N L Oleinick

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States

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Publications (160)482.37 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The fundamental mechanism of photodynamic therapy (PDT)-induced cell death has been characterized, but early critical PDT events in vivo remain incompletely defined. With the recent development in advanced fluorescence imaging modalities, such as intravital 2-photon laser scanning microscopy (2P-LSM), researchers are now able to investigate and visualize biological processes with high resolution in real time. This powerful imaging technology allows deep tissue visualization with single-cell resolution, thus providing dynamic information on the 3-dimensional architectural makeup of the tissue. The main goal of this study was to determine the cutaneous penetration of a topically applied photosensitizer, the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4, into the skin of live animals and to assess the effective absorption of Pc 4 through the skin barrier. Our 2P-LSM images indicate that Pc 4 penetrates to the epidermal/dermal junction of mouse skin. The data also indicate that the degree of Pc 4 absorption is dose dependent. These findings represent initial steps that may help in improving the clinical utilization of topical Pc 4-PDT.
    Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy 09/2012; 9(3):225-31.
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    ABSTRACT: The current clinical mainstays for cancer treatment, namely, surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, can cause significant trauma, systemic toxicity, and functional/cosmetic debilitation of tissue, especially if repetitive treatment becomes necessary due to tumor recurrence. Hence there is significant clinical interest in alternate treatment strategies like photodynamic therapy (PDT) which can effectively and selectively eradicate tumors and can be safely repeated if needed. We have previously demonstrated that the second-generation photosensitizer Pc 4 (silicon phthalocyanine 4) can be formulated within polymeric micelles, and these micelles can be specifically targeted to EGFR-overexpressing cancer cells using GE11 peptide ligands, to enhance cell-specific Pc 4 delivery and internalization. In the current study, we report on the in vitro optimization of the EGFR-targeting, Pc 4 loading of the micellar nanoformulation, along with optimization of the corresponding photoirradiation conditions to maximize Pc 4 delivery, internalization, and subsequent PDT-induced cytotoxicity in EGFR-overexpressing cells in vitro. In our studies, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to monitor the cell-specific uptake of the GE11-decorated Pc 4-loaded micelles and the cytotoxic singlet oxygen production from the micelle-encapsulated Pc 4, to determine the optimum ligand density and Pc 4 loading. It was found that the micelle formulations bearing 10 mol % of GE11-modified polymer component resulted in the highest cellular uptake in EGFR-overexpressing A431 cells within the shortest incubation periods. Also, the loading of ∼50 μg of Pc 4 per mg of polymer in these micellar formulations resulted in the highest levels of singlet oxygen production. When formulations bearing these optimized parameters were tested in vitro on A431 cells for PDT effect, a formulation dose containing 400 nM Pc 4 and photoirradiation duration of 400 s at a fluence of 200 mJ/cm(2) yielded close to 100% cell death.
    Molecular Pharmaceutics 07/2012; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Autophagy 04/2012; 8(4):445. · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    Autophagy 04/2012; 8(4):1-100. · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Autophagy 04/2012; 8(4):445-544. · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) are most commonly delivered to patients or experimental animals via intravenous injection. After initial distribution throughout the body, there can be some preferential accumulation within tumors or other abnormal tissue in comparison to the surrounding normal tissue. In contrast, the photosensitizer precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or one of its esters, is routinely administered topically, and more specifically, to target skin lesions. Following metabolic conversion to protoporphyrin IX, the target area is photoilluminated, limiting peripheral damage and targeting the effective agent to the desired region. However, not all skin lesions are responsive to ALA-PDT. Topical administration of fully formed photosensitizers is less common but is receiving increased attention, and some notable advances with selected approved and experimental photosensitizers have been published. Our team has examined topical administration of the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 to mammalian (human, mouse, pig) skin. Pc 4 in a desired formulation and concentration was applied to the skin surface at a rate of 5-10 μL/cm2 and kept under occlusion. After various times, skin biopsies were examined by confocal microscopy, and fluorescence within regions of interest was quantified. Early after application, images show the majority of the Pc 4 fluorescence within the stratum corneum and upper epidermis. As a function of time and concentration, penetration of Pc 4 across the stratum corneum and into the epidermis and dermis was observed. The data indicate that Pc 4 can be delivered to skin for photodynamic activation and treatment of skin pathologies.
