J Bolt-de Vries

Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (20)55.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Adult rats were treated with ethane dimethane sulphonate (EDS) to eliminate the Leydig cells. This treatment resulted in very low levels of testosterone in the blood and in the testis. Furthermore, histological evaluation of spermatogenesis showed no marked differences between control and EDS-treated animals. In the ventral prostate, 5 days after EDS-treatment, a 4.0 +/- 0.3-fold up-regulation of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA was observed, together with a 2.2 +/- 0.2-fold increase in actin mRNA. In the epididymis, a 2.0 +/- 0.5-fold increase in AR mRNA level was observed, without a change in actin mRNA level. In the testes of EDS-treated rats, the AR mRNA level was not changed (1.02 +/- 0.17-fold of controls), and there was also no change in actin mRNA level at 5 days after EDS-treatment. These results indicate that AR mRNA expression in the ventral prostate and epididymis is regulated differentially by testosterone when compared to regulation in the testis. Testicular androgen binding sites were assayed by Scatchard analysis of the binding of 3H-R1881 to a nuclear fraction, that was isolated by a method which involved the use of liquid nitrogen and high sucrose buffer. The number of specific binding sites per testis in EDS-treated rats with testosterone-implants, remained unaltered compared to control rats (9.1 +/- 1.4 pmol/testis). In these rats, 20% of the normal testicular testosterone level was sufficient to maintain the androgen receptor in a tight nuclear binding (transformed) form. In testes from EDS-treated rats without testosterone-implants, the AR did not fractionate into the nuclear fraction; however, the total testicular AR content in these animals was close to control levels, as measured by nuclear 3H-R1881 binding after receptor transformation through injection of a high dose of testosterone (10 mg) 2 h before killing the rats (testosterone pulse). In the different experimental groups, FSH was not required to maintain the total testicular AR content (ligand binding). Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting of the testicular AR using specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies indicated that the total testicular amount of immunodetectable AR protein in long-term testosterone deprived rats was very low when compared to that in control rats or rats with testosterone-implants. This is in disagreement with results obtained in the ligand binding assay, and may point to a structural modification of the AR in the testis that possibly occurs in the prolonged absence of androgens.
    International Journal of Andrology 05/1992; 15(2):182-98. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and cyproterone acetate (CPA) were estimated in samples of prostate tissue, obtained from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients who were or were not pretreated with CPA. Furthermore, these steroids were estimated in various fractions of the BPH tissue, and the number of nuclear androgen-receptor sites was determined. CPA-treatment caused a 4-fold, significant suppression of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone levels in total prostate tissue and its subfractions, without affecting testosterone levels or the androgen-receptor contents of the nuclear extracts. Nuclear concentrations of CPA were twice as high as those of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone. It is concluded that effects of CPA may have been caused through a combination of the following mechanisms: (1) suppression of peripheral androgen levels; (2) competition with androgens for (nuclear) androgen-receptors; and (3) suppression of prostatic 5 alpha-reductase.
    The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 04/1992; 42(1):49-55. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adult rats were treated with ethane dimethane sulphonate (EDS), an agent that destroys Leydig cells. Within 5 days after EDS treatment, the levels of testosterone (T) in the circulation and in the testis were decreased to very low values, which makes it possible to manipulate the testicular T concentration through administration of exogenous T. Spermatogenesis was not markedly affected within 5 days after EDS treatment, also not in the absence of T administration. In testes of EDS-treated rats, the androgen receptor mRNA (ARmRNA) level remained unaltered for 5 days. In ventral prostate, however, this treatment caused a pronounced upregulation of the level of ARmRNA, which could be counteracted by implantation of silastic T implants immediately after EDS treatment. In EDS-treated rats carrying a T implant and in untreated rats, the same number of specific [3H]R1881 binding sites was observed using a total testis nuclear fraction (Scatchard analysis). In testes from EDS-treated rats without T implants, androgen receptors (AR) did not fractionate into the nuclear fraction; however, the total testicular AR content in these animals (measured by nuclear [3H]R1881 binding after receptor transformation through injection of a high dose of T, 2 h before killing the rats) remained unaltered. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting using anti N-terminal antibodies seemed to indicate that the total testicular amount of AR protein in the EDS-treated rats was very low as compared to that in EDS-treated rats carrying T implants and in untreated rats. Even after receptor retransformation (by injection of a high dose of T) the receptors were not quantitatively detected by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. This may point to a structural modification of the AR that occurs in the prolonged absence of androgens.
