Dominique Guehl

French National Centre for Scientific Research, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (102)463.91 Total impact

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    DESCRIPTION: accepté pour publication (NCCN) Summary Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) are increasingly performed for the assessment of peripheral neuropathies, but no practical guidelines have been established in this specific application. For this purpose, a survey was conducted among the French-speaking practitioners having an experience of SSEP recording in the context of peripheral neuropathies. The objectives were to determine the relevant indication criteria and technical settings for SSEP recording in this condition. From this survey, SSEPs appeared to be a second-line test when electroneuromyographic investigation was not enough conclusive, providing complementary and valuable information on peripheral proximal conduction and central conduction in the somatosensory pathways. Guidelines for a standardized recording protocol, including the various variables to measure, are proposed. This consensus statement is an important step in the process to recognize the value of this technique in assessing peripheral neuropathies in clinical practice. Keywords: diagnosis; evoked potentials; indication; parameters; peripheral neuropathies; technique.
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    ABSTRACT: After more than 50 years of treating Parkinson's disease with l-DOPA, there are still no guidelines on setting the optimal dose for a given patient. The dopamine transporter type 1, now known as solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 3 (SLC6A3) is the most powerful determinant of dopamine neurotransmission and might therefore influence the treatment response. We recently demonstrated that methylphenidate (a dopamine transporter inhibitor) is effective in patients with Parkinson's disease with motor and gait disorders. The objective of the present study was to determine whether genetic variants of the dopamine transporter type 1-encoding gene (SLC6A3) are associated with differences in the response to treatment of motor symptoms and gait disorders with l-DOPA and methylphenidate (with respect to the demographic, the disease and the treatment parameters and the other genes involved in the dopaminergic neurotransmission). This analysis was part of a multicentre, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of methylphenidate in Parkinson's disease (Protocol ID:2008-005801-20; ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT00914095). We scored the motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the Stand-Walk-Sit Test before and after a standardized acute l-DOPA challenge before randomization and then after 3 months of methylphenidate treatment. Patients were screened for variants of genes involved in dopamine metabolism: rs28363170 and rs3836790 polymorphisms in the SLC6A3 gene, rs921451 and rs3837091 in the DDC gene (encoding the aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase involved in the synthesis of dopamine from l-DOPA), rs1799836 in the MAOB gene (coding for monoamine oxidase B) and rs4680 in the COMT gene (coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase). Investigators and patients were blinded to the genotyping data throughout the study. Eighty-one subjects were genotyped and 61 were analysed for their acute motor response to l-DOPA. The SLC6A3 variants were significantly associated with greater efficacy of l-DOPA for motor symptoms. The SLC6A3 variants were also associated with greater efficacy of methylphenidate for motor symptoms and gait disorders in the ON l-DOPA condition. The difference between motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores for patients with different SLC6A3 genotypes was statistically significant in a multivariate analysis that took account of other disease-related, treatment-related and pharmacogenetic parameters. Our preliminary results suggest that variants of SLC6A3 are genetic modifiers of the treatment response to l-DOPA and methylphenidate in Parkinson's disease. Further studies are required to assess the possible value of these genotypes for (i) guiding l-DOPA dose adaptations over the long term; and (ii) establishing the risk/benefit balance associated with methylphenidate treatment for gait disorders. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Brain 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/brain/awv063 · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When a subject faces conflicting situations, decision-making becomes uncertain. The human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been repeatedly implicated in the monitoring of such situations, and its neural activity is thought to be involved in behavioral adjustment. However, this hypothesis is mainly based on neuroimaging results and is challenged by animal studies that failed to report any neuronal correlates of conflict monitoring. This discrepancy is thought be due either to methodological or more fundamental cross-species differences. In this study, we eliminated methodological biases and recorded single-neuron activity in monkeys performing a Stroop-like task. We found specific changes in dACC activity during incongruent trials but only in a small subpopulation of cells. Critically, these changes were not related to reaction time and were absent before any incorrect action was taken. A larger fraction of neurons exhibited sustained activity during the whole decision period, whereas another subpopulation of neurons was modulated by reaction time, with a gradual increase in their firing rate that peaked at movement onset. Most of the neurons found in these subpopulations exhibited activity after the delivery of an external negative feedback stimulus that indicated an error had been made. These findings, which are consistent with an executive control role, reconcile various theories of prefrontal cortex function and support the homology between human and monkey cognitive architectures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Cerebral Cortex 01/2015; DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhv004 · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Attentional resources appear to be involved in the occurrence of FoG. The Parkgait study recently reported that methylphenidate reduces gait hypokinesia and freezing of gait (FoG) in advanced PD patients receiving STN-DBS in the off-dopaminergic drug condition. Methylphenidate is considered to improve attention. The primary objective of the present ancillary study was to determine whether methylphenidate reduced the interference between a cognitive task and gait in patients with FoG. The study's secondary objective was to compare attentional performance in methylphenidate-treated and placebo-treated patients.
