[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) of pancreatic duct stones followed by ERCP with mechanical clearance of the pancreatic duct and subsequent stenting is an established treatment option for chronic calcific pancreatitis.
To test the efficacy of a modified transportable mini-lithotripter for ESWL of pancreatic duct stones.
Prospective single-center study.
This study involved 32 patients with obstructive chronic calcific pancreatitis and pain in whom previous endoscopic stone removal and pancreatic duct decompression had failed.
ESWL followed by ERCP for stone clearance of the pancreatic duct and mechanical removal of stones or stenting.
Endoscopic duct clearance and/or stent insertion, pain and quality-of-life scores.
A median of 4 ESWL sessions (interquartile range 2.75-8.5) with a median of 6800 shock waves (4225-15,425) were required. Pain relief after ESWL only was noted in 24 patients (75.0%), whereas no change in the intensity of pain was reported by 7 patients (21.9%), and pain was worse in 1 patient. All patients underwent ERCP and stent placement, resulting in complete resolution of pain in 17 patients (53.1%) and pain improvement in 28 patients (87.5%). The quality-of-life score was significantly improved after ESWL and endoscopic clearance or stenting in all patients.
ESWL with the mini-lithotripter results in fragmentation of pancreatic duct calculi. ESWL in conjunction with endoscopic clearance of the pancreatic duct and stenting is associated with significant improvement in clinical outcome and quality of life in patients with obstructive calcific chronic pancreatitis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: STW 5, a herbal extract, is effective for the treatment of symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). However, its mode of action is still unclear and a modulation of gastric motility is hypothesized. This multicentre, placebo-controlled double-blind study addressed the question of whether STW 5 accelerates gastric emptying in patients with FD and gastroparesis. One-hundred and three patients diagnosed with FD were randomly assigned to a treatment with either STW 5 or a liquid placebo for 28 days. The primary end point of the study was a change of a validated gastrointestinal symptom (GIS) score under treatment. Additionally, patients underwent a (13)C octanoic acid breath test for the assessment of the gastric half-emptying time (t(1/2)). Patients with prolonged t(1/2) were diagnosed with gastroparesis and requested to repeat the test at the end of treatment. A change of t(1/2) was defined a secondary study end point. t(1/2) was prolonged in 48.6% of patients in the STW 5 group and in 43.8% of the placebo group. During treatment, t(1/2) increased non-significantly in patients treated with STW 5 (+23 +/- 109 min; P = 0.51) and slightly accelerated among patients in the placebo arm (-26 +/- 51 min; P = 0.77) (P = 0.49). The improvement of the GIS (P = 0.08) and the proportion of patients with a treatment response (P = 0.03) were more pronounced in the STW 5 group. Our findings suggest that the clinical effects of STW 5 in patients with FD and gastroparesis are not directly mediated by an acceleration of gastric emptying. A clear-cut correlation with symptom improvement is still lacking.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility 03/2009; 21(6):632-8, e25. · 2.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have recently been deemed highly susceptible for bacterial intestinal overgrowth (BIO). We aimed to define the prevalence of BIO in children with CF by applying the H(2)-glucose breath test. Forty children with CF and ten healthy children received 1 g/kg D-glucose orally. Breath samples for H(2) content (ppm) were collected for 3 h. BIO was suspected if the breath hydrogen content increased by more than 20 ppm or if baseline concentrations topped 20 ppm. In 27 of 40 CF children (68%), breath hydrogen content exceeded 20 ppm. Whereas the breath hydrogen exhalation persisted above 20 ppm in almost all these children throughout the sampling period, none of the remaining children increased above this threshold. The high rate of CF children with elevated fasting hydrogen breath concentrations indicates that this phenomenon is less a sign of BIO rather than a consequence of global malabsorption and intestinal dysmotility.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 12/2008; 54(8):1730-5. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a described risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in liver transplant recipients with L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate (L-5-MTHF; 1 mg) vs folic acid (1 mg) vs placebo in a double-blind placebo-controlled study and to compare the relative responsiveness of these patients to L-5-MTHF and folic acid.
