[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a major incretin, mainly produced by the intestinal L cells, with beneficial actions on pancreatic beta cells. However, while in vivo only very small amounts of GLP-1 reach the pancreas in bioactive form, some observations indicate that GLP-1 may also be produced in the islets. We performed comprehensive morphological, functional and molecular studies to evaluate the presence and various features of a local GLP-1 system in human pancreatic islet cells, including those from type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: The presence of insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, proconvertase (PC) 1/3 and PC2 was determined in human pancreas by immunohistochemistry with confocal microscopy. Islets were isolated from non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic donors. GLP-1 protein abundance was evaluated by immunoblotting and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Single alpha and beta cell suspensions were obtained by enzymatic dissociation and FACS sorting. Glucagon and GLP-1 release were measured in response to nutrients. RESULTS: Confocal microscopy showed the presence of GLP-1-like and PC1/3 immunoreactivity in subsets of alpha cells, whereas GLP-1 was not observed in beta cells. The presence of GLP-1 in isolated islets was confirmed by immunoblotting, followed by mass spectrometry. Isolated islets and alpha (but not beta) cell fractions released GLP-1, which was regulated by glucose and arginine. PC1/3 (also known as PCSK1) gene expression was shown in alpha cells. GLP-1 release was significantly higher from type 2 diabetic than from non-diabetic isolated islets. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We have shown the presence of a functionally competent GLP-1 system in human pancreatic islets, which resides in alpha cells and might be modulated by type 2 diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Frataxin (FXN) is a mitochondrial protein involved in iron metabolism and in the modulation of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species production. No information is currently available as for the role of frataxin in isolated human pancreatic islets. We studied islets from pancreases of multi-organ donors with (T2DM) and without (Ctrl) Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In these islets, we determined FXN gene and protein expression by qualitative and quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR, nitrotyrosine concentration, and insulin release in response to glucose stimulation (SI). FXN gene and protein were expressed in human islets, though the level of expression was much lower in T2DM islets. The latter also had lower insulin release and higher concentration of nitrotyrosine. A positive correlation was apparent between SI and FXN gene expression, while a negative correlation was found between nitrotyrosine islet concentration and FXN expression. Transfection of Ctrl islets with siRNA FXN caused reduction of FXN expression, increase of nitrotyrosine concentration, and reduction of insulin release. In conclusion, in human pancreatic islets FXN contributes to regulation of oxidative stress and insulin release in response to glucose. In islets from T2DM patients FXN expression is reduced while oxidative stress is increased and insulin release in response to glucose impaired.
Hormone and Metabolic Research 03/2012; 44(6):471-5. · 2.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In addition to genetic predisposition, environmental and lifestyle factors contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Epigenetic changes may provide the link for translating environmental exposures into pathological mechanisms. In this study, we performed the first comprehensive DNA methylation profiling in pancreatic islets from T2D and non-diabetic donors. We uncovered 276 CpG loci affiliated to promoters of 254 genes displaying significant differential DNA methylation in diabetic islets. These methylation changes were not present in blood cells from T2D individuals nor were they experimentally induced in non-diabetic islets by exposure to high glucose. For a subgroup of the differentially methylated genes, concordant transcriptional changes were present. Functional annotation of the aberrantly methylated genes and RNAi experiments highlighted pathways implicated in β-cell survival and function; some are implicated in cellular dysfunction while others facilitate adaptation to stressors. Together, our findings offer new insights into the intricate mechanisms of T2D pathogenesis, underscore the important involvement of epigenetic dysregulation in diabetic islets and may advance our understanding of T2D aetiology.
The EMBO Journal 01/2012; 31(6):1405-26. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies suggest that insulin-signaling molecules are present in the pancreatic islets. For this reason, the effects of insulin glulisine, insulin aspart and regular human insulin (RHI) on the function and molecular features of isolated human pancreatic islets were investigated.
