Victor V Chizhikov

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

Are you Victor V Chizhikov?

Claim your profile

Publications (26)223.02 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Model organism studies have demonstrated that cell fate specification decisions play an important role in normal brain development. Their role in human neurodevelopmental disorders, however, is poorly understood, with very few examples described. The cerebellum is an excellent system to study mechanisms of cell fate specification. Although signals from the isthmic organizer are known to specify cerebellar territory along the anterior-posterior axis of the neural tube, the mechanisms establishing the cerebellar anlage along the dorsal-ventral axis are unknown. Here we show that the gene encoding pancreatic transcription factor PTF1A, which is inactivated in human patients with cerebellar agenesis, is required to segregate the cerebellum from more ventral extracerebellar fates. Using genetic fate mapping in mice, we show that in the absence of Ptf1a, cells originating in the cerebellar ventricular zone initiate a more ventral brainstem expression program, including LIM homeobox transcription factor 1 beta and T-cell leukemia homeobox 3. Misspecified cells exit the cerebellar anlage and contribute to the adjacent brainstem or die, leading to cerebellar agenesis in Ptf1a mutants. Our data identify Ptf1a as the first gene involved in the segregation of the cerebellum from the more ventral brainstem. Further, we propose that cerebellar agenesis represents a new, dorsal-to-ventral, cell fate misspecification phenotype in humans.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2014; · 9.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chromosome 17p13.3 is a gene rich region that when deleted is associated with the well-known Miller-Dieker syndrome. A recently described duplication syndrome involving this region has been associated with intellectual impairment, autism and occasional brain MRI abnormalities. We report 34 additional patients from 21 families to further delineate the clinical, neurological, behavioral, and brain imaging findings. We found a highly diverse phenotype with inter- and intrafamilial variability, especially in cognitive development. The most specific phenotype occurred in individuals with large duplications that include both the YWHAE and LIS1 genes. These patients had a relatively distinct facial phenotype and frequent structural brain abnormalities involving the corpus callosum, cerebellar vermis, and cranial base. Autism spectrum disorders were seen in a third of duplication probands, most commonly in those with duplications of YWHAE and flanking genes such as CRK. The typical neurobehavioral phenotype was usually seen in those with the larger duplications. We did not confirm the association of early overgrowth with involvement of YWHAE and CRK, or growth failure with duplications of LIS1. Older patients were often overweight. Three variant phenotypes included cleft lip/palate (CLP), split hand/foot with long bone deficiency (SHFLD), and a connective tissue phenotype resembling Marfan syndrome. The duplications in patients with clefts appear to disrupt ABR, while the SHFLD phenotype was associated with duplication of BHLHA9 as noted in two recent reports. The connective tissue phenotype did not have a convincing critical region. Our experience with this large cohort expands knowledge of this diverse duplication syndrome. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 06/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Victor Chizhikov, Kathleen J Millen
    01/2013;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Heterozygous deletions encompassing the ZIC1;ZIC4 locus have been identified in a subset of individuals with the common cerebellar birth defect Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM). Deletion of Zic1 and Zic4 in mice produces both cerebellar size and foliation defects similar to human DWM, confirming a requirement for these genes in cerebellar development and providing a model to delineate the developmental basis of this clinically important congenital malformation. Here, we show that reduced cerebellar size in Zic1 and Zic4 mutants results from decreased postnatal granule cell progenitor proliferation. Through genetic and molecular analyses, we show that Zic1 and Zic4 have Shh-dependent function promoting proliferation of granule cell progenitors. Expression of the Shh-downstream genes Ptch1, Gli1 and Mycn was downregulated in Zic1/4 mutants, although Shh production and Purkinje cell gene expression were normal. Reduction of Shh dose on the Zic1(+/-);Zic4(+/-) background also resulted in cerebellar size reductions and gene expression changes comparable with those observed in Zic1(-/-);Zic4(-/-) mice. Zic1 and Zic4 are additionally required to pattern anterior vermis foliation. Zic mutant folial patterning abnormalities correlated with disrupted cerebellar anlage gene expression and Purkinje cell topography during late embryonic stages; however, this phenotype was Shh independent. In Zic1(+/-);Zic4(+/-);Shh(+/-), we observed normal cerebellar anlage patterning and foliation. Furthermore, cerebellar patterning was normal in both Gli2-cko and Smo-cko mutant mice, where all Shh function was removed from the developing cerebellum. Thus, our data demonstrate that Zic1 and Zic4 have both Shh-dependent and -independent roles during cerebellar development and that multiple developmental disruptions underlie Zic1/4-related DWM.