Patients were recruited from Hepatology-Transplantation-Unit at Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt. Sixty patients were included in this study and 12 patients dropped out for different reasons. The patients were treated over 8 weeks with supplemental L-5-MTHF or folic acid or placebo. Serum homocysteine (HCY) was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) beside routine lab tests.
We observed only a significant decrease of total serum HCY in the L-5-MTHF group during the study period (at week 0: 15+/-7.7 microM; after 8 weeks treatment: 9.41+/-2.6 microM, P<0.001). There was no significant decrease of total serum HCY neither in the folic acid group nor in the placebo group.
The effects of L-5-MTHF are significantly more potent than folic acid itself. Therefore, lowering serum HCY in liver transplant recipients is effective with L-5-MTHF.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 07/2008; 62(6):796-801. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the C677T-MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase)-polymorphism (CC, CT and TT) for vascular complications in liver transplant recipients.
Hepatology-Transplantation-Unit, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main.
48 liver transplant recipients were included, no dropouts.
MTHFR polymorphism was detected by PCR amplification and digestion with Hinfl restriction enzyme. Vascular complications after liver transplantation were detected from the patients' records. The total serum homocysteine (HCY) was analyzed with high-pressure liquid chromatography.
In the wild-type group (CC), the HCY levels were slightly high (14.0+/-1 micro M). Among the patients with the CT polymorphism, the HCY values were elevated (22.5+/-3 micro M). In the homozygous TT group, there was a significant increase (31.2+/-6 micro M, P<0.01) of the HCY values. The percentage of vascular complications was higher in the heterozygous CT (47%) and homozygous TT (62.5%) group compared with wild-type CC (21%). Patients with a homozygous TT genotype of the MTHFR polymorphism with a vascular complication had a highly significant elevated HCY level compared to the other genotype groups, both with and without any vascular complications (P<0.001). Recipients with an elevated HCY and the TT polymorphism have a higher probability of developing a vascular complication after transplantation (odds ratio: 4.3 and 11.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 12.25 and 1.41, 85.24).
The C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene and subsequent elevation of the total serum HCY is significantly associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications in liver transplant recipients.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 03/2008; 62(3):430-5. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The (13)C-methacetin-breath test and also several noninvasive blood tests comprising routine laboratory parameters have been proposed to predict fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C. The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy between these tests referring to hepatic histology as gold standard.
96 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection underwent percutaneous liver biopsy and the (13)C-methacetin-breath test. The Fibroindex, the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index , and the aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio were used as parameters for the staging of fibrosis. The main endpoint was the area under the characteristic curves for the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis (F3-F4) and cirrhosis (F4) according to the Batts Ludwig criteria.
ROC analysis revealed a cut-off <14.6 per thousand best with 92.6% sensitivity and 84.1% specificity for the (13)C-methacetin-breath test, for the Fibroindex >1.82 70.4% sensitivity and 91.3% specificity, for the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio >1.0 a 66.7% sensitivity and 75.4% specificity, and for the aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio >1.0 63.0% sensitivity and 59.4% specificity in predicting liver cirrhosis. The areas under the curve for the breath test, the Fibroindex, aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio and the aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio were 0.958, 0.845, 0.799, and 0.688, respectively, when predicting cirrhosis. For identifying patients with advanced fibrosis, the areas under the curve were 0.827, 0.804, 0.779, and 0.561, respectively. Discordances between Fibroindex (21%), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio (29%) or aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio (37.6%) and liver biopsy were significantly more frequent than between (13)C-breath test (11.6%) and liver biopsy (P<0.05).
The (13)C-methacetin-breath test is more reliable in predicting advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis than simple biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio; aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio).
Digestive and Liver Disease 03/2008; 40(9):743-8. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Submucosal injection of fluid is used to elevate lesions in order to prevent perforation, which is the most calamitous complication during endoscopic resection therapies. There are several injection options when performing mucosal elevation (normal saline (NS), sodium hyaluronate (SH), etc.). Submucosal injection of fresh, autologous blood offers some advantages because of its specific properties: corpuscular components ensure prolonged elevation and procoagulatory constituents prevent post-interventional bleeding. The purpose of this study was to compare the ex vivo performance of autologous blood as a submucosal fluid cushion (SFC) with that of NS, SH and DW (dextrose water).
