[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From April 2000 to April 2001, 24 patients in intensive care units at Tisch Hospital, New York, N.Y., were infected or colonized by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified a predominant outbreak strain, but other resistant strains were also recovered. Three representatives of the outbreak strain from separate patients were studied in detail. All were resistant or had reduced susceptibility to imipenem, meropenem, ceftazidime, piperacillin-tazobactam, and gentamicin but remained fully susceptible to tetracycline. PCR amplified a blaKPC allele encoding a novel variant, KPC-3, with a His(272)-->Tyr substitution not found in KPC-2; other carbapenemase genes were absent. In the outbreak strain, KPC-3 was encoded by a 75-kb plasmid, which was transferred in vitro by electroporation and conjugation. The isolates lacked the OmpK35 porin but expressed OmpK36, implying reduced permeability as a cofactor in resistance. This is the third KPC carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase variant to have been reported in members of the Enterobacteriaceae, with others reported from the East Coast of the United States. Although producers of these enzymes remain rare, the progress of this enzyme group merits monitoring.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2004; 48(12):4793-9. · 4.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutants with oxazolidinone MICs, 2- to 16-fold higher than those of parents, were selected from two of five clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis during exposure to AZD2563, but only at frequencies of ca. 10(-8). Resistance was not selected in Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus or coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Mutants of one E. faecalis isolate had a G2576-->U 23S rRNA mutation; mutants derived from the second E. faecalis isolate lacked this mutation.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 01/2004; 23(1):88-91. · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eighty-two carbapenem-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from a single hospital in Bilbao were typed into two major clusters and several subclusters. Disk synergy tests and PCR indicated the production of a zinc-independent OXA-class carbapenemase. Sequencing identified this enzyme, OXA-40, as a variant of the OXA-24-OXA-25-OXA-26 cluster.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 01/2003; 40(12):4741-3. · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A real-time PCR assay identified linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates with a G2576U rRNA mutation. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of ribosomal DNA amplicons with NheI also detected this mutation. Both assays detected isolates heterozygous at this position. Recognition of isolates with what is presently the most frequent oxazolidinone resistance mutation may aid surveillance and individual case management.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 12/2002; 40(11):4298-300. · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Of two patients in the same intensive care unit who were treated with linezolid, one yielded linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, whereas the other yielded linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium. In each case, molecular typing indicated that the resistant isolates were related to linezolid-susceptible isolates from the same patient, but differed from them by the same G2576U ribosomal RNA mutation. This is the first clinical case report of emerging resistance to linezolid among Enterococcus faecalis and also the first report of resistance involving vancomycin-susceptible rather than vancomycin-resistant enterococci. The linezolid-resistant isolates showed cross-resistance to the experimental oxazolidinone AZD2563, suggesting that oxazolidinone resistance might be a class effect.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 11/2002; 21(10):751-4. · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The novel ketolide telithromycin (formerly HMR-3647) was tested against a collection of pneumococci of varying sensitivity to erythromycin and clindamycin, isolated in geographically diverse UK hospitals. Telithromycin was highly active against erythromycin-susceptible pneumococci, the MIC(90) being 0.015 mg/l. Erythromycin-resistant pneumococci that contained the ermB gene, either alone or together with the mefE gene, were cross-resistant to other macrolides and to clindamycin, while erythromycin-resistant pneumococci that contained only the mefE gene were cross-resistant to azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin but remained susceptible to josamycin and clindamycin. Telithromycin was active against erythromycin-resistant pneumococci irrespective of their mechanism of macrolide resistance, although the MIC(90) (0.25 mg/l) was higher than that seen with erythromycin-sensitive isolates. Telithromycin thus appears to be a potentially useful drug in settings where pneumococcal resistance to macrolides is prevalent.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 08/2001; 18(1):73-6. · 4.26 Impact Factor