T E Engle

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States

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Publications (93)119.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the influence of day of gestation (DG) and feeding regimens (FR) on the expression of genes responsible for placenta development, nutrient transfer, and angiogenic factors in Holstein × Gyr cows. Forty pregnant multiparous Holstein × Gyr cows with an average initial body weight of 482 ± 10.8 kg and an initial age of 5 ± 0.8 yr were allocated to 1 of 2 FR: ad libitum (AL; n = 20) or maintenance level (ML; n = 20). Maintenance level was considered to be 1.15% of body weight (dry matter basis) and met 100% of the net energy requirements and AL provided 190% of the total net energy requirements. Cows were slaughtered at 4 DG: 139, 199, 241, and 268 d. After the cows were slaughtered, the placenta and uterus were separated and weighed. Caruncles and cotyledons were individually separated, counted, and weighed. Placenta expressed as kilograms and grams per kilogram of empty body weight (EBW) was heavier in ML- than in AL-fed cows at 268 d of gestation. Placenta expressed as kilograms and grams per kilogram of EBW was the lightest at 139 d of gestation, and the greatest mass was observed at 268 d in ML-fed cows. However, in AL-fed cows, the heaviest placenta expressed as grams per kilogram of EBW was observed from 199 d of gestation. Placentomes expressed as grams per kilogram of EBW were heavier in ML-fed cows during gestation, and the number of placentomes was greater in ML-fed cows at 268 d of gestation. We observed that IGFR1 and IGFR2 were involved in placenta adaptations when ML was provided, as their expression in placentome cells was greater in ML-fed cows at 268 d of gestation. The genes responsible for angiogenesis were also greater in ML-fed cows: VEGFA, GUCY1B3, HIFA, FGF2, and NOS3 were altered by FR and DG interaction and they were greater in ML-fed cows at 268 d of gestation. In addition, VEGFB and ANGPT2 did not show interactions between FR and DG, but they were greater in ML-fed cows. Thus, we suggest that the placenta from an ML-fed cow develops adaptations to the reduced nutrient supply by altering its structure and gene expression, thereby developing mechanisms for potential increased nutrient transfer efficiency to the fetus. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the influence of day of gestation (DG) and feeding regimens (FR) on maternal and fetal visceral organ mass in Holstein × Gyr cows. Forty-four pregnant multiparous Holstein × Gyr cows with an average initial body weight of 480 ± 10.1 kg and an average initial age of 5 ± 0.5 yr were allocated to 1 of 2 FR: ad libitum (AL; n = 20) or maintenance level (ML; n = 24). Maintenance level was considered to be 1.15% of body weight (dry matter basis) and met 100% of the energy requirements; AL provided 190% of the total net energy requirements. Cows were individually fed a corn silage and concentrate-based diet composed of 93% roughage and 7% concentrate (dry matter basis) as a total mixed ration twice daily. Pregnant cows were slaughtered at 4 DG: 139 (n = 11), 199 (n = 11), 241 (n = 11), and 268 (n = 11) d, which was followed by necropsy. Mass of heart, liver, and gastrointestinal tract was heavier in AL- than in ML-fed cows. Mammary gland mass was heavier in AL- than in ML-fed cows, and the heaviest mass was observed at 268 d of gestation. Feeding regimen did not influence fetal body weight in this study. The majority of the visceral organ masses were similar in fetuses from cows fed AL or ML. These data indicate that maternal feed restriction does not affect the development of most fetal organs or fetal development; however, some maternal organs are affected by the FR provided. Moreover, the negative effect on mammary gland mass caused by ML feeding will probably not affect the subsequent lactation because the crude protein concentration in the mammary gland increased with ML feeding. However, we suggest that the AL diet in pregnant dry cows should be provided with caution because the amount of fat in