    The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 02/1991; 40(1-3):343-7. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: LNCaP tumor cells, derived from a metastatic lesion of a human prostatic carcinoma, are androgen-sensitive in cell culture. Although increase in growth rate is observed with low doses of progestagens or estradiol, these cells contain exclusively androgen receptors. In the present study the binding affinity of different ligands for both non-DNA- and DNA-binding (transformed) forms of the androgen receptor were analyzed. The cytosolic (non-transformed) form of the receptor displayed an abnormal high affinity for progestagens and estradiol when compared with the cytosolic androgen receptor from other sources. Subsequently the non-transformed forms of the androgen receptor obtained from LNCaP cell nuclei was studied. A high binding affinity was found not only for dihydrotestosterone, but also for progesterone and the synthetic progestagen R5020 (relative binding affinity 42% and 10% of dihydrotestosterone). The binding characteristics of the transformed androgen receptor were examined in intact cells at 37 degrees C. LNCaP cells were compared in this respect with COS cells containing the cloned human androgen receptor, normal human skin fibroblasts and PC3 (prostate) and NHIK (cervix) human tumor cell lines. The affinity of the transformed androgen receptors for the progestagen R5020 in LNCaP cells was significantly higher than in the other cell systems, although the differences were less pronounced than for the non-transformed receptor form. In conclusion: the LNCaP tumor cells contain an androgen receptor with an abnormal binding site. This might be due to a mutation and/or a post-transcriptional effect.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/1990; 1052(1):187-94. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Androgen receptor heterogeneity and phosphorylation were studied in the human LNCaP cell line. Fluorography after photoaffinity labeling as well as immunoblotting with a specific polyclonal antibody revealed that the human androgen receptor migrated as a closely spaced 110 kD doublet on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. A time-dependent change in the ratio between the two isoforms was not observed after R1881 treatment of intact cells. In nuclear extracts of LNCaP cells that were incubated with [32P]orthophosphate in the presence of 10 nM R1881, a 110 kD phosphorylated protein was demonstrated after immunopurification using a monoclonal antibody against the human androgen receptor. Only a very small amount of this phosphoprotein was detected in the nuclear fraction from cells not treated with R1881. These results indicate that the human androgen receptor in LNCaP cells can be phosphorylated.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/1990; 166(1):193-200. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Androgen receptor heterogeneity and phosphorylation were studied in the human LNCaP cell line. Fluorography after photoafffinity labeling as well as immunoblotting with a specific polyclonal antibody revealed that the human androgen receptor migrated as a closely spaced 110 kD doublet on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. A time-dependent change in the ratio between the two isoforms was not observed after R1881 treatment of intact cells. In nuclear extracts of LNCaP cells that were incubated with [32P]orthophosphate in the presence of 10 nM R1881, a 110 kD phosphorylated protein was demonstrated after immunopurification using a monoclonal antibody against the human androgen receptor. Only a very small amount of this phosphoprotein was detected in the nuclear fraction from cells not treated with R1881. These results indicate that the human androgen receptor in LNCaP cells can be phosphorylated.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/1990; 166(1):193-200. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The androgen receptor in human prostate carcinoma cells (LNCaP) has been studied after in situ photolabeling with [3H]R1881. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of whole cell extracts revealed the presence of two specifically labeled proteins of 110 kDa and 43 kDa. Both photolabeled proteins were stable in cell homogenates and generated different chymotryptic maps, suggesting that the two proteins were different. From ligand binding specificity studies could be concluded that the 110 kDa protein represents the androgen receptor. The 43 kDa protein showed binding specificity only for R1881. Both photolabeled proteins were recovered from LNCaP nuclei, but the 43 kDa protein showed a relatively higher affinity for nuclei than the 110 kDa protein. The function of this protein is unknown. It is concluded that the human androgen receptor is a protein with a molecular mass of 110 kDa.