    Development 03/2011; 138(6):1207-16. · 6.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ROR-alpha is an orphan nuclear receptor, inactivation of which cell-autonomously blocks differentiation of cerebellar Purkinje cells with a secondary loss of granule neurons. As part of our ENU mutagenesis screen we isolated the recessive tmgc26 mouse mutant, characterized by early-onset progressive ataxia, cerebellar degeneration and juvenile lethality. Detailed analysis of the tmgc26-/- cerebella revealed Purkinje cell and granule cell abnormalities, and defects in molecular layer interneurons and radial glia. Chimera studies suggested a cell-autonomous effect of the tmgc26 mutation in Purkinje cells and molecular layer interneurons, and a non-cell-autonomous effect in granule cells. The mutation was mapped to a 13-Mb interval on chromosome 9, a region that contains the ROR-alpha gene. Sequencing of genomic DNA revealed a T-to-A transition in exon 5 of the ROR-alpha gene, resulting in a nonsense mutation C257X and severe truncation of the ROR-alpha protein. Together, our data identify new roles for ROR-alpha in molecular layer interneurons and radial glia development and suggest tmgc26 as a novel ROR-alpha allele that may be used to further delineate the molecular mechanisms of ROR-alpha action.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 09/2010; 32(5):707-16. · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cerebellar rhombic lip and telencephalic cortical hem are dorsally located germinal zones which contribute substantially to neuronal diversity in the CNS, but the mechanisms that drive neurogenesis within these zones are ill defined. Using genetic fate mapping in wild-type and Lmx1a(-/-) mice, we demonstrate that Lmx1a is a critical regulator of cell-fate decisions within both these germinal zones. In the developing cerebellum, Lmx1a is expressed in the roof plate, where it is required to segregate the roof plate lineage from neuronal rhombic lip derivatives. In addition, Lmx1a is expressed in a subset of rhombic lip progenitors which produce granule cells that are predominantly restricted to the cerebellar posterior vermis. In the absence of Lmx1a, these cells precociously exit the rhombic lip and overmigrate into the anterior vermis. This overmigration is associated with premature regression of the rhombic lip and posterior vermis hypoplasia in Lmx1a(-/-) mice. These data reveal molecular organization of the cerebellar rhombic lip and introduce Lmx1a as an important regulator of rhombic lip cell-fate decisions, which are critical for maintenance of the entire rhombic lip and normal cerebellar morphogenesis. In the developing telencephalon Lmx1a is expressed in the cortical hem, and in its absence cortical hem progenitors contribute excessively to the adjacent hippocampus instead of producing Cajal-Retzius neurons. Thus, Lmx1a activity is critical for proper production of cells originating from both the cerebellar rhombic lip and the telencephalic cortical hem.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2010; 107(23):10725-30. · 9.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The roof plate is an organizing center in the dorsal CNS that controls specification and differentiation of adjacent neurons through secretion of the BMP and WNT signaling molecules. Lmx1a, a member of the LIM-homeodomain (LIM-HD) transcription factor family, is expressed in the roof plate and its progenitors at all axial levels of the CNS and is necessary and sufficient for roof plate formation in the spinal cord. In the anterior CNS, however, a residual roof plate develops in the absence of Lmx1a. Lmx1b, another member of the LIM-HD transcription factor family which is highly related to Lmx1a, is expressed in the roof plate in the anterior CNS. Although Lmx1b-null mice do not show a substantial deficiency in hindbrain roof plate formation, Lmx1a/Lmx1b compound-null mutants fail to generate hindbrain roof plate. This observation indicates that both genes act in concert to direct normal hindbrain roof plate formation. Since the requirement of Lmx1b function for normal isthmic organizer at the mid-hindbrain boundary complicates analysis of a distinct dorsal patterning role of this gene, we also used a conditional knock-out strategy to specifically delete dorsal midline Lmx1b expression. Phenotypic analysis of single and compound conditional mutants confirmed overlapping roles for Lmx1 genes in regulating hindbrain roof plate formation and growth and also revealed roles in regulating adjacent cerebellar morphogenesis. Our data provides the first evidence of overlapping function of the Lmx1 genes during embryonic CNS development.