the mammary gland increased at 268 d of gestation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated how feeding regimen (FR) alters apparent total-tract digestibility, performance, N balance, excretion of purine derivatives, and fat deposition in Holstein × Gyr cows at different days of gestation (DG). Forty-four pregnant multiparous Holstein × Gyr cows with an average initial body weight of 480 ± 10.1 kg and an initial age of 5 ± 0.5 yr old were allocated to 1 of 2 FR: ad libitum (AL; n = 20) and maintenance level (ML; n = 24). Maintenance level was considered to be 1.15% of body weight on a dry matter (DM) basis and met 100% of the energy requirements, whereas AL provided 190% of total net energy requirements. Data for hot and cold carcass dressing, fat deposition, average daily gain, empty body gain, and average daily gain without the gravid uterus were analyzed as a 4 × 2 factorial design. Intake, apparent total-tract digestibility, N balance, urinary concentration of urea, and purine derivatives data were analyzed as repeated measurements taken over the 28-d period (122, 150, 178, 206, 234, and 262 d of gestation). Cows were individually fed a corn silage-concentrate based diet composed of 93% roughage and 7% concentrate (DM basis) as a total mixed ration. Pregnant cows were slaughtered on 4 different DG: 139 (n = 11), 199 (n = 11), 241 (n = 11), and 268 d (n = 11). Overall, DM intake decreased as DG increased. This decrease observed in DM intake may be associated with the reduction in ruminal volume caused by the rapid increase in fetal size during late gestation. We observed an interaction for DM and organic matter apparent total-tract digestibility between FR and DG; at 150, 178, and 206 d of gestation, ML-fed cows had greater DM and organic matter apparent total-tract digestibility values than AL-fed cows. Rib fat thickness, mesentery, and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat were greater in AL-fed than in ML-fed cows at all DG, with the exception of rib fat thickness on d 139. Ad libitum-fed cows excreted more N in their feces and urine compared with ML-fed cows. Pregnant cows that were fed at maintenance had greater digestibility during some DG, excreted less N in feces and less N and urea in urine, and deposited less fat in the body. We therefore recommend ML (1.15% of body weight with 93% of roughage) as a FR for pregnant dry cows; however, during the last month of gestation, AL seems to be the most appropriate FR to avoid loss of body weight. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the impact of duration of maternal undernutrition in twin sheep pregnancies, ewes were either fed 100% (C), or 50% of their nutrient requirements from 28 to 78 d gestational age (dGA) and readjusted to 100% beginning at 79 dGA (LC), or continuously restricted from 28 to 135 dGA (LL). Weights of the fetus, empty carcass, brain, and liver were greater in the LC than LL fetuses at 135 dGA (P ≤ 0.05). While umbilical vein (UmV) glucose concentrations did not differ, the UmV:umbilical artery (UmA) glucose gradient was smaller (0.26 ± 0.03 vs 0.38 ± 0.03 and 0.39 ± 0.04 mmol L-1; P ≤ 0.05) in LL than C and LC fetuses, respectively. Umbilical vein concentrations of IGF-1 were less (46.7 ± 5.62 vs 74.3 ± 6.71 ng/ml; P ≤ 0.05) in LL than LC fetuses. Additionally, LL fetuses tended (P ≤ 0.10) to have lower UmA concentrations of insulin (0.24 ± 0.13 vs 0.70 ± 0.15 ng/ml) and IGF-1 (66.6 ± 7.51 vs 91.4 ± 8.97 ng/ml) than LC fetuses. While most of the observed differences occurred between LC and LL pregnancies, LC fetuses tended (P ≤ 0.10) to have greater UmV and UmA pCO2 than C fetuses. Furthermore, the UmV:UmA O2 content gradient tended to be greater (5.02 ± 0.43 vs 3.41 ± 0.47; P ≤ 0.10) in C than LL fetuses. UmA placental lactogen also tended to be greater (46.6 ± 4.40 vs 31.1 ± 4.69 ng/ml; P ≤ 0.10) in LL than C fetuses. These data suggest that in twin pregnancies, maternal undernutrition followed by realimentation induces a different fetal outcome compared with continuous nutrient restriction, and both may differ physiologically from control fed pregnancies.