Human pancreatic islets were prepared by collagenase digestion and density-gradient purification of pancreata from multiple organ donors. Islets were then cultured for 48 h in the presence of 5.5 (normal) or 22.2 (high) mmol/L of glucose with and without glulisine, aspart and RHI (10 or 100 nmol/L). Functional (glucose-stimulated insulin secretion) and molecular (quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot) studies were performed at the end of the different incubation conditions.
Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was blunted in islets cultured in 22.2 mmol/L of glucose, with no significant effects from the exogenous added insulins. In islets maintained at 5.5 mmol/L of glucose, insulin receptor (IR) expression was reduced by low RHI, while phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase p110-alpha (PI3K) was enhanced by both concentrations of glulisine and aspart, and by high RHI. In islets preexposed to high glucose, IR expression was increased by both concentrations of aspart and RHI, but not by glulisine. Glulisine at high concentration significantly (P<0.05) increased PI3K expression. Glulisine and RHI significantly increased IRS-2 phosphorylation compared with control and aspart (P<0.05).
Insulin analogues have differential effects on the expression of insulin-signaling molecules in human pancreatic islets that are also dependent on the degree of glucose exposure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to deeper investigate the mechanisms through which ENPP1, a negative modulator of insulin receptor (IR) activation, plays a role on insulin signaling, insulin secretion and eventually glucose metabolism. ENPP1 cDNA (carrying either K121 or Q121 variant) was transfected in HepG2 liver-, L6 skeletal muscle- and INS1E beta-cells. Insulin-induced IR-autophosphorylation (HepG2, L6, INS1E), Akt-Ser(473), ERK1/2-Thr(202)/Tyr(204) and GSK3-beta Ser(9) phosphorylation (HepG2, L6), PEPCK mRNA levels (HepG2) and 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake (L6) was studied. GLUT 4 mRNA (L6), insulin secretion and caspase-3 activation (INS1E) were also investigated. Insulin-induced IR-autophosphorylation was decreased in HepG2-K, L6-K, INS1E-K (20%, 52% and 11% reduction vs. untransfected cells) and twice as much in HepG2-Q, L6-Q, INS1E-Q (44%, 92% and 30%). Similar data were obtained with Akt-Ser(473), ERK1/2-Thr(202)/Tyr(204) and GSK3-beta Ser(9) in HepG2 and L6. Insulin-induced reduction of PEPCK mRNA was progressively lower in untransfected, HepG2-K and HepG2-Q cells (65%, 54%, 23%). Insulin-induced glucose uptake in untransfected L6 (60% increase over basal), was totally abolished in L6-K and L6-Q cells. GLUT 4 mRNA was slightly reduced in L6-K and twice as much in L6-Q (13% and 25% reduction vs. untransfected cells). Glucose-induced insulin secretion was 60% reduced in INS1E-K and almost abolished in INS1E-Q. Serum deficiency activated caspase-3 by two, three and four folds in untransfected INS1E, INS1E-K and INS1E-Q. Glyburide-induced insulin secretion was reduced by 50% in isolated human islets from homozygous QQ donors as compared to those from KK and KQ individuals. Our data clearly indicate that ENPP1, especially when the Q121 variant is operating, affects insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle- and liver-cells and both function and survival of insulin secreting beta-cells, thus representing a strong pathogenic factor predisposing to insulin resistance, defective insulin secretion and glucose metabolism abnormalities.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(5):e19462. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GLP-1 and GIP are incretins known to affect beta-cell function and turnover. However, information on the direct actions of these hormones on human islet cells is limited. We tested the effects of acute (45min) or prolonged (2days) exposure to GLP-1 or GIP, alone or in combination, on the function and some molecular features of human islets isolated from non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic multiorgan donors. Acutely, both GLP-1 and, more markedly so, GIP, significantly potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin release, with no apparent synergic action. Some of these effects were observed with type 2 diabetic islets as well. Following prolonged exposure to the incretins, improved insulin secretion was observed, and transcription of insulin, PDX-1 and Bcl-2 was increased in both non-diabetic and diabetic islets, with the combination of GLP-1 and GIP showing more significant effects. Although it is still unclear at what extent these beta-cell direct actions of individual or combined incretins occur in-vivo in humans, nevertheless the results of the present study suggest that enhancing the exposure of pancreatic islets to circulating levels of both incretins may be useful for therapeutical purposes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aimsIslet transplantation is an attractive approach to treat type 1 diabetic patients. However, suboptimal islet engraftment still represents an unsolved problem. It has been shown that human islets release monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), one of the most powerful macrophage chemokines, which may impair the fate of the transplant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and role of MCP-1 in isolated human islets, including genotyping for a common polymorphism.