The proximal third of a resected porcine stomach was cut into squares. One millilitre NS, DW, SH and fresh porcine blood was injected into the submucosa. The height and duration of the submucosal injections were objectively measured during 1 h. Mucosal elevations were resected using an electro snare.
The initial height and width of the mucosal elevations were comparable for SH and blood, and significantly higher compared with NS and DW. Mucosal elevation after injecting autologous blood persisted significantly longer compared with NS (p <0.05), but did not differ from hyaluronate. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen confirmed the appropriate submucosal injection of these substances.
Submucosal injection of autologous blood with a standard endoscopic injection needle is possible and generates adequate mucosal elevation for the resection of high-quality specimens. This procedure could offer a "gratis" option for SFC as opposed to the expensive SH. Further clinical studies are needed to substantiate its use.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2007; 42(11):1369-75. · 2.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 13C-breath tests provide a non-invasive diagnostic method with high patient acceptance. In vivo, human and also bacterial enzyme activities, organ functions and transport processes can be assessed semiquantitatively using breath tests. As the samples can directly be analysed using non-dispersive isotope selective infrared spectrometers or sent to analytical centres by normal mail breath tests can be easily performed also in primary care settings. The 13C-urea breath test which detects a Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach is the most prominent application of stable isotopes. Determination of gastric emptying using test meals labelled with 13C-octanoic or 13C-acetic acid provide reliable results compared to scintigraphy. The clinical use of 13C-breath tests for the diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is still limited due to expensive substrates and long test periods with many samples. However, the quantification of liver function using hepatically metabolised 13C-substrates is clinically helpful in special indications. The stable isotope technique presents an elegant, non-invasive diagnostic tool promising further options of clinical applications. This review is aimed at providing an overview on the relevant clinical applications of 13C-breath tests.
Digestive and Liver Disease 10/2007; 39(9):795-805. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antacids are widely used in the self-treatment of gastroesophageal reflux-induced complaints, but respective studies are lacking.
To compare the efficacy and safety of hydrotalcite with the H2 receptor antagonist famotidine and placebo in the on-demand treatment of acute heartburn under daily practice conditions.
Five hundred sixty-two individuals in 4 centers were randomized in a double-blind, double-dummy, 3-fold cross-over study to single-dose treatments of 1000 mg hydrotalcite, 10 mg famotidine, or placebo. Heartburn severity and relief was measured with numerical and visual rating scales.
A significantly better heartburn relief score was achieved 60 minutes after administration of hydrotalcite compared with placebo (primary end point, P<0.0001). Better efficacy was also observed 30 minutes and 3 hours after the intake of hydrotalcite in comparison with famotidine or placebo. A significant decrease in heartburn severity compared with placebo occurred within 10 minutes for hydrotalcite and was faster compared with both controls.
For subjects self-administering antacids for episodic heartburn, antacid hydrotalcite provides symptom relief significantly faster and, within the first 3 hours postdosing, more effective than famotidine or placebo. These results suggest that on-demand treatment of hydrotalcite is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for heartburn.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 08/2007; 41(6):564-70. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the frequency of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms and consecutive healthcare-seeking behavior, their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and their possible biopsychosocial determinants in adult patients with celiac disease (CD).
A total of 1000 adult patients with CD from the German Celiac Society completed a medical (including bowel) and a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale through a postal survey.
Of 412 respondents with reported biopsy-proven diagnosis with major adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) for > or =1 year, 96 (23.3%) patients fulfilled the modified Rome I criteria for IBS. Of these 96 patients, 76 (79.2%) sought help (medical and/or nonmedical) due to bowel symptoms (referred to as patients with IBS). IBS-type symptoms had a significant negative impact on the physical summary score of the SF-36 (p = .05). Mental disorder (OR = 2.29; beta = 0.83; p = .006); female sex (OR = 2.34; beta = 0.85; p = .03), and occasional nonadherence to GFD (OR = 1.74; beta = 0.56; p = .05) were risk factors for IBS-type symptoms. Active medical comorbidities predicted IBS-patient status (OR = 0.40; beta = -0.92; p = .001).
