Joan Bolt-de Vries

Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (21)123.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Before using circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as liquid biopsy, insight into molecular discrepancies between CTCs and primary tumors is essential. We characterized CellSearch-enriched CTCs from 62 metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients with ≥5 CTCs starting first-line systemic treatment. Expression levels of 35 tumor-associated, CTC-specific genes, including ESR1, coding for the estrogen receptor (ER), were measured by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and correlated to corresponding primary tumors. In 30 patients (48%), gene expression profiles of 35 genes were discrepant between CTCs and the primary tumor, but this had no prognostic consequences. In 15 patients (24%), the expression of ER was discrepant. Patients with ER-negative primary tumors and ER-positive CTCs had a longer median TTS compared to those with concordantly ER-negative CTCs (8.5 versus 2.1 months, P=0.05). From seven patients, an axillary lymph node metastasis was available. In two patients, the CTC profiles better resembled the lymph node metastasis than the primary tumor. Our findings suggest that molecular discordances between CTCs and primary tumors frequently occur, but that this bears no prognostic consequences. Alterations in ER-status between primary tumors and CTCs might have prognostic implications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Cancer letters 03/2015; 362(1). DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2015.03.020 · 5.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is a promising tool for the repeated and non-invasive evaluation of predictive and prognostic factors. Challenges associated with CTC characterization using the only FDA approved method for CTC enumeration, the CellSearch technique, include the presence of an excess of leukocytes in CTC-enriched blood fractions. Here we aimed to identify colorectal tumor-specific gene expression levels in the blood of patients with and without detectable CTCs according to CellSearch criteria. Blood of 30 healthy donors (HDs) and 142 metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients was subjected to CellSearch CTC enumeration and isolation. In all samples, 95 mRNAs were measured by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). HD blood samples and patient samples with three or more CTCs were compared to identify CTC-specific mRNAs. Patient samples without detectable CTCs were separately analyzed. Thirty-four CTC-specific mRNAs were higher expressed in patients with ≥3 CTCs compared with HDs (Mann-Whitney U-test P < 0.05). Among patients without detectable CTCs, a HD-unlike subgroup was identified which could be distinguished from HDs by the expression of epithelial genes such as KRT19, KRT20 and AGR2. Also, in an independent patient set, a similar HD-unlike group could be identified among the patients without detectable CTCs according to the CellSearch system. Extensive molecular characterization of colorectal CTCs is feasible and a subgroup of patients without detectable CTCs according to CellSearch criteria bears circulating tumor load, which may have clinical consequences. This CTC-specific gene panel for mCRC patients may enable the exploration of CTC characterization as a novel means to further individualize cancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Oncology 01/2015; 9(4). DOI:10.1016/j.molonc.2015.01.001 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A circulating tumor cell (CTC) count is an established prognostic factor in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Besides enumeration, CTC characterization promises to improve outcome prediction and treatment guidance. Having shown the feasibility of quantifying clinically relevant mRNA transcripts in CTCs, we determined the prognostic value of CTC gene expression in MBC. CTCs were isolated and enumerated from blood of 197 MBC patients who were about to start first-line systemic therapy. Of these, 180 were evaluable for quantification of mRNA expression by RT-qPCR in relation to time to treatment failure (TTF). A prognostic CTC gene profile was generated by leave-one-out cross validation in a 103 patient discovery set and validated in 77 patients. Additionally, all 180 patients were randomly divided into two equal sets to discover and validate a second prognostic profile. CTC count predicted for TTF at baseline (≥5 versus <5 CTCs/7.5 mL blood, Hazard Ratio (HR) 2.92 [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.71 - 4.95] P <0.0001). A 16-gene CTC profile was generated in the first discovery set, which identified patients with death or TTF <9 months versus those with a better outcome. In multivariate analysis, the 16-gene profile was the only factor associated with TTF (HR 3.15 [95% CI 1.35 - 7.33] P 0.008). Validation of this profile in the independent patient set pointed into the same direction, but was not statistically significant. A newly generated 8-gene profile showed similarly favorable test characteristics as the 16-gene profile, but did not significantly pass validation either. A 16-gene CTC profile was identified, which provided prognostic value on top of CTC count in MBC patients. However, validation of this profile in an independent cohort, nor of a second profile, reached statistical significance, underscoring the need to further fine-tune the still promising approach of CTC characterization. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Annals of Oncology 12/2014; DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdu557 · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer (BC) is a disease with intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity, and models representing the complete variety of clinical BC phenotypes are not available. We explored the tumor growth potential and metastatic behavior of human BC cell lines and determined whether these cell lines can recapitulate subtype-related biological characteristics of tumors. Eighteen human BC cell lines were implanted under the mammary fat pad of nude mice. Subtype-specific differences in tumor growth, metastatic ability to distant sites, and tumor-related survival of mice were recorded. Eighty-nine percent of the cell lines gave rise to xenografts of which 56 % showed metastasis to distant sites. A clear difference was observed in growth of xenografts from cell lines of different molecular subtypes (P = 0.001; Kruskal-Wallis test). Mice bearing the basal-like and the normal-like xenografts showed poor tumor-related survival (HR: 10.50; P = 0.002 and HR: 9.89; P = 0.003, respectively) compared with those bearing the ERBB2-positive xenografts, which had the longest survival. Subtype-specific metastasis to distant sites between xenografts was not however observed. Comparable to clinical behavior in humans, we observed that the basal-like and the normal-like cell lines grew more aggressively in mice than the cell lines of other molecular subtypes. However, in contrast to clinical findings, we observed no relationships between intrinsic subtype and preferences for site of relapse. Importantly, we have established xenograft models from 16 phenotypically and molecularly diverse human BC cell lines, which can be exploited as useful tools to perform functional studies and screening of interfering drugs.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 09/2014; 148(1). DOI:10.1007/s10549-014-3142-0 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although anti-EGFR therapy has established efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer, only 10-20% of unselected patients respond. This is partly due to KRAS and BRAF mutations, which are currently assessed in the primary tumor. To improve patient selection, assessing mutation status in circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which possibly better represent metastases than the primary tumor, could be advantageous. We investigated the feasibility of KRAS and BRAF mutation detection in colorectal CTCs by comparing three sensitive methods and compared mutation status in matching primary tumor, liver metastasis and CTCs. CTCs were isolated from blood drawn from 49 patients before liver resection using CellSearch™. DNA and RNA was isolated from primary tumors, metastases and CTCs. Mutations were assessed by co-amplification at lower denaturation temperature (COLD)-PCR (Transgenomic™), real-time PCR (EntroGen™), and nested Allele-Specific Blocker (ASB-)PCR and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In 43 of the 49 patients, tissue RNA and DNA was of sufficient quantity and quality. In these 43 patients, discordance between primary and metastatic tumor was 23% for KRAS and 7% for BRAF mutations. RNA and DNA from CTCs was available from 42 of the 43 patients, in which ASB-PCR was able to detect the most mutations. Inconclusive results in patients with low CTC counts limited the interpretation of discrepancies between tissue and CTCs. Determination of KRAS and BRAF mutations in CTCs is challenging but feasible. Of the tested methods, nested ASB-PCR, enabling detection of KRAS and BRAF mutations in patients with as little as two CTCs, seems to be superior. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 07/2013; 133(1). DOI:10.1002/ijc.27987 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be enumerated using CellSearch, but not all breast cancer subtypes, specifically those with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) characteristics, sufficiently express the enrichment (EpCAM) and selection (CK8/18/19) markers used in this method. While CD146 can detect EpCAM-negative CTCs, we here evaluated the value of various cytokeratins and CD49f to detect CK8/18/19-negative CTCs. The tested cytokeratins provided no substantial benefit, but adding CD49f to CK8/18/19 as a selection marker resulted in improved recovery of normal-like cell lines. Combined staining of CK8/18/19 and CD49f after CD146/EpCAM enrichment is likely to further improve CTC detection in breast cancer.