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 06/1989; 63(1-2):39-44. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The content of nuclear androgen receptors (ARn) in prostatic carcinoma biopsies is not predictive for the duration of response of the tumor to endocrine therapy. Recently pre-treatment plasma testosterone has been suggested to be predictive in this respect. Therefore, pre-treatment plasma testosterone (T) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were studied in 31 patients aged 72 +/- 10 years (range: 45-87) with stage D2 carcinoma of the prostate treated by orchiectomy. In 26 of these patients, the ARn level of the carcinoma was also known (61 +/- 41 fmol/mg protein; range 0-169). Plasma T levels (mean: 13.7 +/- 6.1 nmol/l) varied widely (range: 2.4-25.4), as did plasma SHBG (32.5 +/- 19.3 nmol/l; range 4.4-78.8), and time to progression (TTP; 14.6 +/- 11.2 months; range 1-48). Plasma T was found to be correlated to age (Rs = 0.537; P less than 0.01) and TTP (Rs = 0.4495; P less than 0.02). Tissue ARn and plasma SHBG did not correlate to any of the parameters studied.
    Urological Research 02/1989; 17(2):99-102. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nuclear androgen receptor (ARn) content of cancerous prostatic tissue has been investigated as a prognosticator for time to progression under endocrine therapy. In 1981 a prospective study was started to investigate whether the ARn content in biopsy specimens of patients with prostatic carcinoma predicts the duration of response following hormonal treatment. ARn was estimated by a microassay which involves extraction of nuclear pellets with a heparin-containing buffer, exchange labeling of the nuclear extract with 3H-R1881, and quantitation of the receptor with protamine sulphate precipitation. One hundred and fifteen patients with prostatic cancer entered this study; 47 patients had evidence of metastatic disease as proven by bone scan. Forty-two patients were treated by orchiectomy; 37 of these patients are evaluable with a minimal follow-up of 30 months. A relationship between the nuclear androgen receptor content and the time to progression following orchiectomy in these patients with metastatic disease of the prostate was not found. This could possibly be attributed to the heterogeneous nature of the prostatic tumor tissue with respect to the distribution of the ARn. We conclude that androgen receptor assay in needle biopsies, at least in this study, had no value for the prediction of the time to progression after orchiectomy.
    The Prostate 02/1988; 12(3):191-8. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In situ photoaffinity labelling of the human androgen receptor has been performed in the LNCaP (Lymph Node Carcinoma of the Prostate) cell line. The covalently labelled receptors were identified by SDS-PAGE. Intact LNCaP cells, incubated with [3H]-R1881 and subsequently irradiated with u.v. light and directly solubilized in SDS-buffer, revealed two photolabelled protein bands at 110 and 50 kDa. Irradiation of intact cells and subsequent isolation of nuclei followed by extraction with 0.5 M NaCl resulted in one major photolabelled protein band at 110 kDa. The labelling of this band could be completely suppressed by a 100-fold molar excess of non-radioactive R1881. Photolabelling of androgen receptors in a cytosolic preparation of LNCaP cells after anion exchange chromatography resulted in a much lower labelling efficiency compared with the in situ labelling procedure, although the androgen receptor was purified 100-fold. The steroid binding domain of the human androgen receptor has been partially mapped with chymotrypsin and S. aureus V8 protease digestion. Proteolytic digestion with chymotrypsin of purified photoaffinity-labelled 110 kDa human androgen receptor resulted in the generation of a 15 kDa peptide which still contains the covalently linked hormone. It is concluded that the in situ photoaffinity labelling technique can be applied successfully for characterization of the steroid binding domain of androgen receptors in prostate cancer cells and in other androgen target cells. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the human androgen receptor is a monomer with a molecular mass of 110 kDa, of which the steroid binding site is confined to a 15 kDa domain.
    Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 02/1988; 30(1-6):257-61.
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    ABSTRACT: The relative success with which the response of breast cancer to endocrine therapy can be predicted by assay of female sex steroid receptors has led to attempts to use measurement of androgen receptors in neoplastic prostate tissue for predicting the success of anti-androgen therapy in prostate cancer. Hitherto hopes have not been fulfilled. Androgen receptors are present in almost all prostate samples, but with inhomogeneous distribution. No relationship was found between androgen receptor levels in needle aspirate and prognosis in prostatic carcinoma. Receptors for oestrogen, progestin and prolactin were also studied for identification of possible prognostic indicators. Progestin receptors appear to be present in prostatic tissue. Lack of consensus regarding prostatic oestrogen and prolactin receptors is due partly to their low (if any) concentrations and partly to differing methodology and interpretation of results. Oestrogen, progestin and prolactin receptors seem to lack prognostic significance in prostatic cancer. These findings and the high initial response rate of prostatic carcinoma to endocrine therapy indicate that further studies should focus on elucidating how such tumours become hormone-independent.
    Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology. Supplementum 02/1988; 107:39-45.
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    ABSTRACT: Androgen receptor (AR) levels were measured in PC-82 tumor tissue grown in hormonally manipulated nude mice. In the nuclei of tumor tissue from intact male mice a relatively low concentration (mean 25 fmol/mg protein) of androgen receptors (ARn) was found, while no receptors for estrogens or progestins were detected. The total number of androgen receptors in the PC-82 tumor tissue (measured in the nuclei 1 h after injection of a single high dose of testosterone (T) was found to be 100 fmol/mg protein. The antiandrogen cyproterone acetate, administered in combination with the high dose of T, significantly lowered the amount of ARn in the tumor tissue. In the nuclei of tumor tissue from intact tumor-bearing male mice with T-containing Silastic implants, a 4-times higher amount of tightly associated AR was found. In addition, an increased growth rate of the tumor was observed following T implantation. This finding suggests that the increased growth rate of the PC-82 tumor is associated with a continuous occupancy of AR in the nuclei of the tumor tissue. Castration of tumor-bearing male mice, which arrests the growth of this tumor, did not affect the concentration of ARn in the tissue compared to that of tissue in the intact control situation. In addition, the total amount of AR measured after T injection was not affected by castration. Therefore, the availability of a sufficient and steady level of T in the plasma and consequently the duration of the presence of AR in the nucleus of the PC-82 tumor tissue, rather than the total concentration of AR, appear to be the limiting factors in the modulation of hormonal responses in this androgen target tissue.
    The Prostate 02/1988; 12(2):145-56. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Androgen receptors (ARn) were assayed in nuclear extracts of prostatic biopsies from 60 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 82 patients with prostatic cancer (PC), with an exchange assay using heparin extraction, labelling with 3H-R1881, and protamine sulphate precipitation. The content of ARn of BPH biopsies (38 +/- 34 fmol/mg protein [mean +/- SD]; n = 70) was not different from that of PC biopsies (39 +/- 32 fmol/mg protein; n = 115). Biopsies showing essentially normal prostatic tissue had a lower ARn content (12 +/- 13 fmol/mg protein; n = 6). The content of ARn was independent of the age of the patient and of the histological grade of the carcinomas. A considerable variation in ARn content within tumors of individual patients was found, indicating that ARn are not uniformly distributed over prostatic tissue; ie, cells with high and low receptor content may coexist in different proportions in different regions of the prostate. Therefore, assays on multiple biopsies may be required for a proper estimation of the mean receptor content. The question remains, however, whether the behavior of the tumor is adequately predicted by the mean receptor level or, for instance, by the region with the lowest receptor content.