Transplantation Proceedings - TRANSPLANT PROC. 01/2010; 42(6):2247-2249.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: beta-cell dysfunction is central to the onset and progression of type 2 diabetes. Reduced islet number and/or diminished beta-cell mass/volume in the pancreas of type 2 diabetic subjects have been reported by many authors, mainly due to increased apoptosis not compensated for by adequate regeneration. In addition, ultrastructural analysis has shown reduced insulin granules and morphological changes in several beta-cell organelles, including mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Several quantitative and qualitative defects of beta-cell function have been described in human type 2 diabetes using isolated islets, including alterations in early phase, glucose-stimulated insulin release. These survival and functional changes are accompanied by modifications of islet gene and protein expression. The impact of genotype in affecting beta-cell function and survival has been addressed in a few studies, and a number of gene variants have been associated with beta-cell dysfunction. Among acquired factors, the role of glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity could be of particular importance, due to the potential deleterious impact of elevated levels of glucose and/or free fatty acids in the natural history of beta-cell damage. More recently, it has been proposed that inflammation might also play a role in the dysfunction of the beta-cell in type 2 diabetes. Encouraging, although preliminary, data show that some of these defects might be directly counteracted, at least in part, by appropriate in vitro pharmacological intervention.
Advances in experimental medicine and biology 01/2010; 654:501-14. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Islet transplantation is an attractive approach to treat type 1 diabetic patients. However, suboptimal islet engraftment still represents an unsolved problem. It has been shown that human islets release monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), one of the most powerful macrophage chemokines, which may impair the fate of the transplant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and role of MCP-1 in isolated human islets, including genotyping for a common polymorphism.
Pancreatic islets were isolated by enzymatic digestion and gradient purification from 41 nondiabetic multiorgan donors. We measured MCP-1 mRNA expression by quantitative real- time reverse-transcriptase polymerization chain reaction, analyzed the MCP-1 single nucleotide polymorphism, -2518 G/A (SNP, rs 1024611) and evaluated glucose-stimulated insulin release (IR; microU/islet/min).
MCP-1 mRNA expression was found in all studied batches of islets. Overall, IR was significantly higher at 16.7 mmol/L than 3.3 mmol/L glucose. We observed a significant negative correlation between MCP-1 mRNA expression and stimulation index (SI). We found that MCP-1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in CC and CT compared with TT genotype groups. Finally, SI was significant lower in the CC with respect to the TT genotype group.
These data show that MCP-1 gene expression regulated by the -2518 G/A polymorphism, is correlated with glucose-stimulated insulin release. The study of MCP-1 expression and genotype on isolated islets before transplantation may be useful to understand the inflammatory response after infusion of human islets into patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic islet transplantation has become one of the potential treatments for type 1 diabetes. We evaluated functional and viability parameters of isolated islets in relation to donors clinical characteristics and preparation variables.
Islets were isolated from 70 nondiabetic multiorgan donors of overall age of 62.5 +/- 15.9 years. There were 41 men and 29 women. Their mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.62 +/- 3.09 kg/m(2). We evaluated the islet number (IEQ/g pancreatic tissue) insulin release (IR; microU/islet/min) in response to 3.3 (g) or 16.7 (G) mmol/L glucose; calcium flux concentration (CFC); and islet cell viability.