    Cancer letters 12/2011; 319(1):49-55. DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2011.12.031 · 5.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTC) holds great promise. Unfortunately, routinely isolated CTC fractions currently still contain contaminating leukocytes, which makes CTC-specific molecular characterization extremely challenging. In this study, we determined mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression of potentially CTC-specific genes that are considered to be clinically relevant in breast cancer. CTCs were isolated with the epithelial cell adhesion molecule-based CellSearch Profile Kit. Selected genes were measured by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR in CTCs of 50 metastatic breast cancer patients collected before starting first-line systemic therapy in blood from 53 healthy blood donors (HBD) and in primary tumors of 8 of the patients. The molecular profiles were associated with CTC counts and clinical parameters and compared with the profiles generated from the corresponding primary tumors. We identified 55 mRNAs and 10 miRNAs more abundantly expressed in samples from 32 patients with at least 5 CTCs in 7.5 mL of blood compared with samples from 9 patients without detectable CTCs and HBDs. Clustering analysis resulted in 4 different patient clusters characterized by 5 distinct gene clusters. Twice the number of patients from cluster 2 to 4 had developed both visceral and nonvisceral metastases. Comparing transcript levels in CTCs with those measured in corresponding primary tumors showed clinically relevant discrepancies in estrogen receptor and HER2 levels. Our study shows that molecular profiling of low numbers of CTCs in a high background of leukocytes is feasible and shows promise for further studies on the clinical relevance of molecular characterization of CTCs.
    Clinical Cancer Research 06/2011; 17(11):3600-18. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-0255 · 8.19 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 04/2011; 70(24 Supplement):P3-02-05-P3-02-05. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.SABCS10-P3-02-05 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most assays to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) rely on EpCAM expression on tumor cells. Recently, our group reported that in contrast to other molecular breast cancer subtypes, "normal-like" cell lines lack EpCAM expression and are thus missed when CTCs are captured with EpCAM-based technology [J Natl Cancer Inst 101(1):61-66, 2009]. Here, the use of CD146 is introduced to detect EpCAM-negative CTCs, thereby improving CTC detection. CD146 and EpCAM expression were assessed in our panel of 41 breast cancer cell lines. Cells from 14 cell lines, 9 of which normal-like, were spiked into healthy donor blood. Using CellSearch technology, 7.5 ml whole blood was enriched for CTCs by adding ferrofluids loaded with antibodies against EpCAM and/or CD146 followed by staining for Cytokeratin and DAPI. Hematopoietic cells and circulating endothelial cells (CECs) were counterstained with CD45 and CD34, respectively. A similar approach was applied for blood samples of 20 advanced breast cancer patients. Eight of 9 normal-like breast cancer cell lines lacked EpCAM expression but did express CD146. Five of these 8 could be adequately recovered by anti-CD146 ferrofluids. Of 20 advanced breast cancer patients whose CTCs were enumerated with anti-EpCAM and anti-CD146 ferrofluids, 9 had CD146+ CTCs. Cells from breast cancer cell lines that lack EpCAM expression frequently express CD146 and can be recovered by anti-CD146 ferrofluids. CD146+ CTCs are present in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients with advanced disease. Combined use of anti-CD146 and anti-EpCAM is likely to improve CTC detection in breast cancer patients.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 04/2010; 127(1):33-41. DOI:10.1007/s10549-010-0879-y · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in whole blood from metastatic cancer patients by the CellSearch CTC Test (Veridex LLC, Warren, NJ, USA) has been shown to have clinical relevance. In addition to enumeration, there is great interest in molecular characterization of these CTCs. We aimed to establish a robust method to perform mRNA expression analysis of multiple genes by a real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR on small numbers of CTCs enriched from whole blood by the CellSearch system. Despite the 4 log depletion of leukocytes after CellSearch enrichment, the CTC-enriched fractions still contained leukocytes, in particular B-lymphocytes, which severely interfered with our CTC-specific gene expression profiling. After extensive washing and leukocyte-specific depletion by anti-CD45 coated magnetic beads prior to CellSearch enrichment, the number of leukocytes present in the enriched fraction was still high (range 60-929). However, by using a set of genes with no or minor expression by leukocytes, we succeeded to perform quantitative gene expression profiling specific for as little as one breast cancer CTC present in a CTC-enriched environment typically containing over 800 contaminating leukocytes. Our method allows molecular characterization specific for as little as one CTC, and can be used to expand the understanding of the biology of metastasis and, potentially, to improve patient management.