    Domestic Animal Endocrinology 09/2014; 51. DOI:10.1016/j.domaniend.2014.09.003 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present experiment was designed to evaluate the use of microbial markers (MM), sampling sites (SS), and marker systems (MS) to estimate microbial nitrogen (MN) synthesis in bulls and to develop equations to correct MN estimates when only one of the aforementioned techniques was utilized. The MM systems evaluated were 1) purine bases (PB) and 2) 15N labeling. The SS evaluated were: 1) reticulum, 2) omasum, and 3) abomasum, and the single, double and triple MS were evaluated. Eight crossbred (Holstein×Zebu) bulls (353±36.9 kg of BW; 24±1 mo) with ruminal and abomasal cannulas were utilized in this experiment. The following experimental diets were used: 1) 60% corn silage+40% concentrate, 2) 40% corn silage+60% concentrate, 3) 60% fresh sugarcane+40% concentrate, and 4) 40% fresh sugarcane+60% concentrate. Four experimental periods lasting 16 d each were completed with 10 d for adaptation to the experimental diet and 6 d for sampling. Bulls were randomly distributed into two 4×4 Latin squares balanced for residual effects. Data were analyzed in a Latin square design using PROC MIXED. Interactions were observed (P<0.05) in MN, microbial crude protein/total digestible nutrients (MCP/TDN), microbial nitrogen/rumen fermented organic matter (MN/RFOM), microbial nitrogen/rumen truly fermented organic matter (MN/RTFOM), and microbial dry matter/rumen fermented total carbohydrates (MDM/RFTCHO) between SS and MM. For PB, the greatest (P<0.01) values of MN were observed for the digesta sampled in the reticulum and abomasum. In contrast, for 15N, the greatest (P<0.01) values were observed for digesta sampled in the omasum and abomasum. Microbial nitrogen yield was only different (P<0.05) when using reticulum and 15N from those estimated using abomasum and 15N. Thus, the equation developed to correct MN value was: MN (g/d)=27.93±2.46+0.99±0.09×reticulum 15N. The triple MS exhibited the greatest (P<0.01) value of MN compared to the single and double MS. No interactions (P>0.05) were observed between MS and MM or SS; thus, the equation established to correct MN value used only the MS. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that there is no difference using 15N to estimate MN yield if omasum or abomasum are used. Therefore, the omasum can be used as an accurate SS to predict MN. The triple MS presented higher values than the single and double MS. Thus, if single or double MS is used the value must be corrected by the equation obtained using the triple MS.
    Livestock Science 09/2014; 167. DOI:10.1016/j.livsci.2014.06.010 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if supplementation of omega (ώ)-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) alters synovial fluid fatty acid composition and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration of mature, healthy horses.: Twenty, non-pregnant light breed mares were assigned into one of three daily dietary treatments. Group 1 (MARINE) received 38g total of the ώ-3 LCPUFA alpha linolenic acid (ALA, 2g), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 7.6g) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 26.6g) via a marine-derived supplement; Group 2 (FLAX) received 38g of ώ-3 ALA via a flaxseed supplement and Group 3 (CONT) did not receive additional ώ-3 LCPUFA. Blood was taken at baseline, 30, 60, and 90 days of supplementation and plasma separated. After of 90 days of supplementation, 3 ml of synovial fluid was obtained through arthrocentesis. Plasma and synovial fluid were analyzed to identify fatty acid profiles, and determine PGE2 concentration. MARINE synovial fluid fatty acids contained higher of EPA and DHA compared to the CONT group; and higher DHA levels compared to FLAX group. EPA was not detected in synovial fluid from the FLAX group. Prostaglandin E2 did not differ (P>0.05) among horses; however, the MARINE group tended (P=0.10) to have lower synovial PGE2 concentration compared to CONT horses. The presence of EPA and DHA only in MARINE synovial fluid and plasma suggests direct supplementation of EPA and DHA is needed to modify fatty acid composition. A tendency for lower synovial PGE2 in healthy horses receiving oral EPA/DHA merits further investigation in the ώ-3 supplementation effect on prostaglandin production.
    Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 06/2014; 34(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jevs.2014.01.014 · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of corn silage (CS) or sugar cane (SC) additions to finishing diets on voluntary intake, apparent digestibility, animal performance, and LM fatty acid (FA) composition in crossbred Holstein × Zebu bulls. Forty-two bulls (initial BW 328 ± 39.2 kg and an initial age of 23.5 mo) were utilized in this experiment. A completely randomized design was used to examine roughage source (CS vs. SC) and ratio of concentrate (CO) on nutrient utilization and production. The experimental diets consisted of: 1) 60% CS:40% CO fed for 84 d (CS 60:40), 2) 60% CS:40% CO fed for 42 d and 40% CS:60% CO fed for 42 d - CS reverse diet (CSR), 3) 40% CS:60% CO fed for 84 d (CS 40:60), 4) 60% SC:40% CO fed for 84 d (SC 60:40), 5) 60% SC:40% CO fed for 42 d and 40% SC:60% CO fed for 42 d - SC reverse diet (SCR), and 6) 40% SC:60% CO fed for 84 d (SC 40:60). Dry matter and NDF intakes were greater (P < 0.01) in bulls fed CS-based diets than bulls fed SC-based diets. The greatest (P < 0.01) DM and CP digestibility were observed in bulls fed SC-based diets. Bulls fed CSR and CS 40:60 had greater (P < 0.01) ADG than bulls fed SC-based diets. However, ADG was similar (P = 0.52) in bulls fed CS 60:40, CSR, and SC 40:60 diets. The percentage of C18:3(n-3) and C20:5(n-3) were greater (P < 0.01) in LM of bulls fed SC-based diets. The percentage of CLA was greater (P < 0.01) in LM of bulls fed SC 60:40 than those fed CS-based diets. The findings of the present study indicate that SC 40:60 can replace CS 60:40 and CSR in finishing diets and moreover, roughage source significantly altered the FA composition of crossbred Holstein × Zebu bulls LM.