    The Prostate 02/1985; 6(2):185-94. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rat ventral prostate contains prolactin receptors, and during sexual maturation prolactin stimulates the growth of this gland. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate whether prolactin is involved in the regulation of the number of its own receptor sites in the rat ventral prostate. To this end, the content of prolactin receptors was estimated in prostate membranes of control and chronically hyperprolactinemic rats both before and after in vitro desaturation with 4 M MgCl2. Hyperprolactinemia resulted in a 40% increase in the number of available prolactin receptors (P less than 0.05). In vitro desaturation of receptors resulted in loss of 84% of protein and 36 +/- 6% and 52 +/- 6% of prolactin receptors from ventral prostate membranes of control and hyperprolactinemic rats respectively (P less than 0.05). We have concluded that the rat ventral prostate membranes are not suited to in vitro desaturation of prolactin receptors with MgCl2. From the increase in the number of available prolactin receptors after hyperprolactinemia we have concluded that prolactin is involved in the regulation of the number of its own receptors in the rat ventral prostate.
    The Prostate 02/1985; 6(3):277-83. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Androgen, estrogen and progesterone receptors have been characterized with anion exchange Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) on a Mono Q column (Pharmacia). In the presence of sodium molybdate androgen receptors in cytosols from rat prostate, rat epididymis and calf uterus eluted as a single sharp peak at 0.32 M NaCl with recoveries of approx 90%. The molybdate-stabilized form of the androgen receptor from rat prostate was purified about 75-fold. The receptor containing FPLC-peak fractions sedimented in high salt (0.4 M KCl) linear sucrose gradients at 3.6 S (prostate) and at 4.6 S (epididymis and calf uterus) respectively. Multiple forms of the androgen receptor were present in cytosols from rat prostate prepared in the absence of sodium molybdate, probably due to proteolytic breakdown of the native form. Calf uterine estradiol and progesterone receptors prepared in the presence of sodium molybdate (20 mM) eluted from the Mono Q column at 0.32 M NaCl. The molybdate-stabilized forms of the oestradiol and progesterone receptors were purified approx 70-fold and 30-fold respectively. In the absence of molybdate the estradiol receptor dissociated into two major forms eluting at 0.23 M NaCl and 0.37 M NaCl. After heat induced transformation (30 min at 25 degrees C) of the estradiol receptor one major peak was eluted at 0.42 M NaCl, indicating a change in the surface charge of the estradiol receptor as a result of the 4 S to 5 S transformation. It is concluded that the FPLC anion exchange system is a powerful, fast tool for characterization and partial purification of steroid receptors. In addition this technique could be applied as a rapid procedure for the quantitative estimation of steroid receptors in small biological samples.
    Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 02/1985; 22(1):85-90.
  • Progress in clinical and biological research 02/1985; 185A:23-50.
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    ABSTRACT: For the evaluation of histochemical procedures for detection of androgen receptors, three human tumor cell lines have been used: PC-93 and NHIK-3025, both biochemically characterized as androgen receptor-positive, and EB-33, biochemically characterized as androgen receptor-negative. The binding of three fluorescent ligands, testosterone-17 beta-hemisuccinate-bovine serum albumin-fluorescein isothiocyanate, testosterone-17 beta-hemisuccinate-fluoresceinamine, and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone-17 beta-hemisuccinate-fluoresceinamine, to the cells was evaluated. The relative binding affinities of the ligands for the androgen receptors were low (less than 5% when compared to methyltrienolone). Treatment of the cells with the androgen-fluoresceinamine derivatives resulted in a fluorescent labeling of the cytoplasm in both intact and "freeze-damaged" cells of the three cell lines. This staining was independent of the presence of receptors. Nuclei were not stained. Incubation of intact cels with the protein-linked conjugate did not result in significant cellular fluorescence. Only cells with damaged membranes showed a positive histochemical reaction, both in nucleus and cytoplasm, irrespective of the receptor content of the cells. The fluorescence intensity was not suppressed with excess 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone or methyltrienolone, which are known to prevent binding of low affinity ligands to androgen receptors. From these results it is concluded that androgen receptors cannot be detected by these fluorescent ligands with low affinity for the receptor. The observed fluorescence of the cells is therefore due to binding of the ligands to other binding sites. The visualization/histochemical demonstration of these binding sites does not appear to be related to the presence of androgen receptors.