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 12/2009; 118(3):455-68. DOI:10.1007/s10549-008-0290-0 · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • EJC Supplements 09/2009; 7(2):262-262. DOI:10.1016/S1359-6349(09)70899-7 · 9.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated if PITX2 DNA methylation is a marker for disease recurrence in lymph node-negative (LNN), steroid hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer patients. In addition, we studied the association between PITX2 DNA methylation and PITX2 gene expression. PITX2 DNA-methylation was measured in tumor tissue from 412 LNN/HR+ breast cancer patients who had not received any adjuvant systemic treatment. In addition, PITX2 DNA-methylation and mRNA expression was evaluated in 32 breast cancer cell lines. In univariate Cox regression analysis, DNA-methylation of PITX2 as a continuous variable was associated with early distant metastasis (HR = 1.71; P < 0.01) and poor overall survival (HR = 1.71; P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis together with the established prognostic factors age, tumor size and tumor grade, and steroid hormone receptor levels, both associations retained their significance (for MFS, HR = 1.74; P < 0.01; for OS, HR = 1.46; P = 0.02). In the breast cancer cell lines, PITX2 DNA methylation was inversely association with PITX2A and PITX2B mRNA expression (P < 0.01). Hypermethylation of PITX2 is, in cell lines, negatively associated with PITX2 mRNA expression and, in clinical specimens, positively associated with breast cancer disease progression.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 11/2007; 111(3):429-37. DOI:10.1007/s10549-007-9800-8 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the biological basis of resistance to endocrine therapy is of utmost importance in patients with steroid hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Not only will this allow us prediction of therapy success, it may also lead to novel therapies for patients resistant to current endocrine therapy. DNA methylation in the promoter regions of genes is a prominent epigenetic gene silencing mechanism that contributes to breast cancer biology. In the current study, we investigated whether promoter DNA methylation could be associated with resistance to endocrine therapy in patients with recurrent breast cancer. Using a microarray-based technology, the promoter DNA methylation status of 117 candidate genes was studied in a cohort of 200 steroid hormone receptor-positive tumors of patients who received the antiestrogen tamoxifen as first-line treatment for recurrent breast cancer. Of the genes analyzed, the promoter DNA methylation status of 10 genes was significantly associated with clinical outcome of tamoxifen therapy. The association of the promoter hypermethylation of the strongest marker, phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT1) with favorable clinical outcome was confirmed by an independent quantitative DNA methylation detection method. Furthermore, the extent of DNA methylation of PSAT1 was inversely associated with its expression at the mRNA level. Finally, also at the mRNA level, PSAT1 was a predictor of tamoxifen therapy response. Concluding, our work indicates that promoter hypermethylation and mRNA expression of PSAT1 are indicators of response to tamoxifen-based endocrine therapy in steroid hormone receptor-positive patients with recurrent breast cancer.
    Cancer Research 06/2005; 65(10):4101-17. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-0064 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is ample information on the clinical role of biologic factors in female breast cancer: urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), its receptor uPAR, its inhibitors PAI-1 and PAI-2, cathepsin D and pS2-protein. However such reports are missing or very rare for male breast cancer. We determined the cytosolic levels of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), cathepsin D, pS2-protein, uPA, uPAR, PAI-1 and PAI-2 of the primary tumour tissues from 40 male breast cancer patients. The tumour levels were compared with those of 180 matched females and 4114 historic females with breast cancer. In male breast tumours the level of PgR was higher, those of uPA, PAI-1, PAI-2 and cathepsin D lower. The tumour level of ER in men was similar to those in the matched and postmenopausal women, but much higher than those in the historic women. Male breast cancer seems to be biologically different from female breast cancer. Correlation of the eight cell biologic factors with disease outcome showed that PAI-1 (p = 0.03) was the only independent predictive factor for poor prognosis in male breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 09/2001; 68(3):249-60. DOI:10.1023/A:1012221921416 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether cathepsin D, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), or clinical factors can predict which patients are at risk for developing