    Journal of Animal Science 04/2014; DOI:10.2527/jas.2013-7251 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Meat Science 01/2014; 96(1):447. DOI:10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.07.051 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of castration method (banding vs. surgical) and use of analgesia on behavior and feedlot performance in cull bulls. Angus, Hereford, and Angus-crossbred bulls (n = 20; initial BW = 384 ± 59.3 kg; 336 ± 20.1 d old) were housed in feedlot pens equipped with the ability to measure individual daily feed intake. A balanced randomized block design using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was utilized. A multimodal analgesia protocol (MMA) was used and consisted of s.c. ketamine-stun containing butorphanol (0.01 mg/kg BW), xylazine (0.02 mg/kg BW), ketamine (0.04 mg/kg BW), and a local 2% lidocaine hydrochloride anesthetic block of the spermatic cords (10 mL/cord) and scrotum (10 mL) on d 0. Flunixin meglumine (1.2 mg/kg) was administered i.v. on d 0, 1, 2 and 3 to MMA cattle. Cattle were stratified to treatments based on breed, BW, age, and a temperament score. Treatments included: 1) band castration without analgesia (BND); 2) band castration with analgesia (BND-MMA); 3) surgical castration without analgesia (SURG); and 4) surgical castration with analgesia (SURG-MMA). All castrations were performed on d 0. Chute exit velocity (EV) and time in chute (TIC) were collected on d -9, 0, 1, 2, and 13. Willingness-to-enter-chute (WTE) score, rectal temperature (TEMP), heart rate (HR), and respiration (RESP) were collected on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 13. Cattle were weighed on d -9 and 13 while feeding behaviors were collected continuously for 57 d pre-castration and 28 d post-castration. There was a tendency (P < 0.09) for ADG to be greater in cattle receiving analgesia. Both SURG treatments exhibited elevated TEMP on d 1 (P < 0.001) and 2 (P < 0.05) compared to BND treatments. Post-castration DMI was greater (P = 0.02) in MMA treatments compared with non-medicated treatments throughout the trial. Meal duration was greater (P < 0.05) in BND than SURG castrates during the first week post-castration. Results suggest that pain mitigation reduces the impact of castration on ADG and DMI.
    Journal of Animal Science 08/2013; 91(10). DOI:10.2527/jas.2012-6061 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments evaluated the effects of band castration and oral administration of an analgesic in association with castration on performance and behavioral and physiological responses in yearling beef bulls. In Exp. 1 Angus and Charolais-crossbred bull calves (n = 127; 309.8 ± 59.04 kg) and in Exp. 2 Hereford, Angus, and Hereford × Angus crossbred bulls (n = 30; 300.8 ± 4.96 kg), were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) band castration (BAND), 2) band castration with oral administration of meloxicam (BAND-MEL), and 3) sham castration (SHAM). The BAND and SHAM procedures were completed on d 0. The SHAM treatment consisted of all animal manipulations associated with band castration without band application. Meloxicam was administered on d -1, 0, and 1 (1.0 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively) via an oral bolus. Body weight and a subjective chute score (CS) were collected on d -1, 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 (d 28 Exp. 1 only). In Exp. 2, jugular blood samples were collected immediately before castration and 24 hr post-castration for Substance P (SP) analysis. In Exp. 2, video documentation on d 0 was used to determine range of vertical head motion (DIST) on a subset of animals during treatment administration. In both experiments, ADG was similar (P ≥ 0.50) between BAND and BAND-MEL, but ADG in SHAM cattle was greater (P < 0.001) and tended (P = 0.07) to be greater than castrates in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. In Exp. 1, CS did not differ (P ≥ 0.26) between BAND and BAND-MEL on any d, but castrates exhibited less desirable CS on d 1 and 28 than SHAM cattle. In Exp. 2, CS was not affected (P ≥ 0.41) by castration or the presence of meloxicam. In Exp. 2, DIST did not differ (P = 0.57) between BAND and BAND-MEL, but when pooled, castrates exhibited greater (P = 0.04) DIST than SHAM. In Exp. 2, plasma SP concentrations were similar between BAND and BAND-MEL (P = 0.81), and castrates vs. sham cattle (P = 0.67). Results indicate no impact of meloxicam administration on performance or behavioral and physiological responses to band castration. However, there was a negative impact of castration on ADG and DIST.
    Journal of Animal Science 07/2013; 91(10). DOI:10.2527/jas.2012-6070 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of dietary ω-3 fatty acid supplementation on insulin sensitivity (SI) in horses. Twenty-one mares were blocked by age, body weight (BW), and body condition score (BCS) and randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments. Treatments consisted of (1) 38 g of n-3 fatty acids via fish and algae supplement and diet (MARINE), (2) 38 g of n-3 fatty acids via a flaxseed meal from the supplement and diet (FLAX), and (3) control (CON) no supplemental fatty acid. Treatments were supplemented for 90 days. Frequent sampling intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed on days 0, 30, 60, and 90. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose and insulin. The minimal model was applied for the glucose and insulin curves using MinMod Millennium. SI increased 39% (P < .007) across all treatment groups. Acute insulin response to glucose decreased 22% (P < .006) between days 30 and 60 and increased (P = .040) again at day 90. Disposition index (combined SI and β pancreatic response) increased (P = .03) by 53% in the MARINE- and 48% in the FLAX-supplemented horses and did not change with time in the CON group. In insulin-resistant mares, MARINE- and FLAX-treated horses had an increase in SI (P = .09). It would be interesting to test this supplement in a larger group of insulin-resistant horses. If proven effective, supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids would help to reduce problems associated with insulin resistance in horses.
    Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 06/2013; 33(6):446–453. DOI:10.1016/j.jevs.2012.07.007 · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beef nutrition is important to the worldwide beef industry. The objective of this study was to analyze proximate composition of eight beef rib and plate cuts to update the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Furthermore, this study aimed to determine the influence of USDA Quality Grade on the separable components and proximate composition of the examined retail cuts. Carcasses (n=72) representing a composite of Yield Grade, Quality Grade, gender and genetic type were identified from six regions across the U.S. Beef plates and ribs (IMPS #109 and 121C and D) were collected from the selected carcasses and shipped to three university meat laboratories for storage, retail fabrication, cooking, and dissection and analysis of proximate composition. These data provide updated information regarding the nutrient content of beef and emphasize the influence of common classification systems (Yield Grade and Quality Grade) on the separable components, cooking yield, and proximate composition of retail beef cuts.
    Meat Science 05/2013; 95(3):486-494. DOI:10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.05.031 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to generate raw and cooked nutrient composition data to identify Quality Grade differences in proximate values for eight Beef Alternative Merchandising (BAM) cuts. The data generated will be used to update the nutrient data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Beef Rib, Oven-Prepared, Beef Loin, Strip Loin, and Beef Loin, Top Sirloin Butt subprimals were collected from a total of 24 carcasses from four packing plants. The carcasses were a combination of USDA Yield Grades 2 (n=12) and 3 (n=12), USDA Quality Grades upper two-thirds Choice (n=8), low Choice (n=8), and Select (n=8), and two genders, steer (n=16) and heifer (n=8). After aging, subprimals were fabricated into the BAM cuts, dissected, and nutrient analysis was performed. Sample homogenates from each animal were homogenized and composited for analysis of the following: proximate analysis, long chain and trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, total cholesterol, vitamin B-12, and selenium. This study identified seven BAM cuts from all three Quality Grades that qualify for USDA Lean; seven Select cuts that qualify for USDA Extra Lean; and three Select cuts that qualify for the American Heart Association's Heart Healthy Check.