IEQ was 5249 +/- 1505, with 73.7 +/- 14.96% viable islet cells. IR was 0.03 +/- 0.01 at g and 0.11 +/- 0.06 at G (stimulation index [S] = 3.24 +/- 1.96). CFC was 1.95 +/- 1.03 DeltaRFU. We observed positive correlations between viable cells and IR at g (R(2) = 0.260; P = .013), IR at G (R(2) = 0.165; P = .013), and CFC (R(2) = 0.175; P = .047). A positive correlation was documented between BMI and g (R(2) = 0.245; P = .016) and negative correlations between age with SI (R(2) = 0.188; P = .052) and cold ischemia time with IEQ (R(2) = 0.865; P = .0061).
These results showed that quality control of isolated human pancreatic islets allowed assessment of beta-cell function and survival before transplantation, revealing several important variables.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The C-allele of rs13266634 located in SLC30A8 (ZNT8) has been strongly associated with decreased insulin release and with type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility in some but not all studies. To shed further light on this issue, we performed a meta-analysis of the association between rs13266634 and T2D in different ethnic groups and assessed the relationships between SLC30A8 genotypes and some properties of isolated human islets.
From 32 original articles, a total of 77,234 control individuals and 44,945 subjects with T2D were studied in meta-analysis. To assess the relationships between SLC30A8 genotype and islet cell phenotype, insulin secretion in response to glucose, glucose plus arginine and glucose plus glibenclamide was determined in pancreatic islets isolated from 82 multiorgan donors genotyped for the rs13266634 polymorphism. Quantitative expression of SLC30A8, Insulin and Glucagon mRNA was also measured.
Overall, each SLC30A8 risk allele was associated with a 14% increased risk for T2D (P=2.78 x 10(-34)). The population risk of T2D attributable to this polymorphism was estimated at 9.5% in Europeans and 8.1% in East Asians. Basal and stimulated insulin secretion from human islets as well as islet expressions of SLC30A8, Insulin and Glucagon were not affected by the presence of the polymorphism. However, SLC30A8 expression was positively correlated with Insulin (r=0.75, P=6.43 x 10(-6)) and Glucagon (r: 0.70, P=4.89 x 10(-5)) levels.
The SLC30A8 rs13266634 polymorphism is among the most confirmed genetic markers of T2D in Europeans and East Asians. In isolated human islets, the risk C-allele does not affect ex-vivo insulin secretion and SLC30A8 expression, which is correlated with that of insulin and glucagon.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 01/2010; 100(1):77-82. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GPR40 is a membrane-bound receptor paired with medium and long-chain fatty acids (FFA) as endogenous ligands. Its acute activation potentiates insulin secretion from beta cells, whereas prolonged binding might contribute to the deleterious effects of chronic exposure to FFA. Little information is available on the expression of GPR40 and its regulation in human islets (HI).
HI were prepared by enzymatic digestion and gradient separation from the pancreas of 20 non-diabetic (Ctrl) and 13 type 2 diabetic (T2DM) multiorgan donors, and functional and molecular studies were then performed.
By qualitative and quantitative PCR experiments, mRNA expression was shown in HI. Both in T2DM islets and in Ctrl islets pre-exposed for 24 h to 1.0 mmol/l FFA (palmitate:oleate, 2:1), GPR40 mRNA expression was significantly reduced (p<0.01) in the T2DM cells as compared to Ctrl cells. A significant positive correlation was found between glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and GPR40 expression.
These results show the expression of GPR40 in human pancreatic islets which are regulated by FFA. The finding that T2DM islets have a lower GPR40 expression, and the correlation of these genes with insulin secretion, raises the possibility of an involvement of GPR40 in human diabetes beta-cell dysfunction.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of exposure to high glucose (HG) levels and sulphonylurea on isolated human islet-cell function, and to investigate some of the mechanisms that might be involved.