The data support the biopsychosocial model of IBS: IBS-type symptoms in adult patients with CD can be explained through an interaction of clinical and sociopsychological mechanisms.
Psychosomatic Medicine 06/2007; 69(4):370-6. · 4.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To correlate the significance of liver biochemical tests in diagnosing post orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) biliary complications and to study their profile before and after endoscopic therapy.
Patients who developed biliary complications were analysed in detail for the clinical information, laboratory tests, treatment offered, response to it, follow up and outcomes. The profile of liver enzymes was determined. The safety, efficacy and outcomes of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) were also analysed.
40 patients required ERC for 70 biliary complications. GGT was found to be > 3 times (388.1 +/- 70.9 U/mL vs 168.5 +/- 34.2 U/L, P=0.007) and SAP > 2 times (345.1 +/- 59.1 U/L vs 152.7 +/- 21.4 U/L, P=0.003) the immediate post OLT values. Most frequent complication was isolated anastomotic strictures in 28 (40%). Sustained success was achieved in 26 (81%) patients.
Biliary complications still remain an important problem post OLT. SAP and GGT can be used as early, non-invasive markers for diagnosis and also to assess the adequacy of therapy. Endoscopic management is usually effective in treating the majority of these biliary complications.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2007; 13(20):2819-25. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop and validate a disease-specific instrument for measuring health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with adult celiac disease (CD).
Based on a Medline search of the literature, responses from 10 CD patients and 4 medical experts items potentially affecting HRQOL in CD were identified. This pool was reduced and pretested by 10 other patients and 4 medical experts constructing a preliminary version of the Celiac Disease Questionnaire (CDQ). In a national survey involving 522 respondents of 1000 CD patients (median age 45 y; 78% female) posted by the German Celiac Society completed a medical and sociodemographic questionnaire, the CDQ, the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale German Version HADS-D and the Giessener Symptom List (GBB 24). Subscales were constructed by a principal factor analysis following predefined criteria and validated with other HRQOL measures. Forty-seven out of one hundred patients answered the CDQ a second time 4 weeks after the first posting for the assessment of test-retest reliability.
The factor analysis suggested 4 domains with 7 items each: emotional and social problems, disease-related worries, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The Cronbach alpha for the subscales ranged from 0.80 to 0.91. Test-retest reliability correlations ranged from 0.45 to 0.89. The correlation coefficients with comparable subscales of other instruments ranged between 0.26 and 0.79. The CDQ discriminated in all subscales patients with CD-associated diseases from patients without CD-associated diseases (P<0.001).
The CDQ is an instrument suited for future use in clinical and research settings.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 03/2007; 41(2):157-66. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data available on predictors of reduced health-related quality of life in coeliac disease are not consistent.
To test predictors of reduced health-related quality of life, described in the literature, by a multivariate approach.
1000 adult coeliacs of the German Coeliac Society completed a medical and a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Coeliac Disease Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale within a postal survey. Predictors of reduced health-related quality of life were tested for by logistic regression analysis.
Physical comorbidities (beta = -0.41; OR = 0.66, P < 0.001) and mental disorder (beta = 0.88; OR = 2.4, P = 0.03) were associated with a reduced physical summary score of the SF-36. Mental disorder (beta = 2.5; OR = 11.9, P < 0.001), physical comorbidities (beta = -0.26; OR = 0.77, P = 0.004) and younger age at diagnosis (beta = -0.10; OR = 0.91, P = 0.05) predicted a reduced mental summary score of the SF-36. Mental disorder (beta = 0.90; OR = 2.5, P = 0.03), non-compliance with gluten-free diet (beta = 0.44; OR = 1.6, P = 0.009), active medical comorbidities (beta = -0.28; OR = 0.76, P = 0.007) and dissatisfaction with doctor-patient communication (beta = 0.55; OR = 1.7, P = 0.03) were associated with reduced Coeliac Disease Questionnaire scores.