    Meat Science 11/2012; 93(3):733-745. DOI:10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.11.037 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Observations were collected for the purpose of comparing exit velocity measurements: exit score (ES; walk, trot, canter, or run) and flight speed (FS) as assessments of cattle temperament. Squeeze chute exit velocity was obtained for 1,181 crossbred yearling steers using ES and FS temperament systems. Flight speed utilized infrared sensors to determine the time taken for an animal to traverse a fixed distance of 1.83 m after exiting the squeeze chute. Exit score (1 = walk, 2 = trot, 3 = canter, and 4 = run) was assigned by 2 different observers when each steer crossed a fixed point between the infrared sensors. All animals were scored with each system (ES and FS) simultaneously upon exiting the squeeze chute on d -21 and d -1 of the experiment. Of the 1,181 cattle, 357 were moved to a nearby research feedyard for use in a 140 d feedlot trial. These cattle were scored using both measurement systems and BW was recorded at 35 d intervals throughout the trial. Exit score was assessed for observer reliability, ES and FS were compared for measurement repeatability, and both were assessed on ability to predict ADG. Exit score between observers on a single day showed considerable agreement (weighted Kappa = 0.66) indicating the system was reliable between different observers. However, the agreement for a single observer between day was only moderate (weighted Kappa = 0.40), indicating a day effect for ES. In addition, although mean velocities for day were not different (P > 0.18; FS = 2.98 ±.87 and 3.02 ± 0.87 m/s for day respectively), the persistence of FS for each animal was low (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.25). The frequency that an animal would be placed into the same third of FS or receive the same ES on consecutive weigh days was 50% and 60.0% respectively, and both were moderate predictors of ADG (R(2) = 0.14 and R(2) = 0.17). These data indicate that ES and FS are reliable instruments for assessment of temperament on a given day, and show moderate repeatability across days. Exit score and FS show similar ability to predict ADG and can be used interchangeably as measures of temperament.
    Journal of Animal Science 10/2012; 91(1). DOI:10.2527/jas.2012-5122 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in individual calf defence behaviour patterns and maternal protective behaviour of beef cows 24 h after calving. A single herd was observed on an extensive ranch in Colorado, USA. A total of 341 cow-calf pairs (95% Red Angus and 5% Angus x Hereford commercial crossbreds) were used. Each cow-calf pair was approached with an unfamiliar utility vehicle that circled the pair and gradually decreased the distance between the vehicle and the pair. The following four distance measurements were taken with a digital range finder to evaluate maternal protectiveness: (1) the first time the cow raised her head and oriented towards the vehicle; (2) when the cow placed herself between her calf and the vehicle or lowered her head; (3) when the cow vocalised; and (4) closest distance the vehicle approached the cow-calf pair. Calf defence behaviour patterns were recorded as yes/no-classifications and were: (1) protection: the cow positioned herself between the vehicle and her calf; (2) aggression: the cow lowered her head; and (3) the cow vocalised. Hair whorl patterns (HW) on the forehead of each cow were used as a measure of individual differences in temperament. HW pattern and age were collected when the cows were in a squeeze chute during routine handling. HW pattern was classified into the following groups: high, middle, low, abnormal, multiple HWs or no HW. Ninety-nine percent of the cows moved between the vehicle and their calf to protect it, 13.2% lowered their heads as a sign of aggression and 78% vocalised. Cows with high HW or multiple HW oriented towards the vehicle at a further distance, compared to cows in other HW groups (P < 0.05). Cows with a high HW vocalised at a further distance than cows in other groups. Younger cows (3 years) were approached more closely with no behavioural changes than older (5 years) cows (P < 0.05). The results suggest that cows with a high HW and older cows may be more vigilant of their surroundings. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Applied Animal Behaviour Science 07/2012; 139(3-4):203-208. DOI:10.1016/j.applanim.2012.04.001 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty-three colostrum-deprived Holstein bull calves (initial BW of 131 ± 4 kg) were used to determine the effect of timing of anthelmintic administration relative to vaccination on antibody titer response to vaccine component antigens. When calves were at least 3 mo of age, they were sorted randomly into individual pens and assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups, treatments consisted of 1) dewormed 2 wk before vaccination (DPV), 2) dewormed at the time of vaccination (DV), or 3) control, vaccinated but not dewormed (CONT). All calves were inoculated with infective larvae of brown stomach worms (Ostertagia ostertagi) and intestinal worms (Cooperia spp.) on d 1, 7, 10, 14, and 18 for a total dose of 235,710 infective larvae per calf. Calves (DPV and DV) were dewormed on d 21 or 35 with a 10% fenbendazole suspension at 5 mg/kg of BW. On d 35, all calves were vaccinated with a modified-live virus respiratory vaccine containing IBRV (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus), BVDV-1 (bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1), BVDV-2 (BVDV genotype 2), PI-3 (parainfluenza-3), and BRSV (bovine respiratory syncytial virus). During the 103-d experiment, weekly fecal egg counts, blood, and rectal temperatures were collected and health status was recorded daily. Blood samples were obtained weekly to determine serum neutralizing (SN) antibody titers to IBRV, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, and PI-3 and cytokine levels for IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), and IFN-γ (interferon-gamma). There was a tendency (P < 0.09) for CONT calves to have greater IL-4 concentrations. By design, control calves had greater (P < 0.01) fecal egg counts during the experiment. All calves developed antibody titers to IBRV, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, and PI-3 by d 15 postvaccination. On d 88, all calves were challenged with IBRV and blood samples were obtained on d 88, 89, 90, 93, 95, 98, 99, and 103. All calves had increased rectal temperatures during the final 7 d of the IBRV challenge. However, the CONT group had greater (P < 0.01) rectal temperatures on each sampling day except d 90 compared with the DPV and DV treatments. Therefore, deworming before or at vaccination reduced parasite burden and decreased rectal temperature increase after an IBRV challenge. Deworming strategy had no effect on antibody response to vaccination or IBRV challenge.