    Proc SPIE 02/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) appears to provide an unambiguous means of tracking the outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of brain tumors with the photosensitizer Pc 4. The increase in Gd enhancement observed after Pc 4-PDT may be due to a temporary opening of the blood-brain-barrier which, as noted by others, may offer a therapeutic window. Methods: We injected 2.5 x 105 U87 cells into the brains of 9 athymic nude rats. After 8-9 days peri-tumor DCE-MRI images were acquired on a 7.0 T microMRI scanner before and after the administration of 150 μL Gd. DCE-MRI scans were repeated three times following Pc 4-PDT. Results: The average, normalized peak enhancement in the tumor region, approximately 30-90 seconds after Gd administration, was 1.31 times greater than baseline (0.03 Standard Error [SE]) prior to PDT and was 1.44 (0.02 SE) times baseline in the first Post-PDT scans (Day 11), a statistically significant (p ~ 0.014, N=8) increase over the Pre- PDT scans, and was 1.38 (0.02 SE) times baseline in the second scans (Day 12), also a statistically significant (p ~ 0.008, N=7) increase. Observations were mixed in the third Post-PDT scans (Day 13), averaging 1.29 (0.03 SE) times baseline (p ~ 0.66, N=7). Overall a downward trend in enhancement was observed from the first to the third Post-PDT scans. Discussion: DCE-MRI may provide an unambiguous indication of brain tumor PDT outcome. The initial increase in DCE-MRI signal may correlate with a temporary, PDT-induced opening of the blood-brain-barrier, creating a potential therapeutic window.
    Proc SPIE 02/2012;
  • Neurological Institute Journal. 01/2012; 4(2):19-21.
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    ABSTRACT: In photodynamic therapy (PDT), the light activation of a photosensitizer leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species that can trigger various mechanisms of cell death. Harnessing this process within cancer cells enables minimally invasive yet targeted cancer treatment. With this rationale, here we demonstrate tumor-targeted delivery of a highly hydrophobic photosensitizer Pc 4 loaded within biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) block co-polymer micelles. The micelles were surface-modified with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting GE11 peptides for active targeting of EGFR-overexpressing cancer cells, in vitro. Pc 4-loaded EGFR-targeted micelles were incubated with EGFR-overexpressing A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells for various time periods, to determine Pc 4 uptake by epifluorescence microscopy. The cells were subsequently photoirradiated, and PDT-induced cell death for various incubation periods was determined by MTT assay and fluorescence Live/Dead assay. Our results indicate that active EGFR targeting of the Pc 4-loaded micelles accelerates intracellular uptake of the drug. Consequently, this enhances the PDT-induced cytotoxicity within shorter time periods. FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR: Photodynamic cancer therapy using Pc 4, a light activated and highly hydrophobic photosensitizer is demonstrated in this paper in vitro. Pc 4 was delivered in block-copolymer micelles surface-modified with GE11 peptides targeting EGFR-overexpressing cancer cells.
    Nanomedicine: nanotechnology, biology, and medicine 10/2011; 8(5):655-64. · 6.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT:  Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of malignancies of a variety of organ systems, including the lungs, bladder, gastrointestinal tract and skin. Cutaneous lesions serve as ideal targets of PDT because of the accessibility of the skin to light. To achieve optimum results, the photosensitizer must be delivered effectively into the target layers of the skin within a practical timeframe, via noninvasive methods. To determine whether topical application of a second-generation photosensitizer, silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 [SiPc(OSi(CH3)2 (CH2)3 N(CH3)2)(OH)], results in effective penetration of the skin barrier. Penetration of Pc 4 was evaluated using standard Franz-type vertical diffusion cell experiments on surrogate materials (silicone membranes) and laser-scanning confocal microscopy of normal skin biopsy samples from human volunteers. The Franz diffusion data indicate that Pc 4 formulated in an ethanol/propylene glycol solution (70/30%, v/v) can penetrate the membrane at a flux that is appreciable and relatively invariant. Using the same formulation, Pc 4 uptake could be detected in human skin via laser-scanning confocal microscopy. After topical application, Pc 4 is absorbed into the epidermis in as little as 1 h, and the absorption increased with increasing time and dose. Pc 4 can be effectively delivered into human skin via topical application. The data also suggest that the degree of penetration is time- and dose-dependent.
    Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 05/2011; 36(6):645-51. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The high prevalence of drug resistance necessitates the development of novel antifungal agents against infections caused by opportunistic fungal pathogens, such as Candida albicans. Elucidation of apoptosis in yeast-like fungi may provide a basis for future therapies. In mammalian cells, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been demonstrated to generate reactive oxygen species, leading to immediate oxidative modifications of biological molecules and resulting in apoptotic cell death. In this report, we assess the in vitro cytotoxicity and mechanism of PDT, using the photosensitizer Pc 4, in planktonic C. albicans. Confocal image analysis confirmed that Pc 4 localizes to cytosolic organelles, including mitochondria. A colony formation assay showed that 1.0 μM Pc 4 followed by light at 2.0 J cm(-2) reduced cell survival by 4 logs. XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide) assay revealed that Pc 4-PDT impaired fungal metabolic activity, which was confirmed using the FUN-1 (2-chloro-4-[2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-(benzo-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-methylidene]-1-phenylquinolinium iodide) fluorescence probe. Furthermore, we observed changes in nuclear morphology characteristic of apoptosis, which were substantiated by increased externalization of phosphatidylserine and DNA fragmentation following Pc 4-PDT. These data indicate that Pc 4-PDT can induce apoptosis in C. albicans. Therefore, a better understanding of the process will be helpful, as PDT may become a useful treatment option for candidiasis.
    Photochemistry and Photobiology 04/2011; 87(4):904-9. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test whether pharmacologic inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) by 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, NSC #663249) enhances radiation sensitivity during low-dose-rate ionizing radiation provided by a novel purpose-built iridium-192 cell irradiator. The cells were exposed to low-dose-rate radiation (11, 23, 37, 67 cGy/h) using a custom-fabricated cell irradiator or to high-dose-rate radiation (330 cGy/min) using a conventional cell irradiator. The radiation sensitivity of human cervical (CaSki, C33-a) cancer cells with or without RNR inhibition by 3-AP was evaluated using a clonogenic survival and an RNR activity assay. Alteration in the cell cycle distribution was monitored using flow cytometry. Increasing radiation sensitivity of both CaSki and C33-a cells was observed with the incremental increase in radiation dose rates. 3-AP treatment led to enhanced radiation sensitivity in both cell lines, eliminating differences in cell cytotoxicity from the radiation dose rate. RNR blockade by 3-AP during low-dose-rate irradiation was associated with low RNR activity and extended G(1)-phase cell cycle arrest. We conclude that RNR inhibition by 3-AP impedes DNA damage repair mechanisms that rely on deoxyribonucleotide production and thereby increases radiation sensitivity of human cervical cancers to low-dose-rate radiation.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 04/2011; 80(4):1198-204. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cutaneous malignancies has been found to be an effective treatment with a range of photosensitizers. The phthalocyanine Pc 4 was developed initially for PDT of primary or metastatic cancers in the skin. A Phase I trial was initiated to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetic profiles of systemically administered Pc 4 followed by red light (Pc 4-PDT) in cutaneous malignancies. A dose-escalation study of Pc 4 (starting dose 0.135 mg/m(2)) at a fixed light fluence (135 J/cm(2) of 675-nm light) was initiated in patients with primary or metastatic cutaneous malignancies with the aim of establishing the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Blood samples were taken at intervals over the first 60 h post-PDT for pharmacokinetic analysis, and patients were evaluated for toxicity and tumor response. A total of three patients (two females with breast cancer and one male with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) were enrolled and treated over the dose range of 0.135 mg/m(2) (first dose level) to 0.54 mg/m(2) (third dose level). Grade 3 erythema within the photoirradiated area was induced in patient 2, and transient tumor regression in patient 3, in spite of the low photosensitizer doses. Pharmacokinetic observations fit a three-compartment exponential elimination model with an initial rapid distribution phase (∼0.2 h) and relatively long terminal elimination phase (∼28 h), Because of restrictive exclusion criteria and resultant poor accrual, the trial was closed before MTD could be reached. While the limited accrual to this initial Phase I study did not establish the MTD nor establish a complete pharmacokinetic and safety profile of intravenous Pc 4-PDT, these preliminary data support further Phase I testing of this new photosensitizer.