    Gait & Posture 10/2014; 41(2). DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.10.022 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Le O-arm® offre la possibilité de réaliser pendant les procédures de stimulation cérébrale profonde un contrôle d’imagerie 2D et un contrôle 3D de type scanner. Nous avons revu ici notre expérience dans l’utilisation préopératoire de ce dispositif. Objectif Notre objectif était d’évaluer la précision géométrique de l’implantation d’électrodes à l’issue de procédures chirurgicales conduites avec l’aide du O-arm®. Méthode Une implantation bilatérale d’électrodes en sous thalamique était réalisée chez 15 patients. Pour les 4 premiers, une acquisition 3D était réalisée en fin de procédure. Nous avons mesuré la précision d’implantation, soit la distance entre la trajectoire planifiée et la position finale de l’électrode. Pour les 11 suivants, pour lesquels une acquisition 3D était réalisée en préopératoire et en fin de procédure, nous avons mesuré également la précision de l’implantation des microélectrodes. Résultats L’amélioration moyenne du score UPDRS-III était de 52,5 ± 15 %. Pour les 4 premiers patients, la précision d’implantation des électrodes était de 1,46 ± 0,56 mm. Pour les 11 suivants, la précision d’implantation des microélectrodes était de 1,59 ± 1,1 mm. Un positionnement aberrant était détecté dans 2 cas, et analysé en fusionnant le 3D préopératoire à l’IRM préopératoire. La précision finale d’implantation des électrodes était de 1,05 ± 0,54 mm. Conclusion Le O-arm® permet la réalisation simple d’un contrôle 3D préopératoire, et peut aider à détecter et à corriger précocement d’éventuelles trajectoires aberrantes.
    Neurochirurgie 09/2014; 60(6). DOI:10.1016/j.neuchi.2014.05.005 · 0.47 Impact Factor
  • Revue Neurologique 04/2014; 170:A231. DOI:10.1016/j.neurol.2014.01.485 · 0.60 Impact Factor
  • Revue Neurologique 04/2014; 170:A128. DOI:10.1016/j.neurol.2014.01.347 · 0.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a neuroacanthocytosis syndrome presenting with severe movement disorders poorly responsive to drug therapy. Case reports suggest that bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventro-postero-lateral internal globus pallidus (GPi) may benefit these patients. To explore this issue, the present multicentre (n=12) retrospective study collected the short and long term outcome of 15 patients who underwent DBS. Data were collected in a standardized way 2-6 months preoperatively, 1-5 months (early) and 6 months or more (late) after surgery at the last follow-up visit (mean follow-up: 29.5 months). Motor severity, assessed by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Score, UHDRS-MS), was significantly reduced at both early and late post-surgery time points (mean improvement 54.3% and 44.1%, respectively). Functional capacity (UHDRS-Functional Capacity Score) was also significantly improved at both post-surgery time points (mean 75.5% and 73.3%, respectively), whereas incapacity (UHDRS-Independence Score) improvement reached significance at early post-surgery only (mean 37.3%). Long term significant improvement of motor symptom severity (≥20 % from baseline) was observed in 61.5 % of the patients. Chorea and dystonia improved, whereas effects on dysarthria and swallowing were variable. Parkinsonism did not improve. Linear regression analysis showed that preoperative motor severity predicted motor improvement at both post-surgery time points. The most serious adverse event was device infection and cerebral abscess, and one patient died suddenly of unclear cause, 4 years after surgery. This study shows that bilateral DBS of the GPi effectively reduces the severity of drug-resistant hyperkinetic movement disorders such as present in ChAc.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79241. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079241 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with visuospatial working memory deficits. Intolerance of uncertainty is thought to be a core component of OCD symptoms. Recent findings argue for a possible relationship between abilities in visuospatial memory and uncertainty. However, this relationship remains unclear in both OCD patients and healthy subjects. To address this issue, we measured performance in visuospatial working memory and the propensity to express uncertainty during decision making. We assessed their relationship and the temporal direction of this relationship in both OCD patients and healthy subjects. Baseline abilities in visuospatial working memory were measured with the Corsi block-tapping test. A delayed matching-to-sample task was used to identify explicit situations of certainty, uncertainty and ignorance and to assess continuous performance in visuospatial working memory. Behavioural variables were recorded over 360 consecutive trials in both groups. Baseline scores of visuospatial working memory did not predict the number of uncertain situations in OCD patients whereas they did in healthy subjects. Uncertain trials led to reduced abilities in visuospatial working memory to 65% of usual performance in OCD patients whereas they remained stable in healthy subjects. The present findings show an opposite temporal direction in the relationship between abilities in working memory and uncertainty in OCD patients and healthy subjects. Poor working memory performance contributes to the propensity to feel uncertainty in healthy subjects whereas uncertainty contributes to decreased continuous performance in working memory in OCD patients.