    Journal of Neuroscience 10/2009; 29(36):11377-84. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM), the most common human cerebellar malformation, has only one characterized associated locus. Here we characterize a second DWM-linked locus on 6p25.3, showing that deletions or duplications encompassing FOXC1 are associated with cerebellar and posterior fossa malformations including cerebellar vermis hypoplasia (CVH), mega-cisterna magna (MCM) and DWM. Foxc1-null mice have embryonic abnormalities of the rhombic lip due to loss of mesenchyme-secreted signaling molecules with subsequent loss of Atoh1 expression in vermis. Foxc1 homozygous hypomorphs have CVH with medial fusion and foliation defects. Human FOXC1 heterozygous mutations are known to affect eye development, causing a spectrum of glaucoma-associated anomalies (Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, ARS; MIM no. 601631). We report the first brain imaging data from humans with FOXC1 mutations and show that these individuals also have CVH. We conclude that alteration of FOXC1 function alone causes CVH and contributes to MCM and DWM. Our results highlight a previously unrecognized role for mesenchyme-neuroepithelium interactions in the mid-hindbrain during early embryogenesis.
    Nature Genetics 09/2009; 41(9):1037-42. · 35.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Nature Genetics 12/2008; 40(11):1384. · 35.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: CASK is a multi-domain scaffolding protein that interacts with the transcription factor TBR1 and regulates expression of genes involved in cortical development such as RELN. Here we describe a previously unreported X-linked brain malformation syndrome caused by mutations of CASK. All five affected individuals with CASK mutations had congenital or postnatal microcephaly, disproportionate brainstem and cerebellar hypoplasia, and severe mental retardation.
    Nature Genetics 10/2008; 40(9):1065-7. · 35.21 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - INT J DEV NEUROSCI. 01/2008; 26(8):856-856.
  • Developmental Biology - DEVELOP BIOL. 01/2008; 319(2):594-595.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although human congenital cerebellar malformations are common, their molecular and developmental basis is still poorly understood. Recently, cilia-related gene deficiencies have been implicated in several congenital disorders that exhibit cerebellar abnormalities such as Joubert syndrome, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and Orofaciodigital syndrome. The association of cilia gene mutations with these syndromes suggests that cilia may be important for cerebellar development, but the nature of cilia involvement has not been elucidated. To assess the importance of cilia-related proteins during cerebellar development, we studied the effects of CNS-specific inactivation of two mouse genes whose protein products are critical for cilia formation and maintenance, IFT88, (also known as polaris or Tg737), which encodes intraflagellar transport 88 homolog, and Kif3a, which encodes kinesin family member 3a. We showed that loss of either of these genes caused severe cerebellar hypoplasia and foliation abnormalities, primarily attributable to a failure of expansion of the neonatal granule cell progenitor population. In addition, granule cell progenitor proliferation was sensitive to partial loss of IFT function in a hypomorphic mutant of IFT88 (IFT88(orpk)), an effect that was modified by genetic background. IFT88 and Kif3a were not required for the specification and differentiation of most other cerebellar cell types, including Purkinje cells. Together, our observations constitute the first demonstration that cilia proteins are essential for normal cerebellar development and suggest that granule cell proliferation defects may be central to the cerebellar pathology in human cilia-related disorders.