Islet cells were isolated, using collagenase digestion and gradient purification, from 13 pancreata from non-diabetic multiorgan donors (age: 61.2+/-11.5 years; gender: 7 men/6 women; body mass index: 25.1+/-2.8kg/m(2)). The cells were then cultured for 5 days with normal glucose (NG) concentrations (5.5mmol/L), or NG and HG (16.7mmol/L) levels (alternating every 24h), with or without the addition of therapeutic concentrations of gliclazide (10micromol/L) or glibenclamide (1.0micromol/L). At the end of incubation, functional (glucose-stimulated insulin secretion), morphological (electron microscopy) and molecular (gene and protein expression) studies were performed.
Insulin secretion differed significantly between study groups, with marked decreases in the presence of HG plus glibenclamide. Compared with NG, insulin expression decreased significantly with HG, and increased similarly with gliclazide as with glibenclamide. However, exposure to gliclazide, but not glibenclamide, significantly induced expression (at both gene and protein levels) of PDX-1, a fundamental beta-cell differentiation transcription factor, and Ki67, a marker of proliferation. However, gliclazide and glibenclamide did not differ in terms of effects on gene expression of the antiapoptotic molecule Bcl2 (increased significantly with both) and the proapoptotic molecule Bax (decreased significantly with both).
Gliclazide and glibenclamide have different effects on the changes induced by prolonged exposure of human islet cells to high levels of glucose.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic exposure to high free fatty acids (FFA) can lead to irreversible damage of beta-cell accounting for impaired insulin secretion. Multiple mechanisms concur in generating the damage, but activation of oxidative stress may contribute to the final toxic effect. To better understand the phenomenon of lipotoxicity in human beta-cells, we evaluated the effects of 24-h pre-culture with 1.0 mmol/l FFA on the function, survival and mRNA expression of several enzymes involved in the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Human islets, prepared by collagenase digestion and density gradient purification from 9 pancreases of multiorgan donors, were incubated for 24-h in the presence 1.0 mmol/l long-chain mixture (oleate:palmitate, 2:1) FFA, with or without 100 micromol/l IAC, a non-peptidyl low molecular weight radical scavenger. At the end of incubation period, insulin secretion was measured by static incubation, and mRNA expression of insulin, Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and HO-1 by quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR. Nitrotyrosine levels were determined by an ELISA technique.
As compared to control incubation (Ctrl, no FFA), exposure to FFA was associated with impaired insulin release and reduced insulin mRNA expression. The presence of IAC in the incubation medium increased insulin release significantly and prevented changes in mRNA expression. Exposure to FFA was associated with oxidative stress as indicated by a significant accumulation of nitrotyrosine and IAC restrained such an increase. mRNA expression of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, Catalase, GSH-Px, and HO-1 were all modified after FFA exposure. These changes were partially prevented in the presence of IAC.
In human islets 24-h exposure to high FFA causes oxidative stress associated with changes of several enzymes involved in ROS scavenging. These effects were prevented by the use of an antioxidant molecule.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 06/2009; 309(1-2):63-6. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beta cell loss contributes to type 2 diabetes, with increased apoptosis representing an underlying mechanism. Autophagy, i.e. the physiological degradation of damaged organelles and proteins, may, if altered, be associated with a distinct form of cell death. We studied several features of autophagy in beta cells from type 2 diabetic patients and assessed the role of metabolic perturbation and pharmacological intervention.
Pancreatic samples were obtained from organ donors and isolated islets prepared both by collagenase digestion and density gradient centrifugation. Beta cell morphology and morphometry were studied by electron microscopy. Gene expression studies were performed by quantitative RT-PCR.