distant metastases after local recurrence (LR). Of 1,630 patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy of the breast between 1980 and 1992, LR developed in 171 as a first event. From the available primary tumor tissues, we determined the cytosolic levels of cathepsin D, uPA and PAI-1. In patients with LR, a short (< or = 2 years) disease-free interval (DFI) and skin involvement of LR were associated with poor postrelapse distant metastasis-free survival (PR-DMFS, P = .001, both) and postrelapse overall survival (PR-OS; P < .0001 and P < .0002, respectively). The primary tumor levels of uPA and PAI-1 were elevated for patients with a short DFI (P < .01), but such a relation was not observed for patients with skin involvement. In univariate analyses, high levels of uPA and PAI-1 in the primary tumor were associated with poor PR-OS (P = .038 and P = .040, respectively) but not PR-DMFS. In Cox multivariate analyses for PR-DMFS and PR-OS, only a short DFI and skin involvement of the LR were independently associated with a poor clinical outcome. In patients treated with breast-conserving therapy who had LR as a first event, a short DFI and skin involvement were strong indicators for poor PR-DMFS and PR-OS. The proteases studied did not contribute significantly to the final multivariate model.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/1999; 17(5):1449-57. · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prognostic value of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) measured in samples derived from 865 patients with primary breast cancer using a recently developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated. Since the assay could easily be adapted to the assessment of the complex of tPA with its type-1 inhibitor (PAI-1), it was investigated whether the tPA:PAI-1 complex also provides prognostic information. To this end, cytosolic extracts and corresponding detergent extracts of 100,000 g pellets obtained after ultracentrifugation when preparing the cytosolic fractions for routine steroid hormone receptor determination were assayed. Statistically significant correlations were found between the cytosolic levels and those determined in the pellet extracts (Spearman correlation coefficient r(s) = 0.75, P < 0.001 for tPA and r = 0.50, P < 0.001 for tPA:PAI-1 complex). In both Cox univariate and multivariate analysis elevated levels of (total) tPA determined in the pellet extracts, but not in cytosols, were associated with prolonged relapse-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS). In contrast, high levels of the tPA:PAI-1 complex measured in cytosols, but not in the pellet extracts, were associated with a poor RFS and OS. The prognostic information provided by the cytosolic tPA:PAI-1 complex was comparable to that provided by cytosolic (total) PAI-1. Furthermore, the estimated levels of free, uncomplexed tPA and PAI-1, in cytosols and in pellet extracts, were related to patient prognosis in a similar way as the (total) levels of tPA and PAI-1 respectively. Determination of specific forms of components of the plasminogen activation system, i.e. tPA:PAI-1 complex and free, uncomplexed tPA and/or PAI-1, may be considered a useful adjunct to the analyses of the separate components (tPA and/or PAI-1) and provide valuable additional prognostic information with respect to survival of breast cancer patients.
    British Journal of Cancer 04/1999; 80(1-2):286-94. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6690353 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is controversy regarding the prognostic value of cathepsin-D in primary breast cancer. An increased level of cathepsin-D in tumour extracts has been found to be associated with a poor relapse-free and overall survival. Studies performed with immunohistochemistry or Western blotting have produced diverse results. We have analysed 2810 cytosolic extracts obtained from human primary breast tumours for cathepsin-D expression, and have correlated their levels with prognosis. The median follow-up of the patients still alive was 88 months. Patients with high cathepsin-D levels had a significantly worse relapse-free and overall survival, also in multivariate analysis (P < 0.0001). Adjuvant therapy which was associated with an improved prognosis in node-positive patients in univariate analysis, also significantly added to the multivariate models for relapse-free and overall survival. There were no statistically significant interactions between the levels of cathepsin-D and any of the classical prognostic factors in analysis for relapse-free survival, suggesting that the prognostic value of cathepsin-D is not different in the various subgroups of patients. Indeed, multivariate analyses in subgroups of node-negative and -positive patients, pre- and post-menopausal patients, and their combinations, showed that tumours with high cathepsin-D values had a significantly poor relapse-free survival, with relative hazard rates ranging from 1.3 to 1.5, compared with tumours with low cathepsin-D levels. The results presented here on 2810 patients confirm that high cytosolic cathepsin-D values are associated with poor prognosis in human primary breast cancer.