    Journal of Animal Science 06/2012; 90(6):1948-54. DOI:10.2527/jas.2011-4059 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this experiment was to determine if dietary inclusion of fish meal would increase plasma and luteal tissue concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Seventeen nonlactating Angus cows (2 to 8 yr of age) were housed in individual pens and fed a corn silage-based diet for approximately 60 d. Diets were supplemented with fish meal at 5% DMI (a rich source of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid; n = 9 cows) or corn gluten meal at 6% DMI (n = 8 cows). Body weights and jugular blood samples were collected immediately before the initiation of supplementation and every 7 d thereafter for 56 d to monitor plasma n-3 fatty acid composition and BW. Estrous cycles were synchronized using 2 injections of PGF(2α) administered at 14-d intervals. The ovary bearing the corpus luteum was surgically removed at midcycle (between d 10 and 12) after estrus synchronization, which corresponded to approximately d 60 of supplementation. The ovary was transported to the laboratory, and approximately 1.5 g of luteal tissue was stored at -80°C until analyzed for n-3 fatty acid content. Initial and ending BW did not differ (P > 0.10) between cows supplemented with fish meal and those with corn gluten meal. Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 7 of supplementation and docosahexaenoic was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 14 of supplementation for cows receiving fish meal. Luteal tissue collected from fish meal-supplemented cows had greater (P < 0.05) luteal n-3 fatty acids and reduced (P < 0.05) arachidonic acid and n-6 to n-3 ratio as compared with tissue obtained from cows supplemented with corn gluten meal. Our data show that fish meal supplementation increases luteal n-3 fatty acid content and reduces available arachidonic acid content, the precursor for PGF(2α). The increase in luteal n-3 fatty acids may reduce PGF(2α) intraluteal synthesis after breeding resulting in increased fertility in cattle.
    Journal of Animal Science 03/2012; 90(3):771-8. DOI:10.2527/jas.2011-4208 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the optimal postmortem aging period and nutrient composition for Beef Value Cuts of the round. Forty USDA Select and 40 Premium USDA Choice beef carcasses were selected from a commercial beef packing plant in Colorado over a 12-wk period. The bottom and inside rounds were collected from both sides of each carcass for further fabrication into the following muscles: adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor. Each pair of muscles was cut into 7 steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of the following aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d, and placed in refrigerated storage (2°C, never frozen). Upon completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage, cooked to a peak internal temperature of 72°C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). A 2-way interaction was detected (P < 0.05) between individual muscle and postmortem aging period. The WBSF of all muscles except the superficial digital flexor decreased with increased time of postmortem aging. Quality grade did not affect (P > 0.05) WBSF values for the adductor, gastrocnemius, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor muscles. Exponential decay models were used to predict the change in WBSF from 2 to 28 d postmortem (aging response). The adductor, gastrocnemius, Select gracilis, Premium Choice gracilis, and pectineus required 21, 14, 23, 23, and 25 d, respectively, to complete the majority of the aging response. To determine the nutrient composition of the adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor, bottom and inside rounds were collected from 10 USDA Select and 10 Premium USDA Choice carcasses and fabricated into the respective muscles, cut into 2.54-cm cubes, frozen (-20°C), and then homogenized. The adductor, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor were analyzed for DM, moisture, CP, and ash percentages. All muscles were evaluated for total lipid, fatty acid, and cholesterol composition. When quality grades were combined, all muscles fell into the extra lean or lean categories specified by USDA guidelines. Results of this study illustrate the potential for Beef Value Cuts of the round to be sold in food service operations and retail stores with marketing emphasis being placed on the exceptional leanness and acceptable tenderness of these cuts.