    Psychological Medicine 10/2013; 44(10):1-12. DOI:10.1017/S0033291713002730 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epileptiform discharges (ED) can occur during sevoflurane induction, especially in young female patients and when high alveolar concentrations are used. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether low sevoflurane concentration reduces the occurrence of ED in female patients. Thirty-four female patients scheduled for minor gynecological surgery were prospectively included and randomized in two groups. In group A, anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane inspired 8% manually set via the circuit of the Zeus(®) (Dräger Medical, Lübeck, Germany) anesthesia workstation (fresh gas flow 8L.min(-1)) for 2min and then 2.5%. In group B, induction was performed by target-controlled inhalation with a target end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane set at 2.5% (fresh gas flow in auto-control mode). Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in the operating room throughout induction till two min after intubation and analyzed off-line by a neurophysiologist blinded to the randomization. ED occurred in five patients (15%): one in group A and four in group B (P>0.05). ED occurred with a median delay of 303 s [25-75 interquartiles: 135-418] and the median duration of ED episode was 13 s [3-78]. Fifteen patients had abnormal movements without simultaneous EEG abnormality. Induction of anesthesia with low target concentration of sevoflurane (2.5%) fails to totally prevent the occurrence of ED in young female patients and should be used carefully in this population.
    Annales francaises d'anesthesie et de reanimation 09/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.annfar.2013.07.812 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The dorso-lateral part of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is considered as the usual target of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. Nevertheless, the exact anatomical location of the electrode contacts used for chronic stimulation is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the existing literature on this issue. METHOD: We searched for studies on the anatomical location of active contacts published until December 2012. RESULTS: We identified 13 studies, published between 2002 and 2010, including 260 patients and 466 electrodes. One hundred and sixty-four active contacts (35 %) were identified within the STN, 117 (25 %) at the interface between STN and the surrounding structures, 184 (40 %) above the STN and one within the substantia nigra. We observed great discrepancies between the different series. The contra-lateral improvement was between 37 and 78.5 % for contacts located within the STN, between 48.6 and 73 % outside the STN, between 65.3 and 66 % at the interface. The authors report no clear correlation between anatomical location and stimulation parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Post-operative analysis of the anatomical location of active contacts is difficult, and all the methods used are debatable. The relationship between the anatomical location of active contacts and the clinical effectiveness of stimulation is unclear. It would be necessary to take into account the volume of the electrode contacts and the diffusion of the stimulation. We can nevertheless assume that the interface between dorso-lateral STN, zona incerta and Forel's fields could be directly involved in the effects of stimulation.
    Acta Neurochirurgica 06/2013; 155(9). DOI:10.1007/s00701-013-1782-1 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adult-onset epilepsy is commonly thought to be secondary to a brain lesion. However, the etiology of adult-onset epilepsy remains unknown in approximately 25% of patients, despite progress in medical and diagnostic tools. In the present study, we investigated whether late-onset partial cryptogenic epilepsies could be subgrouped based on seizure semiology and clinical characteristics. A total of 41 patients with late-onset cryptogenic epilepsy were included, and the corresponding clinical and electrophysiological data were analyzed. The following three clinical subgroups were identified: 1) a group that fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of transient epileptic amnesia (TEA); 2) a group with late-onset cryptogenic epilepsies with a temporal seizure semiology; and 3) a cryptogenic extratemporal group, which was consistent with the categorization of cryptogenic epilepsies, i.e., epilepsies involving unknown lesions. The temporal group showed homogeneous clinical characteristics, especially a rapid evolution and a greater tendency toward generalization and pharmacoresistance compared with the other two groups. Transient epileptic amnesia was associated with a higher frequency of sleep disorders than either of the other groups. Our findings argue for the clinical identification of a subgroup of late-onset temporal epilepsy that might constitute an idiopathic form. The association between TEA and sleep disorders would suggest a possible pathophysiological role of sleep apnea syndromes in TEA.
