE antibody indicated for use in allergic asthma, is implicated in regulating allergen presentation by dendritic cells and the T cell response during the effector phases of allergic disease. We investigated if anti-IgE therapy modulates the allergen-specific responses mediated by the TSLP pathway in young patients with severe refractory AD. Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 8 patients between the ages of 4 and 22 years (mean = 11.6 years) with severe refractory AD (clinical trials.gov NCT01678092). Serum IgE ranged from 218 to 1,890 (mean = 1,068 IU/ml). Subjects received omalizumab (n = 4) or placebo (n = 4) every 2-4 weeks over 24 weeks using a regimen extrapolated from the package insert. TSLP, TARC, OX40L and other cytokines involved in AD were measured by using cytometric bead arrays. Results: All patients receiving omalizumab had strikingly decreased levels of TSLP, OX40L, TARC (involved in Th2 polarization) and interleukin (IL)-9 compared to placebo. In addition, there was a marked increase in IL-10, a tolerogenic cytokine, in the omalizumab-treated group. Patients on anti-IgE therapy had an improvement in clinical outcomes as measured by the SCORAD system; however, these effects were comparable to improvements in the control group. Conclusions: Anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab decreases levels of cytokines that are involved in Th2 polarization and allergic inflammation, including TSLP, TARC and OX40L.
    International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 06/2013; 162(1):89-93. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease with several phenotypes, including an allergic asthma phenotype, characterized by Th2 cytokine production and associated with allergen sensitization and adaptive immunity. Asthma also includes nonallergic asthma phenotypes that require innate rather than adaptive immunity. These innate pathways to asthma involve macrophages, neutrophils, as well as ILCs, newly described cell types that produce a variety of cytokines, including IL-5 and IL-13. We review the recent data regarding ILCs and their role in asthma.
    Journal of leukocyte biology 06/2013; · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Studies of asthma have been limited by a poor understanding of how nonallergic environmental exposures, such as air pollution and infection, are translated in the lung into inflammation and wheezing. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to understand the mechanism of nonallergic asthma that leads to airway hyperreactivity (AHR), a cardinal feature of asthma independent of adaptive immunity. METHOD: We examined mouse models of experimental asthma in which AHR was induced by respiratory syncytial virus infection or ozone exposure using mice deficient in T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM1/HAVCR1), an important asthma susceptibility gene. RESULTS: TIM1(-/-) mice did not have airways disease when infected with RSV or when repeatedly exposed to ozone, a major component of air pollution. On the other hand, the TIM1(-/-) mice had allergen-induced experimental asthma, as previously shown. The RSV- and ozone-induced pathways were blocked by treatment with caspase inhibitors, indicating an absolute requirement for programmed cell death and apoptosis. TIM-1-expressing, but not TIM-1-deficient, natural killer T cells responded to apoptotic airway epithelial cells by secreting cytokines, which mediated the development of AHR. CONCLUSION: We defined a novel pathway in which TIM-1, a receptor for phosphatidylserine expressed by apoptotic cells, drives the development of asthma by sensing and responding to injured and apoptotic airway epithelial cells.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 05/2013; · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human T-cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin-domain containing proteins (TIM1, 3, and 4) specifically bind phosphatidylserine (PS). TIM1 has been proposed to serve as a cellular receptor for hepatitis A virus and Ebola virus and as an entry factor for dengue virus. Here we show that TIM1 promotes infection of retroviruses and virus-like particles (VLPs) pseudotyped with a range of viral entry proteins, in particular those from the filovirus, flavivirus, New World arenavirus and alphavirus families. TIM1 also robustly enhanced the infection of replication-competent viruses from the same families, including dengue, Tacaribe, Sindbis and Ross River viruses. All interactions between TIM1 and pseudoviruses or VLPs were PS-mediated, as demonstrated with liposome blocking and TIM1 mutagenesis experiments. In addition, other PS-binding proteins, such as Axl and TIM4, promoted infection similarly to TIM1. Finally, the blocking of PS receptors on macrophages inhibited the entry of Ebola VLPs, suggesting that PS receptors can contribute to infection in physiologically relevant cells. Notably, infection mediated by the entry proteins of Lassa fever virus, influenza A virus and SARS coronavirus was largely unaffected by TIM1 expression. Taken together our data show that TIM1 and related PS-binding proteins promote infection of diverse families of enveloped viruses, and may therefore be useful targets for broad-spectrum antiviral therapies.
    PLoS Pathogens 03/2013; 9(3):e1003232. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    Evelyne Khoriaty, Dale T Umetsu
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    ABSTRACT: Food allergy has increased dramatically in prevalence over the past decade in westernized countries, and is now a major public health problem. Unfortunately for patients with food allergy, there is no effective therapy beyond food allergen avoidance, and rapid medical treatment for accidental exposures. Recently, oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been investigated as a treatment for this problem. In this review, we will discuss the progress in developing OIT for food allergy, including a novel approach utilizing Xolair (anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, omalizumab) in combination with OIT. This combination may enhance both the safety and efficacy of oral immunotherapy, and could lead to a widely available and safe therapy for food allergy.