    Frontiers in Oncology 01/2011; 1:14.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer. However, PDT systems currently used clinically have limitations such as pain and superficial tissue penetration. The silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 is a second-generation photosensitizer with peak absorption in the far red at 675 nm.Objective To assess the safety and tolerability of topically applied Pc 4 followed by red light (Pc 4-PDT) in treating cutaneous neoplasms.Study Design/Materials and Methods Forty three adults with a diagnosis of neoplasms including actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, or mycosis fungoides were treated with a single administration of Pc 4-PDT and followed for 14 days. The study utilized a light and Pc 4 dose escalation design in sequential groups of three subjects each.ResultsPc 4-PDT was well tolerated with no significant local toxicity or increased photosensitivity. It has promising biologic effects, particularly in mycosis fungoides where 14 of 35 subjects demonstrated a clinical response, which correlates with Pc 4-PDT-induced apoptosis, as measured by increased active caspase-3 in the treated skin lesions.Conclusions Pc 4-PDT is a safe and tolerable treatment modality that effectively triggers apoptosis in cutaneous neoplasms such as mycosis fungoides. Lasers Surg. Med. 42:728–735, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 11/2010; 42(10):728 - 735. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Singlet oxygen is produced by the absorption of red light by the phthalocyanine dye Pc 4, followed by energy transfer to dissolved triplet oxygen. Mitochondria preincubated with Pc 4 were illuminated by red light and the damage to mitochondrial structure and function by the generated singlet oxygen was studied. At early illumination times (3-5 min of red light exposure), State 3 respiration was inhibited (50%), whereas State 4 activity increased, resulting in effectively complete uncoupling. Individual complex activities were measured and only complex IV activity was significantly reduced and exhibited a dose response, whereas the activities of electron transport complexes I, II, and III were not significantly affected. Cytochrome c release was an increasing function of irradiation time, with 30% being released after 5 min of illumination. Mitochondrial expansion along with changes in the structure of the cristae were observed by transmission electron microscopy after 5 min of irradiation, with an increase in large vacuoles and membrane rupture occurring after more extensive exposures.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 09/2010; 49(5):726-32. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Singlet oxygen, (1)O(2), is produced by absorption of red light by the phthalocyanine dye Pc 4, followed by energy transfer to dissolved triplet molecular oxygen, (3)O(2). In tissues, Pc 4 concentrates in lipid bilayers, and particularly in mitochondrial membranes, because of its positive charge. Illumination of cells and tissues with red light after uptake of Pc 4 results in cell death. The potential initial chemical steps that result in cellular dysfunction have been characterized in this study. Both unsaturated acyl chains of phospholipids and proteins are identified as targets of oxidation. Tetra-linoleoyl cardiolipin was oxidized in both liposomes and mitochondria after Pc 4-mediated (1)O(2) generation. Evidence for the formation of both mono- and bis-hydroperoxide adducts of single linoleoyl side chains is provided by ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS. Similarly, illumination of Pc 4 in liposomes and mitochondria resulted in cytochrome c oxidation as detected by oxidation of His 26 in the peptide H(26)*KTGPNLHGLFGK, further supporting the potential use of this peptide as a biomarker for the presence of mitochondrial oxidative stress characteristic of (1)O(2) in vivo (J. Kim et al., Free Radic. Biol. Med. 44:1700-1711; 2008). These observations provide evidence that formation of lipid hydroperoxides and/or protein oxidation can be the initial chemical steps in Pc 4-mediated induction of apoptosis in photodynamic therapy.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 09/2010; 49(5):718-25. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 for treating an animal model of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Rabbit skin was grafted onto the dorsum of severe combined immunodeficient mice, two xenografts per animal. After the graft healed, it was inoculated with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV). When papillomas developed, Pc 4 (0.6 or 1.0 mg/kg) was administered systemically, and 48 hours later, one papilloma of the two on each animal was exposed to 675-nm photoactivating light at either 100 or 150 J/cm(2). In addition to the contralateral tumors, which received Pc 4 but no light, other controls included animals receiving light only or neither agent. Response was assessed by measuring papilloma size with a caliper. Some papillomas and residual skin were harvested for histological assessment. For the lower-dose PDT regimens, papilloma growth rates were not significantly different from the controls. In contrast, 13 of 15 papillomas receiving the higher Pc 4 dose (1.0 mg/kg) and the higher light fluence (150 J/cm(2)) regressed completely and did not regrow within the observation period of up to 79 days. The response of these papillomas was significantly different from the controls (P < .001). Histological analysis confirmed the absence of residual tumor following complete response and replacement with near-normal epithelium. Pc 4-PDT is highly effective in treating virally induced (CRPV) papillomas in a murine model of RRP, and thus warrants further study as a treatment for HPV-induced papillomas.