    Epilepsy & Behavior 06/2013; 28(2):168-171. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.05.001 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a neuroacanthocytosis syndrome presenting with severe movement disorders poorly responsive to drug therapy. Case reports suggest that bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventro-postero-lateral internal globus pallidus (GPi) may benefit these patients. To explore this issue, the present multicentre (n=12) retrospective study collected the short and long term outcome of 15 patients who underwent DBS. Methods: Data were collected in a standardized way 2-6 months preoperatively, 1-5 months (early) and 6 months or more (late) after surgery at the last follow-up visit (mean follow-up: 29.5 months). Results: Motor severity, assessed by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Score, UHDRS-MS), was significantly reduced at both early and late post-surgery time points (mean improvement 54.3% and 44.1%, respectively). Functional capacity (UHDRS-Functional Capacity Score) was also significantly improved at both post-surgery time points (mean 75.5% and 73.3%, respectively), whereas incapacity (UHDRS-Independence Score) improvement reached significance at early post-surgery only (mean 37.3%). Long term significant improvement of motor symptom severity (≥20 % from baseline) was observed in 61.5 % of the patients. Chorea and dystonia improved, whereas effects on dysarthria and swallowing were variable. Parkinsonism did not improve. Linear regression analysis showed that preoperative motor severity predicted motor improvement at both post-surgery time points. The most serious adverse event was device infection and cerebral abscess, and one patient died suddenly of unclear cause, 4 years after surgery. Conclusion: This study shows that bilateral DBS of the GPi effectively reduces the severity of drug-resistant hyperkinetic movement disorders such as present in ChAc. Funding: This study was supported by the ERA-net E-Rare consortium European Multidisciplinary Initiative on Neuroacanthocytosis (EMINA); www.e-rare.eu/node/474. Western blot analysis for chorein was performed with the financial support of the Neuroacanthocytosis Advocacy and the EMINA consortium (BMBF 01GM1003). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Behavioral adaptation generally follows the contextual changes arising from the consequences (rewards and punishments) of an action. According to the reciprocal determinism model, there is a mutual influence between external context, cognitive processes and behavior. The maladaptive behaviors observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been hypothesized to result from the disruption of the interactions between these three entities. For this, we assessed the influence of error signals and checking behavior on prefrontal cortical functions during decision-making in 14 OCD patients and 14 matched healthy participants. METHODS: We used a behavioral task designed to elicit intolerance of uncertainty (IU) followed by the free expression of checking behaviors, which was coupled with functional magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: At the behavioral level, IU intensity was correlated to the number of checking behaviors in both checking OCD patients and healthy controls during decision-making. However, external error signals did not influence checking behaviors in OCD patients, whereas they appeared to trigger checking behaviors in healthy subjects. At the neural level, IU intensity was positively correlated with activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in both the OCD and control groups. At the region of interest (ROI) level, error signals increased IU-related OFC activations; in contrast, checking behaviors contributed to decreasing these neural activations in the healthy subjects, but no such modulation was observed in the OCD patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that IU-related OFC dysfunctions are not under the influence of the context and the behavioral response in OCD, suggesting that alterations of the dynamic features for this neural network may contribute to the expression of OCD symptoms.
    Cortex 12/2012; 62. DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2012.12.010 · 6.04 Impact Factor
  • Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology 12/2012; 42(6):386–387. DOI:10.1016/j.neucli.2012.09.006 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Bispectral index (BIS) may be used in traumatic brain-injured patients (TBI) with intractable intracranial hypertension to adjust barbiturate infusion but it is obtained through a unilateral frontal electrode. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in BIS between hemispheres in two groups: unilateral frontal (UFI) and diffuse (DI) injured. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective monocenter observational study in 24 TBI treated with barbiturates: 13 UFI and 11 DI. Simultaneous BIS and EEG was recorded for 1h. Goal of monitoring was a left BIS between 5 and 15. Biases in BIS were considered as clinically relevant if greater than 5. Differences in biases were interpreted from both statistical (Mann-Whitney test) and clinical points of view. RESULTS: Mean BIS in the two hemispheres remained in the same monitoring range. There were statistic and clinical differences in some values in the two groups of patients (15% of bias greater than I5I in UFI group and 10% in DI group). BIS monitoring allowed the adequate number of bursts/minutes to be predicted in 18 patients and did not detect an overdosage in 2. CONCLUSIONS: While asymmetric BIS values in TBI patients occur whatever the kind of injury, they were not found to be clinically relevant in most of these heavily sedated patients. Asymmetrical BIS monitoring might be sufficient to monitor barbiturate infusion in TBI provided that the concordance between BIS and EEG is regularly checked.