    British Journal of Cancer 01/1999; 79(2):300-7. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6690048 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adult rats were treated with ethane dimethane sulphonate (EDS), an agent that destroys Leydig cells. Within 5 days after EDS treatment, the levels of testosterone (T) in the circulation and in the testis were decreased to very low values, which makes it possible to manipulate the testicular T concentration through administration of exogenous T. Spermatogenesis was not markedly affected within 5 days after EDS treatment, also not in the absence of T administration. In testes of EDS-treated rats, the androgen receptor mRNA (ARmRNA) level remained unaltered for 5 days. In ventral prostate, however, this treatment caused a pronounced upregulation of the level of ARmRNA, which could be counteracted by implantation of silastic T implants immediately after EDS treatment. In EDS-treated rats carrying a T implant and in untreated rats, the same number of specific [3H]R1881 binding sites was observed using a total testis nuclear fraction (Scatchard analysis). In testes from EDS-treated rats without T implants, androgen receptors (AR) did not fractionate into the nuclear fraction; however, the total testicular AR content in these animals (measured by nuclear [3H]R1881 binding after receptor transformation through injection of a high dose of T, 2 h before killing the rats) remained unaltered. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting using anti N-terminal antibodies seemed to indicate that the total testicular amount of AR protein in the EDS-treated rats was very low as compared to that in EDS-treated rats carrying T implants and in untreated rats. Even after receptor retransformation (by injection of a high dose of T) the receptors were not quantitatively detected by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. This may point to a structural modification of the AR that occurs in the prolonged absence of androgens.
    The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 02/1991; 40(1-3):343-7. DOI:10.1016/0960-0760(91)90200-O · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: LNCaP tumor cells, derived from a metastatic lesion of a human prostatic carcinoma, are androgen-sensitive in cell culture. Although increase in growth rate is observed with low doses of progestagens or estradiol, these cells contain exclusively androgen receptors. In the present study the binding affinity of different ligands for both non-DNA- and DNA-binding (transformed) forms of the androgen receptor were analyzed. The cytosolic (non-transformed) form of the receptor displayed an abnormal high affinity for progestagens and estradiol when compared with the cytosolic androgen receptor from other sources. Subsequently the non-transformed forms of the androgen receptor obtained from LNCaP cell nuclei was studied. A high binding affinity was found not only for dihydrotestosterone, but also for progesterone and the synthetic progestagen R5020 (relative binding affinity 42% and 10% of dihydrotestosterone). The binding characteristics of the transformed androgen receptor were examined in intact cells at 37 degrees C. LNCaP cells were compared in this respect with COS cells containing the cloned human androgen receptor, normal human skin fibroblasts and PC3 (prostate) and NHIK (cervix) human tumor cell lines. The affinity of the transformed androgen receptors for the progestagen R5020 in LNCaP cells was significantly higher than in the other cell systems, although the differences were less pronounced than for the non-transformed receptor form. In conclusion: the LNCaP tumor cells contain an androgen receptor with an abnormal binding site. This might be due to a mutation and/or a post-transcriptional effect.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/1990; 1052(1):187-94. DOI:10.1016/0167-4889(90)90075-O · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A procedure for the estimation of nuclear androgen receptors in benign prostatic hyperplastic tissue is described, which employs extraction of receptors from nuclei with buffers containing heparin. Extraction of a nuclear pellet with a heparin-containing (1 g/l) buffer appeared to have definite advantages over 0.4 mol/l KCl extraction. Heparin appeared to be twice as efficient in extracting androgen receptors. In addition aggregated receptor proteins, formed after storage at -80 degrees C, were partly deaggregated by heparin. Specific isolation of the androgen receptor was performed using either agar gel electrophoresis, protamine sulphate precipitation or LH-20 gel filtration. A comparison was made between the amounts of estimated receptors with these different techniques. Protamine sulphate precipitation resulted in the highest estimates of receptor-bound 5 alpha-[3H]dihydrotestosterone (3H-DHT). Treatment of the labelled nuclear extracts with a charcoal suspension prior to the receptor assay resulted in lower amounts of estimated androgen receptors. A method for routine evaluation of nuclear androgen receptors in prostatic tissue has been evaluated, which involves extraction of nuclear pellets with a heparin-containing (1 g/l) buffer, exchange labelling of the nuclear extracts for 20 h at 10 degrees C and quantification of the receptors with protamine sulphate precipitation.
    Clinica Chimica Acta 02/1981; 109(1):91-102. DOI:10.1016/0009-8981(81)90141-8 · 2.76 Impact Factor