    Journal of Animal Science 03/2012; 90(3):996-1007. DOI:10.2527/jas.2011-4415 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data from 4 separate beef cattle feedlot experiments, which were conducted at the Southeast Colorado Research Center (SECRC) in Lamar, CO, in 2001, 2003, 2004, and 2007, were utilized in a retrospective longitudinal study investigating possible relationships between daily water consumption (WC), DMI, and weather variables. The data set consisted of 8,209 records from 2001, 2003, 2004, and 2007, with pen based daily WC (L•animal(-1)) and DMI measurements and calculated daily steer BW from April to October in each year. Daily weather data were obtained from the weather station located at Lamar Municipal Airport located approximately 1.9 km from SECRC. Data collected consisted of daily high, low, and mean temperature; high, low, and mean humidity; high, low, and mean sea level pressure; mean wind speed; total precipitation; and average daily wind direction (cosine of radians from due north). Univariate analysis demonstrated that the continuous variables of BW, humidity, and sea level pressure were negatively related (P < 0.0001), whereas DMI, temperature the previous day, daily temperature, change in temperature from the previous day, average wind speed, and the temperature-humidity index (THI) were positively related (P < 0.001) to daily WC. There was a trend (P < 0.06) for the cosine of wind direction (1 = due north and -1 = due south) to be negatively related to WC. The multivariate, parsimonious model predicting average daily WC included (P < 0.05) average humidity, average humidity squared, high temperature squared, high humidity squared, low temperature, low temperature squared, low humidity, average sea level pressure, average wind speed, average daily BW, high sea level pressure, low sea level pressure, high humidity, and low humidity. The generalized R(2) of the parsimonious multivariate model was 0.32. These results indicate that BW and numerous weather factors are related to WC by yearling feedlot steers. Dry matter intake had minimal impact on WC for yearling feedlot steers consuming steam-flaked corn-based high concentrate diets from mid-spring to early fall.
    Journal of Animal Science 12/2011; 90(6):1920-8. DOI:10.2527/jas.2011-4307 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reducing crude protein (CP) in livestock diets may lower ammonia emissions. A feeding trial was conducted with crossbred steers at the Southeast Colorado Research Center in Lamar, Colorado from December 2009 to March 2010. Three diet treatments were investigated: Reduced (11.6% CP), Oscillating (13.5% crude protein 4 days/week and 11.6% CP 3 days/week) and Control (13.5% CP). Intact soil core samples (n = 36 per sampling date) were collected from the pen surfaces on three dates corresponding to 45, 92, and 148 days into the feeding cycle. Four pens from each diet treatment were sampled. Cores were placed into flow-through laboratory chambers for seven days and ammonia fluxes were trapped in acid bubblers that were refreshed every 24 h. Average daily ammonia emissions for the Control diet ranged from 6.6 to 9.4 g NH 3 m −2 ·day −1 ; average daily emission for the Oscillating diet ranged from OPEN ACCESS Atmosphere 2011, 2 656 6.3 to 8.8 g NH 3 m −2 ·day −1 ; and average daily flux for the Reduced diet ranged from 4.1 to 5.8 g NH 3 m −2 ·day −1 . Ammonia fluxes from the reduced N treatment were significantly lower (21% to 40%) than from the control diet on the first two sample dates. There was no significant difference between the Oscillating and Control treatments. Reducing CP in cattle feedlot diets may be an effective method for reducing ammonia emissions from pen surfaces. More research is needed to validate these results at commercial scales in different environments to determine if reductions in ammonia can be sustained with lower CP diets without affecting rate of gain, feed efficiency and health.
    Atmosphere 12/2011; 2(4). DOI:10.3390/atmos2040655 · 1.05 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

864 Citations
119.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2015
    • Colorado State University
      • • Department of Animal Sciences
      • • Department of Biomedical Sciences
      Fort Collins, Colorado, United States
  • 2014
    • Universidade Estadual de Maringá
      • Chemistry Department
      Maringá, Paraná, Brazil
  • 1999–2004
    • North Carolina State University
      • Department of Animal Science
      Raleigh, NC, United States