    Annales francaises d'anesthesie et de reanimation 11/2012; 31(12). DOI:10.1016/j.annfar.2012.09.007 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    Neuroscience Letters 10/2012; 528(1):89. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2012.08.046 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequent psychiatric disorder characterized by repetitive intrusive thoughts and severe anxiety, leading to compulsive behaviors. Although medical treatment is effective in most cases, resistance is observed in about 30% of patients. In this context, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the caudate or subthalamic nuclei has been recently proposed with encouraging results. However, some patients were unimproved or exhibited awkward side effects. Therefore, exploration of new targets for DBS remains critical in OCD. In the latter, functional imaging studies revealed overactivity in the limbic and associative cortico-subcortical loops encompassing the thalamus. However, the role of the thalamus in the genesis of repetitive behaviors and related anxiety is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological-induced overactivity of the medial thalamus could give rise to abnormal behaviors close to that observed in OCD. We modulated the ventral anterior (VA) and medial dorsal (MD) nuclei activity by in situ bicuculline (GABA(A) antagonist) microinjections in subhuman primates and assessed their pharmacological-induced behavior. Bicuculline injections within the VA caused significant repetitive and time-consuming motor acts whereas those performed within the MD induced symptoms of dysautonomic dysregulation along with abnormal vocalizations and marked motor hypoactivity. These findings suggest that overactivation of the VA and MD nuclei of the thalamus provokes compulsive-like behaviors and neurovegetative manifestations usually associated with the feeling of anxiety in OCD patients. In further research, this translational approach should allow us to test the effectiveness and side effects of these thalamic nuclei DBS in monkey and perhaps, in a second step, to propose a transfer of this technique to severely disabled OCD patients.
    Translational Psychiatry 09/2012; 2(9):e161. DOI:10.1038/tp.2012.88 · 4.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease is characterized by neuronal loss throughout the disease course. Voxel-based morphometry studies have reported reductions in gray matter concentration (GMC) in many brain regions in patients with Huntington. The description of the time course of gray matter loss may help to identify some evolution markers. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies of Huntington's disease to describe the evolution of brain gray matter loss. METHODS: A systematic search led to the inclusion of 11 articles on Huntington's disease (297 patients and 205 controls). We extracted data from patients with preclinical Huntington, patients with clinical Huntington, and controls. Finally, anatomical likelihood estimation analyses were conducted to identify GMC changes between preclinical patients and controls, between clinical patients and controls, and between preclinical and clinical patients. RESULTS: Preclinical patients exhibited gray matter loss in the left basal ganglia and the prefrontal cortex. Clinical patients had bilateral gray matter loss in the basal ganglia, the prefrontal cortex, and the insula. The left striatum was smaller in clinical patients than preclinical patients. CONCLUSIONS: Neurodegenerative processes associated with Huntington's disease, as assessed by GMC reduction, begin in the left hemisphere and extend to the contralateral hemisphere throughout the inexorable course of the disease. Changes in gray matter, especially the volumetric side ratio of the striatum, could represent a relevant biomarker for characterizing the different progression stages of the disease.
    European Journal of Neurology 08/2012; DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2012.03854.x · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Refractory status epilepticus (SE) is a current daily therapeutic challenge. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which is frequently used to treat psychiatric disorders, is known to raise the seizure threshold. As such, ECT could be of major interest in refractory SE. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of ECT in refractory SE. Although no placebo-controlled or open-label study has been published on the efficacy or safety of ECT in refractory SE, eight case reports have been identified. SE cessation was obtained in 80% of cases, and complete recovery was achieved in 27% of patients. Despite the heterogeneity of the ECT parameters used in these articles, we identified some common features that may be recommended for the use of ECT in refractory SE. ECT might be a viable therapeutic strategy for the most resistant and severe cases of SE, particularly after the failure of two inductions of anesthetic coma. This potential indication highlights the urgent need for clinical trials that assess the usefulness of ECT in refractory SE.
    Seizure 08/2012; 21(9):661-4. DOI:10.1016/j.seizure.2012.07.010 · 2.06 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
463.91 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2015
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Institut des maladies neurodégénératives (MN)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1998–2014
    • University of Bordeaux
      Burdeos, Aquitaine, France
  • 2009–2013
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux
      Burdeos, Aquitaine, France
  • 1999–2012
    • Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2
      • • Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives IMN
      • • Centre de Résonance Magnétique des Systèmes Biologiques
      Burdeos, Aquitaine, France
  • 2007
    • University of Victoria
      • Department of Mathematics and Statistics
      Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2005
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2004
    • Centre Hospitalier Charles PERRENS
      Burdeos, Aquitaine, France