    The Prostate 02/1984; 5(4):425-37. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of endocrine manipulation on the tissue concentration of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was studied in the hormone dependent transplantable human prostatic tumor line PC-82. Tumor bearing nude mice were left intact, castrated or treated for a 5-day period with a subcutaneous implant containing testosterone or estradiol. The concentration of PAP in castrated mice was not different from that in the controls. The DNA content of PC-82 tumor tissue obtained from 5-day castrated animals was significantly lower than that of tissue from intact animals. Therefore the concentration of PAP in tissue from castrated mice was significantly elevated when expressed per mg. of DNA (p less than 0.05). Treatment of the mice with testosterone or estradiol did not affect the PAP concentration in the tumor tissue. A significant correlation was observed between the concentration of PAP in the serum and the tumor burden of the mice. Long-term withdrawal of androgens resulted in a decrease of the concentration of PAP in the serum, as well as in a decrease of the tumor burden. The concentration of PAP in the tumor tissue remaining after castration of these animals was not significantly different from that in controls. The present data from the tumor line PC-82 do not support the hypothesis that the concentration of PAP in prostatic tumor tissue is controlled by androgens, but are in agreement with the concept that the level of PAP in plasma is related to the tumor mass.
    The Journal of Urology 04/1983; 129(3):630-3. · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • M A Blankenstein, J Bolt-de Vries, J A Foekens
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear androgen receptors in benign and malignant human prostatic tumors were estimated with a nuclear exchange assay to evaluate the applicability of the assay to biopsy size tissue samples. The mean nuclear androgen receptor content of six different prostate samples was not dependent on the amount of tissue used. In contrast, however, there was no significant correlation between the results obtained for individual prostates when large samples (500 mg) and samples weighing 100, 50(r = 0.38, n = 14), and 25 mg were compared. This lack of correlation could not be attributed to variations in the assay nor to differences in the percentage of epithelium in the samples. There was no effect of the presence of molybdate on the estimated nuclear androgen receptor level. We concluded that androgen receptors are distributed nonhomogeneously over prostatic tissue and that androgen receptor assays on multiple biopsies are required to obtain a proper estimate of the true androgen receptor content of the tissue.
    The Prostate 02/1982; 3(4):351-9. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A procedure for the estimation of nuclear androgen receptors in benign prostatic hyperplastic tissue is described, which employs extraction of receptors from nuclei with buffers containing heparin. Extraction of a nuclear pellet with a heparin-containing (1 g/l) buffer appeared to have definite advantages over 0.4 mol/l KCl extraction. Heparin appeared to be twice as efficient in extracting androgen receptors. In addition aggregated receptor proteins, formed after storage at -80 degrees C, were partly deaggregated by heparin. Specific isolation of the androgen receptor was performed using either agar gel electrophoresis, protamine sulphate precipitation or LH-20 gel filtration. A comparison was made between the amounts of estimated receptors with these different techniques. Protamine sulphate precipitation resulted in the highest estimates of receptor-bound 5 alpha-[3H]dihydrotestosterone (3H-DHT). Treatment of the labelled nuclear extracts with a charcoal suspension prior to the receptor assay resulted in lower amounts of estimated androgen receptors. A method for routine evaluation of nuclear androgen receptors in prostatic tissue has been evaluated, which involves extraction of nuclear pellets with a heparin-containing (1 g/l) buffer, exchange labelling of the nuclear extracts for 20 h at 10 degrees C and quantification of the receptors with protamine sulphate precipitation.
    Clinica Chimica Acta 02/1981; 109(1):91-102. · 2.85 Impact Factor