Reduced health-related quality of life in coeliac disease is associated not only with physical and mental comorbidities, but also with non-compliance with gluten-free diet and dissatisfaction with doctor-patient communication.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 13C-methacetin breath test (MBT) measures the activity of the cytochrome P450 dependent enzyme system and has been developed to assess the functional hepatic mass. We evaluated simple modifications of the 13C-MBT to further increase its practicability and therefore clinical acceptance.
One hundred and four patients with different chronic liver diseases (including 35 patients with histologically proven cirrhosis) and 65 healthy controls underwent the 13C-MBT. Breath test results of 2-point measurements were compared with conventional breath test results (cumulative recovery after 30 min) and liver histology.
The 2-point-measurement at 0 and 15 minutes (with a cut-off <14.6 per thousand delta over baseline) had 92.6% sensitivity and 94.1% specificity in identifying the presence of cirrhosis compared with liver histology. The 2-point-measurements at 5 and 10 minutes also provided good discrimination between cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients.
The 13C-MBT using 2-point-measurement of breath samples at baseline and after 15 minutes reliably indicates decreased liver function in liver cirrhosis. This simplification of the 13C-MBT will increase practicability and cost efficiency, thus facilitating its clinical acceptability.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 02/2007; 41(1):33-7. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian male who was admitted because of end-stage liver failure due to primary sclerosing cholangitis. Because of the rapidly progressive severe hepatic encephalopathy and development of hepatorenal syndrome type I, the patient was immediately upgraded to a high priority status on the liver transplantation waiting list (T2 status according to Eurotransplant criteria). Intermittent therapy with an extracorporeal liver support system (Prometheus) was initiated in order to bridge the time period until the expected transplantation date. Under therapy with the extracorporeal liver support system, total serum bilirubin decreased significantly from 33 to 15 mg/dL after 8 sessions. Simultaneously the encephalopathy resolved gradually within 3 weeks (10 sessions) from initially grade 3 to grade 1. Extracorporeal detoxification therapy was continued for 51 days (23 sessions) until the patient underwent his successful liver transplantation in good general clinical condition. Prometheus, a new liver support system, seemed to sufficiently replace hepatic detoxification on a long-term basis in this patient with end-stage liver failure in order to bridge the time period until liver transplantation.
Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 01/2007; 45(1):21-24. · 1.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proliferating cells, particularly the tumor cells, express a dimeric isoenzyme of pyruvate kinase, termed M2-PK. It's a direct target of several oncoproteins; the determination of fecal tumor pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2-PK) might be another promising tool for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. In this study, we have evaluated fecal M2-PK as a screening biomarker for colorectal neoplasia. It was compared against fecal occult blood (FOB) and colonoscopy. Three hundred and seventeen consecutive subjects from 4 different centers were included. Stool specimens were collected before purgation, processed appropriately and were tested for FOB and quantitatively analyzed for M2-PK. Colonoscopies were performed by experienced endoscopists who were unaware of fecal assay results. At cutoff value of 4 U/ml, fecal M2-PK assay had a sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 81.1, 86.7, 71.1 and 61.9% respectively for diagnosing CRC whereas FOBT showed a sensitivity of 36.5%, specificity of 92.2%, PPV of 72.9% and NPV of 71.5% for CRC. Such low specificity of fecal M2-PK will lead to unacceptably high number of false positives if it is used for mass CRC screening, leading to unindicated colonoscopies with its associated inconveniences, risks and costs. CRC screening test must have high specificity; a high sensitivity is not as vital. To conclude, M2-PK was found to be a poor screening biomarker for CR neoplasia in a subject population at above average risk based on its prospective comparison with colonoscopy. These marginal performance characteristics do not permit its use as a screening tool for CR neoplasia in present clinical settings.
International Journal of Cancer 01/2007; 119(11):2651-6. · 6.20 Impact Factor