    Allergy, asthma & immunology research 01/2013; 5(1):3-15. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease is a primary immunodeficiency syndrome associated with the inability to control Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), lymphoma, and hypogammaglobulinemia. XLP is caused by mutations in the SH2D1A gene, which encodes the SLAM-associated protein (SAP), or in the BIRC4 gene, which encodes the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). Here we report a patient with recurrent respiratory tract infections and early onset agammaglobulinemia who carried a unique disease-causing intronic loss-of-function mutation in SH2D1A. The intronic mutation affected SH2D1A gene transcription but not mRNA splicing, and led to markedly reduced level of SAP protein. Despite undetectable serum immunoglobulins, the patient's B cells replicated and differentiated into antibody producing cells normally in vitro.
    Clinical Immunology 12/2012; 146(2):84-89. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Respiratory exposure to antigen induces T cell tolerance via several overlapping mechanisms that limit the immune response. While the mechanisms involved in the development of Treg cells have received much attention, those that result in T cell deletion are largely unknown. Herein, we show that F4/80(+) lymph node medullary macrophages expressing TIM-4, a phosphatidylserine receptor, remove antigen-specific T cells during respiratory tolerance, thereby reducing secondary T cell responses. Blockade of TIM-4 inhibited the phagocytosis of antigen-specific T cells by TIM-4 expressing lymph node medullary macrophages, resulting in an increase in the number of antigen-specific T cells and the abrogation of respiratory tolerance. Moreover, specific depletion of medullary macrophages inhibited the induction of respiratory tolerance, highlighting the key role of TIM-4 and medullary macrophages in tolerance. Therefore, TIM-4-mediated clearance of antigen specific T cells represents an important previously unrecognized mechanism regulating respiratory tolerance.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 14 November 2012; doi:10.1038/mi.2012.100.
    Mucosal Immunology 11/2012; · 7.00 Impact Factor
  • Rima Rachid, Dale T Umetsu
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    ABSTRACT: Food allergy is a major public health concern in westernized countries, estimated to affect 5 % of children and 3-4 % of adults. Allergen-specific immunotherapy for food allergy is currently being actively evaluated, but is still experimental. The optimal protocol, in terms of the route of administration of the food, target maintenance dose, and duration of maintenance therapy, and the optimal patient for these procedures are still being worked out. The mechanisms underlying successful food desensitization are also unclear, in part, because there is no standard immunotherapy protocol. The mechanisms involved, however, may include mast cell and basophil suppression, development of food-specific IgG4 antibodies, reduction in the food-specific IgE/IgG4 ratio, up-regulation and expansion of natural or inducible regulatory T cells, a skewing from a Th2 to a Th1 profile, and the development of anergy and/or deletion in antigen-specific cells. Additional studies are required to elucidate and understand these mechanisms by which desensitization and tolerance are achieved, which may reveal valuable biomarkers for evaluating and following food allergic patients on immunotherapy.
    Seminars in Immunopathology 07/2012; 34(5):689-702. · 5.38 Impact Factor
  • Dale T Umetsu
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    ABSTRACT: A recent paper suggests that reduced exposure to germs results in the expansion of a cell type called natural killer T cells, which predisposes to colitis and asthma. Such a scenario could explain the Hygiene Hypothesis, which has been a puzzle for decades.
    Cell Research 04/2012; 22(8):1210-1. · 10.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary responses to ozone, a common air pollutant, are augmented in obese individuals. Adiponectin, an adipose-derived hormone that declines in obesity, has regulatory effects on the immune system. To determine the role of adiponectin in the pulmonary inflammation induced by extended (48-72 h) low-dose (0.3 parts per million) exposure to ozone, adiponectin-deficient (Adipo(-/-)) and wild-type mice were exposed to ozone or to room air. In wild-type mice, ozone exposure increased total bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) adiponectin. Ozone-induced lung inflammation, including increases in BAL neutrophils, protein (an index of lung injury), IL-6, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, LPS-induced CXC chemokine, and G-CSF were augmented in Adipo(-/-) versus wild-type mice. Ozone also increased IL-17A mRNA expression to a greater extent in Adipo(-/-) versus wild-type mice. Moreover, compared with control Ab, anti-IL-17A Ab attenuated ozone-induced increases in BAL neutrophils and G-CSF in Adipo(-/-) but not in wild-type mice, suggesting that IL-17A, by promoting G-CSF release, contributed to augmented neutrophilia in Adipo(-/-) mice. Flow cytometric analysis of lung cells revealed that the number of CD45(+)/F4/80(+)/IL-17A(+) macrophages and γδ T cells expressing IL-17A increased after ozone exposure in wild-type mice and further increased in Adipo(-/-) mice. The IL-17(+) macrophages were CD11c(-) (interstitial macrophages), whereas CD11c(+) macrophages (alveolar macrophages) did not express IL-17A. Taken together, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that adiponectin protects against neutrophil recruitment induced by extended low-dose ozone exposure by inhibiting the induction and/or recruitment of IL-17A in interstitial macrophages and/or γδ T cells.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/2012; 188(9):4558-67. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD4+ T-regulatory (Treg) cells suppress immune responses and control self-tolerance and immunity to pathogens, cancer, and alloantigens. Most pathogens activate Treg cells to minimize immune-mediated tissue damage and prevent clearance, which promotes chronic infections. However, hepatitis A virus (HAV) temporarily inhibits Treg-cell functions. We investigated whether the interaction of HAV with its cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), a T-cell co-stimulatory molecule, inhibits the function of Treg cells to control HAV infection. We studied the effects of HAV interaction with HAVCR1 on human T cells using binding, signal transduction, apoptosis, activation, suppression, cytokine production, and confocal microscopy analyses. Cytokines were analyzed in sera from 14 patients with HAV infection using bead arrays. Human Treg cells constitutively express HAVCR1. Binding of HAV to HAVCR1 blocked phosphorylation of Akt, prevented activation of the T-cell receptor, and inhibited function of Treg cells. At the peak viremia, patients with acute HAV infection had no Treg-cell suppression function, produced low levels of transforming growth factor-β , which limited leukocyte recruitment and survival, and produced high levels of interleukin-22, which prevented liver damage. Interaction between HAV and its receptor HAVCR1 inhibits Treg-cell function, resulting in an immune imbalance that allows viral expansion with limited hepatocellular damage during early stages of infection-a characteristic of HAV pathogenesis. The mechanism by which HAV is cleared in the absence of Treg-cell function could be used as a model to develop anticancer therapies, modulate autoimmune and allergic responses, and prevent transplant rejection.
    Gastroenterology 02/2012; 142(7):1516-25.e3. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms at mucosal interfaces, which are sites of constitutive exposure to microbes and non-microbial foreign substances, allows for efficient protection against pathogens yet prevents adverse inflammatory responses associated with allergy, asthma and intestinal inflammation. Regulatory T (T(reg)) cells prevent systemic and tissue-specific autoimmunity and inflammatory lesions at mucosal interfaces. These cells are generated in the thymus (tT(reg) cells) and in the periphery (induced (i)T(reg) cells), and their dual origin implies a division of labour between tT(reg) and iT(reg) cells in immune homeostasis. Here we show that a highly selective blockage in differentiation of iT(reg) cells in mice did not lead to unprovoked multi-organ autoimmunity, exacerbation of induced tissue-specific autoimmune pathology, or increased pro-inflammatory responses of T helper 1 (T(H)1) and T(H)17 cells. However, mice deficient in iT(reg) cells spontaneously developed pronounced T(H)2-type pathologies at mucosal sites--in the gastrointestinal tract and lungs--with hallmarks of allergic inflammation and asthma. Furthermore, iT(reg)-cell deficiency altered gut microbial communities. These results suggest that whereas T(reg) cells generated in the thymus appear sufficient for control of systemic and tissue-specific autoimmunity, extrathymic differentiation of T(reg) cells affects commensal microbiota composition and serves a distinct, essential function in restraint of allergic-type inflammation at mucosal interfaces.
    Nature 02/2012; 482(7385):395-9. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Food allergy is a major public health problem, for which there is no effective treatment. We examined the immunological changes that occurred in a group of children with significant cow's milk allergy undergoing a novel and rapid high-dose oral desensitization protocol enabled by treatment with omalizumab (anti-immunoglobulin (Ig)E monoclonal antibodies). Within a week of treatment, the CD4(+) T-cell response to milk was nearly eliminated, suggesting anergy in, or deletion of, milk-specific CD4(+) T cells. Over the following 3 months while the subjects remained on high doses of daily oral milk, the CD4(+) T-cell response returned, characterized by a shift from interleukin-4 to interferon-γ production. Desensitization was also associated with reduction in milk-specific IgE and a 15-fold increase in milk-specific IgG4. These studies suggest that high-dose oral allergen desensitization may be associated with deletion of allergen-specific T cells, without the apparent development of allergen-specific Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells.
    Mucosal Immunology 02/2012; 5(3):267-76. · 7.00 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,919.94 Total Impact Points


  • 1985–2014
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Division of Allergy and Immunology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1989–2012
    • Stanford University
      • • Division of Immunology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 1983–2012
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Division of Immunology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2005–2011
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Division of Hospital Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 2010
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Institute of Medical Science
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1983–2010
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • Department of Medical Oncology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2006
    • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
      • Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pneumonology and Immunology
      Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany
  • 1990–2004
    • Stanford Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 1998
    • NEI Corporation
      Somerset, New Jersey, United States
  • 1995
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Immunology
      Maryland, United States
  • 1979–1983
    • State University of New York Downstate Medical Center
      • Department of Pathology
      Brooklyn, NY, United States