    Journal of Neuroscience 10/2007; 27(36):9780-9. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Marissa C Blank, Victor Chizhikov, Kathleen J Millen
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Large size and external development of the chicken embryo have long made it a valuable tool in the study of developmental biology. With the advent of molecular biological techniques, the chick has become a useful system in which to study gene regulation and function. By electroporating DNA or RNA constructs into the developing chicken embryo, genes can be expressed or knocked down in order to analyze in vivo gene function. Similarly, reporter constructs can be used for fate mapping or to examine putative gene regulatory elements. Compared to similar experiments in mouse, chick electroporation has the advantages of being quick, easy and inexpensive. This video demonstrates first how to make a window in the eggshell to manipulate the embryo. Next, the embryo is visualized with a dilute solution of India ink injected below the embryo. A glass needle and pipette are used to inject DNA and Fast Green dye into the developing neural tube, then platinum electrodes are placed parallel to the embryo and short electrical pulses are administered with a pulse generator. Finally, the egg is sealed with tape and placed back into an incubator for further development. Additionally, the video shows proper egg storage and handling and discusses possible causes of embryo loss following electroporation.
    Journal of Visualized Experiments 02/2007;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mice homozygous for the dreher (dr) mutation are characterized by pigmentation and skeletal abnormalities and striking behavioral phenotypes, including ataxia, vestibular deficits, and hyperactivity. The ataxia is associated with a cerebellar malformation that is remarkably similar to human Dandy-Walker malformation. Previously, positional cloning identified mutations in LIM homeobox transcription factor 1 alpha gene (Lmx1a) in three dr alleles. Two of these alleles, however, are extinct and unavailable for further analysis. In this article we report a new spontaneous dr allele and describe the Lmx1a mutations in this and six additional dr alleles. Strikingly, deletion null, missense, and frameshift mutations in these alleles all cause similar cerebellar malformations, suggesting that all dr mutations analyzed to date are null alleles.
    Mammalian Genome 11/2006; 17(10):1025-32. · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During embryogenesis, the isthmic organizer, a well-described signaling center at the junction of the mid-hindbrain, establishes the cerebellar territory along the anterior/posterior axis of the neural tube. Mechanisms specifying distinct populations within the early cerebellar anlage are less defined. Using a newly developed gene expression map of the early cerebellar anlage, we demonstrate that secreted signals from the rhombomere 1 roof plate are both necessary and sufficient for specification of the adjacent cerebellar rhombic lip and its derivative fates. Surprisingly, we show that the roof plate is not absolutely required for initial specification of more distal cerebellar cell fates, but rather regulates progenitor proliferation and cell position within the cerebellar anlage. Thus, in addition to the isthmus, the roof plate represents an important signaling center controlling multiple aspects of cerebellar patterning.
    Development 09/2006; 133(15):2793-804. · 6.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Victor V Chizhikov, Kathleen J Millen
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), diverse cellular types are generated in response to inductive signals provided by specialized cellular groups that act as organizing centers. The roof plate is a critical dorsal signaling center that occupies the dorsal midline of the developing CNS along its entire anterior-posterior axis. During caudal neural tube development, the roof plate produces proteins of the Bmp and Wnt families controlling proliferation, specification, migration, and axon guidance of adjacent dorsal interneurons. Although primarily investigated in the developing spinal cord, a growing number of studies indicate that roof plate-derived signals are also critical for the patterning of dorsal structures in more rostral regions of CNS including the hindbrain, diencephalon and telencephalon. In this review, we discuss recent progress towards understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of roof plate-dependent patterning of the dorsal CNS.
    Developmental Biology 02/2005; 277(2):287-95. · 3.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Victor V Chizhikov, Kathleen J Millen
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The roof plate is an embryonic organizing centre that occupies the dorsal midline of the vertebrate neural tube. During early CNS development, the roof plate produces secreted factors, which control the specification and differentiation of dorsal neuronal cell types. An appreciation of the signalling properties of the roof plate has prompted an enhanced interest in this important organizing centre, and several recent studies have begun to illuminate the molecular mechanisms of roof plate development.
    Nature reviews. Neuroscience 11/2004; 5(10):808-12. · 31.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

622 Citations
223.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2011
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2010
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Medical Genetics
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2006
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2002
    • Clinical Research Center of Moscow
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 2001
    • N.N. Blokhin Cancer Research Center
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia