T E Engle

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United States

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Publications (95)119.83 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Text: Four-hundred cross-bred steers (initial BW 335 ± 9.6 kg) were utilized to investigate the effects of supplemental Zn, Cu, and Mn concentration and source on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers fed a high concentrate steam flaked corn-based finishing diet for 159 d and zilpaterol hydrochloride for the last 21 d prior to slaughter (5-d withdrawal). The experimental design was a randomized complete block design. Steers were blocked by weight and randomly assigned within block to one of the 5 treatments (8 pens/treatment; 10 hd/pen). Treatments consisted of: 1) 90 mg of Zn/kg DM from ZnSO4; 17.5 mg of Cu/kg DM from CuSO4; 48 mg of Mn/kg DM from MnSO4; 2) 30 mg of Zn/kg DM from Zn Hydroxychloride; 10 mg of Cu/kg DM from basic Cu chloride ; 20 mg of Mn/kg DM from Mn Hydroxychloride; 3) 45 mg of Zn/kg DM from Hydroxychloride; 12.5 mg of Cu/kg DM basic Cu chloride; 29.5 mg of Mn/kg DM from Mn Hydroxychloride; 4) 60 mg of Zn/kg DM from Zn Hydroxychloride; 15 mg of Cu/kg DM from basic Cu chloride; 39 mg of Mn/kg DM from Mn Hydroxychloride ; and 5) 90 mg of Zn/kg DM from Zn Hydroxychloride; 17.5 mg of Cu/kg DM from basic Cu chloride; 48 mg of Mn/kg DM from Mn Hydroxychloride. Steers were individually weighed on d−1, 0, 55, 112, and pen weighed two consecutive days at the termination of the experiment. Steers were transported to a commercial abattoir, slaughtered, and individual carcass data and liver samples were collected. Initial pen BW was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis and significance was determined at P ≤ 0.05. No differences were observed for final body weight (P> 0.42). Overall ADG, DMI, and feed efficiency were similar across treatments. Hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, yield grade, LMA, adjusted fat thickness, KPH, and marbling score were similar across treatments. Concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mn in livers and blood samples collected on d 112 and at harvest were similar across treatments. These data indicate that under the conditions of this experiment, supplemental Zn, Cu, and Mn concentration and source had no impact on performance and carcass characteristics in feedlot steers. Keywords: Cattle, feedlot, trace mineral
    2014 ADSA-ASAS-CSAS Joint Annual Meeting; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Text: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Aspergillus oryzae α-amylase (AAM) supplementation on rumen VFA profile and relative abundance of mRNA associated with nutrient absorption in ruminal and duodenal tissue from beef steers. Nine crossbred steers (average BW 622 ± 50 kg), with rumen and duodenal fistulas were housed in individual stations and fed a high concentrate finishing diet twice daily for 8 d. Treatments included CON (corn meal; n= 5) and AAM (750 fungal α-amylase units/g; n= 4). Dietary treatment supplements were applied as a top dress (3 g of α-amylase or corn meal into 150 g of dried distiller’s grains (DDG) for the AM feeding and 2 g of α-amylase or corn meal into 100 g of DDG for PM feeding). On d 5, rumen fluid samples were obtained every 4 h for 24 h and analyzed for VFA concentration. On d 9, rumen papillae and duodenal mucosal tissue samples were collected. Total tissue RNA was extracted for real-time PCR analysis. Sodium/potassium ATPase pump α1, glucose transporter 2 and 5, putative anion transporter, isoform1, sodium/hydrogen antiporter isoforms1, 2 and 3, 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase isoform2, down regulated in adenoma, monocarboxylate co-transporter isoform1, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA were tested. Relative expression (fold change) of mRNA in ruminal and duodenal tissues were analyzed using PROC GLM and VFA distribution was analyzed as a randomized block design with repeated measures using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Concentrations of VFA and the acetate to propionate ratio were similar across treatments. However, acetate:propionate ratio and butyrate molar percentage were numerically greater (P = 0.17) in AAM steers compared to controls. Genes tested were not significantly changed by AAM supplementation in the rumen or duodenum. However, genes involved in nutrient absorption were numerically decreased in the rumen and increased in the duodenum in the AAM supplemented steers compared to the controls. Keywords: duodenum, fungal α-amylase, gene, rumen, steer, volatile fatty acids
    2014 ADSA-ASAS-CSAS Joint Annual Meeting; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Text: An experiment was conducted to evaluate intake and nutrient digestibility of Nellore heifers and steers fed two levels of calcium and phosphorus. Thirty two Nellore heifers and eighteen Nellore steers were used. Four animals from each gender were used as baseline reference animals and slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment. Four animals from each gender were fed at maintenance (MAIN) and 10 steers and 24 heifers were assigned to the ad libitum (ADLIB) group. The ADLIB heifers were further divided into four groups. Treatments were: 1) Ca and P fed at requirements (CaPR) with a 50:50 of roughage:concentrate (R:C) diet; 2) CaPR with at 70:30 R:C diet; 3) 43% of the Ca and 80% of the P requirement (CaPL) with a 50:50 R:C diet; and 4) CaPL with a 70:30 R:C diet. The ADLIB steers in this experiment were fed CaPR. Half of the steers and the heifers were slaughtered at d 50 and the other animals were slaughtered a d 100 of the feeding period while all MAIN animals were slaughtered at d 100. Total feces and urine were collected from all animals 72 hours prior to slaughter. Dry matter digestibility and apparent absorption and retention of Ca and P were similar across Ca and P treatments. Final body weight and, consequently, average daily gain was higher (P<0.05) in heifers receiving the high concentrate diet compared to the low concentrate diet while the levels of Ca and P did not affected (P>0.05) the performance. Under the conditions of this experiment, the level of dietary Ca and P can be reduced in the diet and not impact intake, digestibility or performance of growing Nellore heifers and steers. Keywords: minerals, sugarcane, performance
    2014 ADSA-ASAS-CSAS Joint Annual Meeting; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Text: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the energy and protein requirements for growing Nellore heifers and steers fed with two levels of calcium and phosphorus. Thirty two Nellore heifers and eighteen Nellore steers were used. Heifers were divided in four groups. Four animals served as baseline reference animals, four were fed at maintenance (MAIN) and twenty four received ad libitum (ADLIB) access to feed. The ADLIB animals were further divided into four groups and assigned to treatments. Treatments were: 1) Ca and P fed at requirements (CaPR) with a 50:50 of roughage:concentrate (R:C) diet; 2) CaPR with at 70:30 R:C diet; 3) 43% of the Ca and 80% of the P requirement (CaPL) with a 50:50 R:C diet; and 4) CaPL with a 70:30 R:C diet. All steers in this experiment were fed CaPR. Half of the heifers and steers were slaughtered at d 50 and the other animals were slaughtered a d 100 of the feeding period while all MAIN animals were slaughtered at d 100. Total feces and urine were collected from all animals 72 hours prior to slaughter. The net energy (NEm) and metabolizable energy (MEm) requirement for maintenance were obtained by exponentially relating the heat production and the metabolizable energy intake, while the net energy requirements for gain (NEg) were obtained using empty body weight (EBW) and EBW gain (EBG). The net protein requirements for gain (NPg) were estimated according to EBG and retained energy (RE). NEm and MEm were 70.1 and 118 kcal/kg EBW0.75, respectively. Net protein for maintenance was 1.28 g/kg BW0.75and NEg and NPg were estimated using the following equations: NEg = 0.053 × EBW0.75 × EBG0.6301 and NPg = 137.85 × EBG – 0.05 × RE, respectively. Under the conditions of this experiment, the energy and protein requirements for growth were: NEg = 0.053 × EBW0.75 × EBG0.6301 and NPg = 137.85 × EBG – 0.05 × RE, respectively. Keywords: energy, protein, sugarcane
    2014 ADSA-ASAS-CSAS Joint Annual Meeting; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if supplementation of omega (ώ)-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) alters synovial fluid fatty acid composition and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration of mature, healthy horses.: Twenty, non-pregnant light breed mares were assigned into one of three daily dietary treatments. Group 1 (MARINE) received 38g total of the ώ-3 LCPUFA alpha linolenic acid (ALA, 2g), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 7.6g) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 26.6g) via a marine-derived supplement; Group 2 (FLAX) received 38g of ώ-3 ALA via a flaxseed supplement and Group 3 (CONT) did not receive additional ώ-3 LCPUFA. Blood was taken at baseline, 30, 60, and 90 days of supplementation and plasma separated. After of 90 days of supplementation, 3 ml of synovial fluid was obtained through arthrocentesis. Plasma and synovial fluid were analyzed to identify fatty acid profiles, and determine PGE2 concentration. MARINE synovial fluid fatty acids contained higher of EPA and DHA compared to the CONT group; and higher DHA levels compared to FLAX group. EPA was not detected in synovial fluid from the FLAX group. Prostaglandin E2 did not differ (P>0.05) among horses; however, the MARINE group tended (P=0.10) to have lower synovial PGE2 concentration compared to CONT horses. The presence of EPA and DHA only in MARINE synovial fluid and plasma suggests direct supplementation of EPA and DHA is needed to modify fatty acid composition. A tendency for lower synovial PGE2 in healthy horses receiving oral EPA/DHA merits further investigation in the ώ-3 supplementation effect on prostaglandin production.
    Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 06/2014; · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the impact of duration of maternal undernutrition in twin sheep pregnancies, ewes were either fed 100% (C), or 50% of their nutrient requirements from 28 to 78 d gestational age (dGA) and readjusted to 100% beginning at 79 dGA (LC), or continuously restricted from 28 to 135 dGA (LL). Weights of the fetus, empty carcass, brain, and liver were greater in the LC than LL fetuses at 135 dGA (P ≤ 0.05). While umbilical vein (UmV) glucose concentrations did not differ, the UmV:umbilical artery (UmA) glucose gradient was smaller (0.26 ± 0.03 vs 0.38 ± 0.03 and 0.39 ± 0.04 mmol L-1; P ≤ 0.05) in LL than C and LC fetuses, respectively. Umbilical vein concentrations of IGF-1 were less (46.7 ± 5.62 vs 74.3 ± 6.71 ng/ml; P ≤ 0.05) in LL than LC fetuses. Additionally, LL fetuses tended (P ≤ 0.10) to have lower UmA concentrations of insulin (0.24 ± 0.13 vs 0.70 ± 0.15 ng/ml) and IGF-1 (66.6 ± 7.51 vs 91.4 ± 8.97 ng/ml) than LC fetuses. While most of the observed differences occurred between LC and LL pregnancies, LC fetuses tended (P ≤ 0.10) to have greater UmV and UmA pCO2 than C fetuses. Furthermore, the UmV:UmA O2 content gradient tended to be greater (5.02 ± 0.43 vs 3.41 ± 0.47; P ≤ 0.10) in C than LL fetuses. UmA placental lactogen also tended to be greater (46.6 ± 4.40 vs 31.1 ± 4.69 ng/ml; P ≤ 0.10) in LL than C fetuses. These data suggest that in twin pregnancies, maternal undernutrition followed by realimentation induces a different fetal outcome compared with continuous nutrient restriction, and both may differ physiologically from control fed pregnancies.
    Domestic Animal Endocrinology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of castration method (banding vs. surgical) and use of analgesia on behavior and feedlot performance in cull bulls. Angus, Hereford, and Angus-crossbred bulls (n = 20; initial BW = 384 ± 59.3 kg; 336 ± 20.1 d old) were housed in feedlot pens equipped with the ability to measure individual daily feed intake. A balanced randomized block design using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was utilized. A multimodal analgesia protocol (MMA) was used and consisted of s.c. ketamine-stun containing butorphanol (0.01 mg/kg BW), xylazine (0.02 mg/kg BW), ketamine (0.04 mg/kg BW), and a local 2% lidocaine hydrochloride anesthetic block of the spermatic cords (10 mL/cord) and scrotum (10 mL) on d 0. Flunixin meglumine (1.2 mg/kg) was administered i.v. on d 0, 1, 2 and 3 to MMA cattle. Cattle were stratified to treatments based on breed, BW, age, and a temperament score. Treatments included: 1) band castration without analgesia (BND); 2) band castration with analgesia (BND-MMA); 3) surgical castration without analgesia (SURG); and 4) surgical castration with analgesia (SURG-MMA). All castrations were performed on d 0. Chute exit velocity (EV) and time in chute (TIC) were collected on d -9, 0, 1, 2, and 13. Willingness-to-enter-chute (WTE) score, rectal temperature (TEMP), heart rate (HR), and respiration (RESP) were collected on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 13. Cattle were weighed on d -9 and 13 while feeding behaviors were collected continuously for 57 d pre-castration and 28 d post-castration. There was a tendency (P < 0.09) for ADG to be greater in cattle receiving analgesia. Both SURG treatments exhibited elevated TEMP on d 1 (P < 0.001) and 2 (P < 0.05) compared to BND treatments. Post-castration DMI was greater (P = 0.02) in MMA treatments compared with non-medicated treatments throughout the trial. Meal duration was greater (P < 0.05) in BND than SURG castrates during the first week post-castration. Results suggest that pain mitigation reduces the impact of castration on ADG and DMI.
    Journal of Animal Science 08/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments evaluated the effects of band castration and oral administration of an analgesic in association with castration on performance and behavioral and physiological responses in yearling beef bulls. In Exp. 1 Angus and Charolais-crossbred bull calves (n = 127; 309.8 ± 59.04 kg) and in Exp. 2 Hereford, Angus, and Hereford × Angus crossbred bulls (n = 30; 300.8 ± 4.96 kg), were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) band castration (BAND), 2) band castration with oral administration of meloxicam (BAND-MEL), and 3) sham castration (SHAM). The BAND and SHAM procedures were completed on d 0. The SHAM treatment consisted of all animal manipulations associated with band castration without band application. Meloxicam was administered on d -1, 0, and 1 (1.0 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively) via an oral bolus. Body weight and a subjective chute score (CS) were collected on d -1, 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 (d 28 Exp. 1 only). In Exp. 2, jugular blood samples were collected immediately before castration and 24 hr post-castration for Substance P (SP) analysis. In Exp. 2, video documentation on d 0 was used to determine range of vertical head motion (DIST) on a subset of animals during treatment administration. In both experiments, ADG was similar (P ≥ 0.50) between BAND and BAND-MEL, but ADG in SHAM cattle was greater (P < 0.001) and tended (P = 0.07) to be greater than castrates in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. In Exp. 1, CS did not differ (P ≥ 0.26) between BAND and BAND-MEL on any d, but castrates exhibited less desirable CS on d 1 and 28 than SHAM cattle. In Exp. 2, CS was not affected (P ≥ 0.41) by castration or the presence of meloxicam. In Exp. 2, DIST did not differ (P = 0.57) between BAND and BAND-MEL, but when pooled, castrates exhibited greater (P = 0.04) DIST than SHAM. In Exp. 2, plasma SP concentrations were similar between BAND and BAND-MEL (P = 0.81), and castrates vs. sham cattle (P = 0.67). Results indicate no impact of meloxicam administration on performance or behavioral and physiological responses to band castration. However, there was a negative impact of castration on ADG and DIST.
    Journal of Animal Science 07/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of dietary ω-3 fatty acid supplementation on insulin sensitivity (SI) in horses. Twenty-one mares were blocked by age, body weight (BW), and body condition score (BCS) and randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments. Treatments consisted of (1) 38 g of n-3 fatty acids via fish and algae supplement and diet (MARINE), (2) 38 g of n-3 fatty acids via a flaxseed meal from the supplement and diet (FLAX), and (3) control (CON) no supplemental fatty acid. Treatments were supplemented for 90 days. Frequent sampling intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed on days 0, 30, 60, and 90. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose and insulin. The minimal model was applied for the glucose and insulin curves using MinMod Millennium. SI increased 39% (P < .007) across all treatment groups. Acute insulin response to glucose decreased 22% (P < .006) between days 30 and 60 and increased (P = .040) again at day 90. Disposition index (combined SI and β pancreatic response) increased (P = .03) by 53% in the MARINE- and 48% in the FLAX-supplemented horses and did not change with time in the CON group. In insulin-resistant mares, MARINE- and FLAX-treated horses had an increase in SI (P = .09). It would be interesting to test this supplement in a larger group of insulin-resistant horses. If proven effective, supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids would help to reduce problems associated with insulin resistance in horses.
    Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 06/2013; 33(6):446–453. · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beef nutrition is important to the worldwide beef industry. The objective of this study was to analyze proximate composition of eight beef rib and plate cuts to update the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Furthermore, this study aimed to determine the influence of USDA Quality Grade on the separable components and proximate composition of the examined retail cuts. Carcasses (n=72) representing a composite of Yield Grade, Quality Grade, gender and genetic type were identified from six regions across the U.S. Beef plates and ribs (IMPS #109 and 121C and D) were collected from the selected carcasses and shipped to three university meat laboratories for storage, retail fabrication, cooking, and dissection and analysis of proximate composition. These data provide updated information regarding the nutrient content of beef and emphasize the influence of common classification systems (Yield Grade and Quality Grade) on the separable components, cooking yield, and proximate composition of retail beef cuts.
    Meat Science 05/2013; 95(3):486-494. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to generate raw and cooked nutrient composition data to identify Quality Grade differences in proximate values for eight Beef Alternative Merchandising (BAM) cuts. The data generated will be used to update the nutrient data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Beef Rib, Oven-Prepared, Beef Loin, Strip Loin, and Beef Loin, Top Sirloin Butt subprimals were collected from a total of 24 carcasses from four packing plants. The carcasses were a combination of USDA Yield Grades 2 (n=12) and 3 (n=12), USDA Quality Grades upper two-thirds Choice (n=8), low Choice (n=8), and Select (n=8), and two genders, steer (n=16) and heifer (n=8). After aging, subprimals were fabricated into the BAM cuts, dissected, and nutrient analysis was performed. Sample homogenates from each animal were homogenized and composited for analysis of the following: proximate analysis, long chain and trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, total cholesterol, vitamin B-12, and selenium. This study identified seven BAM cuts from all three Quality Grades that qualify for USDA Lean; seven Select cuts that qualify for USDA Extra Lean; and three Select cuts that qualify for the American Heart Association's Heart Healthy Check.
    Meat Science 11/2012; 93(3):733-745. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Observations were collected for the purpose of comparing exit velocity measurements: exit score (ES; walk, trot, canter, or run) and flight speed (FS) as assessments of cattle temperament. Squeeze chute exit velocity was obtained for 1,181 crossbred yearling steers using ES and FS temperament systems. Flight speed utilized infrared sensors to determine the time taken for an animal to traverse a fixed distance of 1.83 m after exiting the squeeze chute. Exit score (1 = walk, 2 = trot, 3 = canter, and 4 = run) was assigned by 2 different observers when each steer crossed a fixed point between the infrared sensors. All animals were scored with each system (ES and FS) simultaneously upon exiting the squeeze chute on d -21 and d -1 of the experiment. Of the 1,181 cattle, 357 were moved to a nearby research feedyard for use in a 140 d feedlot trial. These cattle were scored using both measurement systems and BW was recorded at 35 d intervals throughout the trial. Exit score was assessed for observer reliability, ES and FS were compared for measurement repeatability, and both were assessed on ability to predict ADG. Exit score between observers on a single day showed considerable agreement (weighted Kappa = 0.66) indicating the system was reliable between different observers. However, the agreement for a single observer between day was only moderate (weighted Kappa = 0.40), indicating a day effect for ES. In addition, although mean velocities for day were not different (P > 0.18; FS = 2.98 ±.87 and 3.02 ± 0.87 m/s for day respectively), the persistence of FS for each animal was low (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.25). The frequency that an animal would be placed into the same third of FS or receive the same ES on consecutive weigh days was 50% and 60.0% respectively, and both were moderate predictors of ADG (R(2) = 0.14 and R(2) = 0.17). These data indicate that ES and FS are reliable instruments for assessment of temperament on a given day, and show moderate repeatability across days. Exit score and FS show similar ability to predict ADG and can be used interchangeably as measures of temperament.
    Journal of Animal Science 10/2012; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty-three colostrum-deprived Holstein bull calves (initial BW of 131 ± 4 kg) were used to determine the effect of timing of anthelmintic administration relative to vaccination on antibody titer response to vaccine component antigens. When calves were at least 3 mo of age, they were sorted randomly into individual pens and assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups, treatments consisted of 1) dewormed 2 wk before vaccination (DPV), 2) dewormed at the time of vaccination (DV), or 3) control, vaccinated but not dewormed (CONT). All calves were inoculated with infective larvae of brown stomach worms (Ostertagia ostertagi) and intestinal worms (Cooperia spp.) on d 1, 7, 10, 14, and 18 for a total dose of 235,710 infective larvae per calf. Calves (DPV and DV) were dewormed on d 21 or 35 with a 10% fenbendazole suspension at 5 mg/kg of BW. On d 35, all calves were vaccinated with a modified-live virus respiratory vaccine containing IBRV (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus), BVDV-1 (bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1), BVDV-2 (BVDV genotype 2), PI-3 (parainfluenza-3), and BRSV (bovine respiratory syncytial virus). During the 103-d experiment, weekly fecal egg counts, blood, and rectal temperatures were collected and health status was recorded daily. Blood samples were obtained weekly to determine serum neutralizing (SN) antibody titers to IBRV, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, and PI-3 and cytokine levels for IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), and IFN-γ (interferon-gamma). There was a tendency (P < 0.09) for CONT calves to have greater IL-4 concentrations. By design, control calves had greater (P < 0.01) fecal egg counts during the experiment. All calves developed antibody titers to IBRV, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, and PI-3 by d 15 postvaccination. On d 88, all calves were challenged with IBRV and blood samples were obtained on d 88, 89, 90, 93, 95, 98, 99, and 103. All calves had increased rectal temperatures during the final 7 d of the IBRV challenge. However, the CONT group had greater (P < 0.01) rectal temperatures on each sampling day except d 90 compared with the DPV and DV treatments. Therefore, deworming before or at vaccination reduced parasite burden and decreased rectal temperature increase after an IBRV challenge. Deworming strategy had no effect on antibody response to vaccination or IBRV challenge.
    Journal of Animal Science 06/2012; 90(6):1948-54. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this experiment was to determine if dietary inclusion of fish meal would increase plasma and luteal tissue concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Seventeen nonlactating Angus cows (2 to 8 yr of age) were housed in individual pens and fed a corn silage-based diet for approximately 60 d. Diets were supplemented with fish meal at 5% DMI (a rich source of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid; n = 9 cows) or corn gluten meal at 6% DMI (n = 8 cows). Body weights and jugular blood samples were collected immediately before the initiation of supplementation and every 7 d thereafter for 56 d to monitor plasma n-3 fatty acid composition and BW. Estrous cycles were synchronized using 2 injections of PGF(2α) administered at 14-d intervals. The ovary bearing the corpus luteum was surgically removed at midcycle (between d 10 and 12) after estrus synchronization, which corresponded to approximately d 60 of supplementation. The ovary was transported to the laboratory, and approximately 1.5 g of luteal tissue was stored at -80°C until analyzed for n-3 fatty acid content. Initial and ending BW did not differ (P > 0.10) between cows supplemented with fish meal and those with corn gluten meal. Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 7 of supplementation and docosahexaenoic was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 14 of supplementation for cows receiving fish meal. Luteal tissue collected from fish meal-supplemented cows had greater (P < 0.05) luteal n-3 fatty acids and reduced (P < 0.05) arachidonic acid and n-6 to n-3 ratio as compared with tissue obtained from cows supplemented with corn gluten meal. Our data show that fish meal supplementation increases luteal n-3 fatty acid content and reduces available arachidonic acid content, the precursor for PGF(2α). The increase in luteal n-3 fatty acids may reduce PGF(2α) intraluteal synthesis after breeding resulting in increased fertility in cattle.
    Journal of Animal Science 03/2012; 90(3):771-8. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the optimal postmortem aging period and nutrient composition for Beef Value Cuts of the round. Forty USDA Select and 40 Premium USDA Choice beef carcasses were selected from a commercial beef packing plant in Colorado over a 12-wk period. The bottom and inside rounds were collected from both sides of each carcass for further fabrication into the following muscles: adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor. Each pair of muscles was cut into 7 steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of the following aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d, and placed in refrigerated storage (2°C, never frozen). Upon completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage, cooked to a peak internal temperature of 72°C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). A 2-way interaction was detected (P < 0.05) between individual muscle and postmortem aging period. The WBSF of all muscles except the superficial digital flexor decreased with increased time of postmortem aging. Quality grade did not affect (P > 0.05) WBSF values for the adductor, gastrocnemius, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor muscles. Exponential decay models were used to predict the change in WBSF from 2 to 28 d postmortem (aging response). The adductor, gastrocnemius, Select gracilis, Premium Choice gracilis, and pectineus required 21, 14, 23, 23, and 25 d, respectively, to complete the majority of the aging response. To determine the nutrient composition of the adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor, bottom and inside rounds were collected from 10 USDA Select and 10 Premium USDA Choice carcasses and fabricated into the respective muscles, cut into 2.54-cm cubes, frozen (-20°C), and then homogenized. The adductor, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor were analyzed for DM, moisture, CP, and ash percentages. All muscles were evaluated for total lipid, fatty acid, and cholesterol composition. When quality grades were combined, all muscles fell into the extra lean or lean categories specified by USDA guidelines. Results of this study illustrate the potential for Beef Value Cuts of the round to be sold in food service operations and retail stores with marketing emphasis being placed on the exceptional leanness and acceptable tenderness of these cuts.
    Journal of Animal Science 03/2012; 90(3):996-1007. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data from 4 separate beef cattle feedlot experiments, which were conducted at the Southeast Colorado Research Center (SECRC) in Lamar, CO, in 2001, 2003, 2004, and 2007, were utilized in a retrospective longitudinal study investigating possible relationships between daily water consumption (WC), DMI, and weather variables. The data set consisted of 8,209 records from 2001, 2003, 2004, and 2007, with pen based daily WC (L•animal(-1)) and DMI measurements and calculated daily steer BW from April to October in each year. Daily weather data were obtained from the weather station located at Lamar Municipal Airport located approximately 1.9 km from SECRC. Data collected consisted of daily high, low, and mean temperature; high, low, and mean humidity; high, low, and mean sea level pressure; mean wind speed; total precipitation; and average daily wind direction (cosine of radians from due north). Univariate analysis demonstrated that the continuous variables of BW, humidity, and sea level pressure were negatively related (P < 0.0001), whereas DMI, temperature the previous day, daily temperature, change in temperature from the previous day, average wind speed, and the temperature-humidity index (THI) were positively related (P < 0.001) to daily WC. There was a trend (P < 0.06) for the cosine of wind direction (1 = due north and -1 = due south) to be negatively related to WC. The multivariate, parsimonious model predicting average daily WC included (P < 0.05) average humidity, average humidity squared, high temperature squared, high humidity squared, low temperature, low temperature squared, low humidity, average sea level pressure, average wind speed, average daily BW, high sea level pressure, low sea level pressure, high humidity, and low humidity. The generalized R(2) of the parsimonious multivariate model was 0.32. These results indicate that BW and numerous weather factors are related to WC by yearling feedlot steers. Dry matter intake had minimal impact on WC for yearling feedlot steers consuming steam-flaked corn-based high concentrate diets from mid-spring to early fall.
    Journal of Animal Science 12/2011; 90(6):1920-8. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reducing crude protein (CP) in livestock diets may lower ammonia emissions. A feeding trial was conducted with crossbred steers at the Southeast Colorado Research Center in Lamar, Colorado from December 2009 to March 2010. Three diet treatments were investigated: Reduced (11.6% CP), Oscillating (13.5% crude protein 4 days/week and 11.6% CP 3 days/week) and Control (13.5% CP). Intact soil core samples (n = 36 per sampling date) were collected from the pen surfaces on three dates corresponding to 45, 92, and 148 days into the feeding cycle. Four pens from each diet treatment were sampled. Cores were placed into flow-through laboratory chambers for seven days and ammonia fluxes were trapped in acid bubblers that were refreshed every 24 h. Average daily ammonia emissions for the Control diet ranged from 6.6 to 9.4 g NH 3 m −2 ·day −1 ; average daily emission for the Oscillating diet ranged from OPEN ACCESS Atmosphere 2011, 2 656 6.3 to 8.8 g NH 3 m −2 ·day −1 ; and average daily flux for the Reduced diet ranged from 4.1 to 5.8 g NH 3 m −2 ·day −1 . Ammonia fluxes from the reduced N treatment were significantly lower (21% to 40%) than from the control diet on the first two sample dates. There was no significant difference between the Oscillating and Control treatments. Reducing CP in cattle feedlot diets may be an effective method for reducing ammonia emissions from pen surfaces. More research is needed to validate these results at commercial scales in different environments to determine if reductions in ammonia can be sustained with lower CP diets without affecting rate of gain, feed efficiency and health.
    Atmosphere. 12/2011; 2(4).
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    ABSTRACT: A 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (4 growth-enhancement treatments × 2 sex classes) was used to quantify effects of initial implanting (I-implant, d 0), terminal implanting (T-implant, d 63), and feeding ractopamine hydrochloride [RAC, 200 mg/(animal/d)] for the last 28 d on feed on carcass characteristics and LM shear force (WBSF) of calf-fed steers (n = 159) and heifers (n = 132). Growth-enhancement treatments included the following: TRT1, T-implant only; TRT2, I-implant and RAC; TRT3, I-implant and T-implant; TRT4, I-implant, T-implant, and RAC. Growth responses (BW and ADG) were measured in 3 segments of the finishing period: 1) d 0 to 63, 2) d 63 to 28 d before slaughter, and 3) final 28 d. Cattle were slaughtered after 152, 166, or 180 d of finishing; carcass data were collected after a 48-h chill; and LM WBSF was measured at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postmortem. A priori contrasts were constructed to test effects associated with use vs. exclusion of growth enhancement in each segment of the finishing period. The interaction between sex class and treatment was not significant (P > 0.05) for any trait tested, indicating that the 4 treatments elicited similar effects in both sexes. Initial implanting improved (P < 0.001) ADG from d 0 to 63 by 11.5%, terminal implanting improved (P < 0.001) ADG from d 63 to 28 d before slaughter by 15%, and supplementing twice-implanted cattle with RAC enhanced ADG during the final 28 d of finishing by 12%. Effects of I-implant, T-implant, and RAC resulted in LM area increases of 3 cm(2) (P = 0.015), 6 cm(2) (P < 0.001), and 3 cm(2) (P = 0.011), respectively, and HCW responses of 11 kg (P = 0.011), 16 kg (P = 0.001), and 6 kg (P = 0.195), respectively. Initial implanting resulted in a 20-point reduction (P = 0.097) in marbling, and T-implant reduced marbling by 25 points (P = 0.04), whereas marbling score was unaffected (P = 0.236) by RAC supplementation. Cattle that received only 1 implant (TRT1 and TRT2) produced carcasses with greater (P = 0.026) mean marbling scores and greater (P = 0.01) rates of conformity to beef carcass marketing specifications for HCW, quality grade, yield grade, and LM area than did cattle that were implanted twice (TRT3 and TRT4). Values for LM WBSF were not affected (P > 0.05) by initial or terminal implanting; however, RAC supplementation increased (P = 0.007) mean LM WBSF by 0.23 kg, which translated into a reduction (P = 0.007) in predicted consumer acceptance of LM steaks.
    Journal of Animal Science 01/2011; 89(1):201-9. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    Professional Animal Scientist. 01/2011; 27:485-491.
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY
    01/2011;

Publication Stats

548 Citations
119.83 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2013
    • Colorado State University
      • Department of Animal Sciences
      Fort Collins, CO, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Northern Colorado
      • School of Biological Sciences
      Greeley, CO, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Milan
      • Department of Veterinary Sciences and Technologies for Food Safety VSA
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1999–2004
    • North Carolina State University
      • Department of Animal Science
      Raleigh, NC, United States