    The Laryngoscope 03/2010; 120(3):618-24. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 binds preferentially to mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Upon photoirradiation of Pc 4-loaded cells, membrane components, including Bcl-2, are photodamaged and apoptosis is triggered. We recently prepared analogues of Pc 4 containing two axial ligands, one identical to the single ligand in Pc 4, and the other containing one or two hydroxyl groups on a dimethylsiloxy alkyl chain. Pc 181 is representative of this group of photosensitizers. In MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, the new analogues preferentially localized in lysosomes and were highly efficient in inducing apoptosis and overall cell death. The Bcl-2 family member Bid is required for signaling to mitochondria for apoptosis in response to primary lysosomal photodamage. To further evaluate the role of Bid, we compared the effects of PDT with Pc 4 or Pc 181 in wild-type murine embryonic fibroblasts and those knocked out for Bid. We find that the two cell lines are equally sensitive to killing by Pc 4-PDT, but the Bid-/- cells are significantly more resistant to killing and apoptosis induction by Pc 181-PDT than are the Bid+/+ cells. The data show that low levels of lysosomal photodamage are not alone lethal and that a specific defect in a factor required for apoptosis can severely compromise cell response to PDT.
    Proc SPIE 02/2010;
  • Liang-Yan Xue, Song-Mao Chiu, Nancy L Oleinick
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    ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses a photosensitizer, light and oxygen to produce extensive oxidative damage to organelles housing the photosensitizer. Although PDT is an efficient trigger of apoptosis, it also induces autophagy in many kinds of cells. Autophagy can serve as both a cell survival and a cell death mechanism. Our previous study indicates that autophagy contributes to cell death after PDT, especially in apoptosis-deficient cells. Here, we provide further evidence to support the role of autophagy in cell killing after PDT. Autophagy was blocked by knockdown of one essential factor, LC3 or Atg7, in MCF-7 cells. The cells were exposed to a range of doses of PDT sensitized by the phthalocyanine Pc 4; steps in autophagy were monitored by western blotting for LC3-II and by fluorescence microscopy for the uptake of monodansylcadaverine or for the distribution of transfected GFP-LC3; and overall cell death was monitored by MTT assay and by clonogenic assay. We find that blocking autophagy increased the survival of MCF-7 cells after PDT and increased the shoulder on the dose-response curve. In response to Pc 4-PDT, Atg7-deficient MCF-7 cells remained capable of robust accumulation of LC3-II, but were defective in comparison to Atg7(+) cells in the formation of autophagosomes. We conclude that apoptosis-deficient cells rely on autophagy for cell death after Pc 4-PDT and that the strong activation of LC3 maturation in response to PDT could occur even in cells with limited or no Atg7 expression.
    Autophagy 02/2010; 6(2):248-55. · 12.04 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
482.37 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • University of Michigan
      • Life Sciences Institute
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 1989–2012
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      • • Department of Dermatology (MetroHealth Medical Center)
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology (University Hospitals Case Medical Center)
      • • Department of Radiology (University Hospitals Case Medical Center)
      • • Department of Medicine (University Hospitals Case Medical Center)
      • • Case Comprehensive Cancer Center
      • • Department of Environmental Health Sciences
      Cleveland, OH, United States
    • Cleveland State University
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 1987–2011
    • Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
      • Department of Radiology
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 2009
    • Wayne State University
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Detroit, MI, United States
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Charleston, South Carolina, United States
  • 1992
    • Soreq Nuclear Research Center
      Yerushalayim, Jerusalem District, Israel
  • 1990
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States