Using electron microscopy, we observed more dead beta cells in diabetic (2.24 +/- 0.53%) than control (0.66 +/- 0.52%) samples (p < 0.01). Massive vacuole overload (suggesting altered autophagy) was associated with 1.18 +/- 0.54% dead beta cells in type 2 diabetic samples and with 0.36 +/- 0.26% in control samples (p < 0.05). Density volume of autophagic vacuoles and autophagosomes was significantly higher in diabetic beta cells. Unchanged gene expression of beclin-1 and ATG1 (also known as ULK1), and reduced transcription of LAMP2 and cathepsin B and D was observed in type 2 diabetic islets. Exposure of non-diabetic islets to increased NEFA concentration led to a marked increase of vacuole accumulation, together with enhanced beta cell death, which was associated with decreased LAMP2 expression. Metformin ameliorated autophagy alterations in diabetic beta cells and beta cells exposed to NEFA, a process associated with normalisation of LAMP2 expression.
Beta cells in human type 2 diabetes have signs of altered autophagy, which may contribute to loss of beta cell mass. To preserve beta cell mass in diabetic patients, it may be necessary to target multiple cell-death pathways.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Calpain-10 was the first gene to be identified influencing the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) by positioning cloning. Studies in b-cell lines and rodent islets suggest that calpain-10 may act as a regulator of insulin secretion. However, its role in human pancreatic islets remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine if calpain-10 expression is altered in islets from patients with T2D and if the transcript level correlates with insulin release. We also tested if polymorphisms in the CAPN10 gene are associated with gene expression and insulin secretion in vitro. Methodology/Principal Findings: Calpain-10 mRNA expression was analysed in human pancreatic islets from 34 non- diabetic and 10 T2D multi-organ donors. CAPN10 SNP-43 and SNP-44 were genotyped and related to gene expression and insulin release in response to glucose, arginine and glibenclamide. The mRNA level of calpain-10 was elevated by 64% in pancreatic islets from patients with T2D compared with non-diabetic donors (P = 0.01). Moreover, the calpain-10 expression correlated positively with arginine-stimulated insulin release in islets from non-diabetic donors (r = 0.45, P = 0.015). However, this correlation was lost in islets from patients with T2D (r = 0.09; P = 0.8). The G/G variant of SNP-43 was associated with reduced insulin release in response to glucose (P#0.04) in non-diabetic donors. Conclusions: While calpain-10 expression correlates with insulin release in non-diabetic human islets, this correlation is lost in T2D suggesting that a stimulatory effect of calpain-10 could be lost in patients with T2D.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calpain-10 was the first gene to be identified influencing the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) by positioning cloning. Studies in beta-cell lines and rodent islets suggest that calpain-10 may act as a regulator of insulin secretion. However, its role in human pancreatic islets remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine if calpain-10 expression is altered in islets from patients with T2D and if the transcript level correlates with insulin release. We also tested if polymorphisms in the CAPN10 gene are associated with gene expression and insulin secretion in vitro.
Calpain-10 mRNA expression was analysed in human pancreatic islets from 34 non-diabetic and 10 T2D multi-organ donors. CAPN10 SNP-43 and SNP-44 were genotyped and related to gene expression and insulin release in response to glucose, arginine and glibenclamide. The mRNA level of calpain-10 was elevated by 64% in pancreatic islets from patients with T2D compared with non-diabetic donors (P = 0.01). Moreover, the calpain-10 expression correlated positively with arginine-stimulated insulin release in islets from non-diabetic donors (r = 0.45, P = 0.015). However, this correlation was lost in islets from patients with T2D (r = 0.09; P = 0.8). The G/G variant of SNP-43 was associated with reduced insulin release in response to glucose (P</=0.04) in non-diabetic donors.
While calpain-10 expression correlates with insulin release in non-diabetic human islets, this correlation is lost in T2D suggesting that a stimulatory effect of calpain-10 could be lost in patients with T2D.
PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(8):e6558. · 3.73 Impact Factor