[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Commercially available serological methods for serodiagnosis of human anisakiasis either are poorly specific or do not include some of the most relevant Anisakis allergens. The use of selected recombinant allergens may improve serodiagnosis. To compare the diagnostic and clinical values of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods based on Ani s 1 and Ani s 7 recombinant allergens and of the UniCAP 100 fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (CAP FEIA) system, we tested sera from 495 allergic and 25 non-food-related allergic patients. The decay in specific IgE antibodies in serum was also investigated in 15 positive patients over a period of 6 to 38 months. Considering sera that tested positive by either Ani s 1 or Ani s 7 ELISA, the CAP FEIA classified 25% of sera as falsely positive, mainly in the group of patients with the lowest levels of anti-Anisakis IgE antibodies, and 1.28% of positive sera as falsely negative. Considering allergens individually, the overall sensitivities of Ani s 7 ELISA and Ani s 1 ELISA were 94% and 61%, respectively. The results also showed that anti-Anisakis IgE antibodies can be detected in serum for longer with Ani s 1 ELISA than with Ani s 7 ELISA and CAP FEIA (P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that ELISA methods with Ani s 7 and Ani s 1 allergens as targets of IgE antibodies are currently the best option for serodiagnosis of human anisakiasis, combining specificity and sensitivity. The different persistence of anti-Ani s 1 and anti-Ani s 7 antibodies in serum may help clinicians to distinguish between recent and old Anisakis infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A majority of Kudoa spp. infects the somatic muscle of fish establishing cysts. Previously, elevated humoral responses were detected in BALB/c mice immunised with Kudoa sp. pseudocyst extracts and in BALB/c mice orally inoculated with Kudoa sp. pseudocysts, as well as the presence of anti-Kudoa sp. antibodies in human sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The objective of this work was to test Kudoa sp. pseudocyst extracts by the skin prick test. Fifteen patients with gastroallergic and/or allergic symptoms related to fish ingestion were examined. Kudoa sp. pseudocyst extracts were administered (1 mg/ml) on the volar forearm skin. Four of the 15 selected patients were positive to Kudoa sp. extracts. The saline solution negative control did not induce any reaction.
Parasitology Research 09/2008; 103(3):713-5. DOI:10.1007/s00436-008-1017-1 · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using Western blot techniques, the specificities of crude and purified (PAK and PAS) Anisakis simplex antigens were compared against 24 sera from patients diagnosed with Anisakis sensitization. All patients recognized a 60 kDa protein against the A. simplex crude extract, while 37.5% and 12.5% reacted with proteins of 40 and 25 kDa, respectively, when IgG was tested. In the case of IgE determination, 41.6% of sera were negative, while 12.5% and 20.8% appeared to cross-react against Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum, respectively. When the PAK antigen (A. simplex antigen purified by means of a column of IgG anti-A. simplex) was tested, immune recognition towards the 60, 40 and 25 kDa proteins increased in 83.3%, 16.7% and 4.2%, respectively, when the Ig antibodies were tested. In the case of the PAS antigen (PAK antigen purified by means of a column of IgG anti-A. suum), the reaction against the 40 and 25 kDa proteins increased to 45.8% and 25%, respectively, when Ig antibodies were used. Finally, when the EAS antigen (eluted from the anti-A. suum column after PAK purification) was tested, 83.3% of the assayed sera reacted against the 14 kDa protein, when the Ig antibodies, IgG and IgM immunoglobulins were measured. With the IgE determination, the reactions were observed in 41.7% of patients with proteins between 60 and 35 kDa against the PAS antigen. With the EAS antigen, reactive bands of 184, 84 and 14 kDa appeared. In conclusion, in the purification process of the A. simplex larval crude extract, the proteins implicated in cross-reactions with Ascaris and Toxocara were eliminated, with an important concentration of proteins responsible for the induction of specific responses.
Journal of Helminthology 10/2007; 81(3):307-10. DOI:10.1017/S0022149X07820220 · 1.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Partial portal vein ligation is the experimental model most frequently used to study prehepatic portal hypertension. Different systemic and splanchnic biochemical and histological alterations in short-term (28-45 days) and long-term (12-14 months) evolutive phases which has been described in this experimental model suggest the existence of different pathophysiological mechanisms involved in their production. The enteropathy produced could develop in three phases: an early or acute phase with vasomotor hemodynamic alterations (ischemia-reperfusion associated with intestinal hyperemia, edema and oxidative stress); an intermediate phase with immunological alterations (mesenteric lymphadenopathy, increased mucosal infiltration by mast cells and the hepato-intestinal release of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators); and a late or chronic phase with intestinal remodeling (vascular and epithelial). The alterations which are produced in these three evolutive phases make it possible to propose an inflammatory etiopathogeny for hypertensive portal enteropathy.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 08/2007; 22(7):1127-33. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2007.04876.x · 3.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A majority of Kudoa species infect the somatic muscle of fish establishing cysts. Because there is no effective method to detect infected fish without destroying them, these parasitised fish reach the consumer. The elevated humoral responses detected previously by us in BALB/c mice immunised with Kudoa sp. pseudocyst extracts and the high IgG1 and IgE levels induced by the oral administration of Kudoa pseudocysts to BALB/c mice showed the possible immunopathological effects in man from the ingestion of Kudoa-infected fish. In this work, we investigated the seroprevalence of anti-Kudoa sp. antibodies in a Spanish healthy population and the possible association between the manifestation of allergic reactions after fish consumption and the humoral responses to Kudoa sp. antigens. Specific anti-Kudoa sp. antibody levels in sera of patients diagnosed with several digestive pathologies were also determined, studying their possible association with the alteration of analytic parameters in these patients.
Parasitology Research 06/2007; 100(6):1205-11. DOI:10.1007/s00436-006-0390-x · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the fundamental aspects of a parasitic infection diagnosis is the use of adequate antigens to develop specific and sensitive immunoassays. This fact is especially complicated in nematode infection cases because of the high cross-reactivity among different parasites in this group. We performed an evaluation of Anisakis simplex antigens purified by affinity chromatography. We used sera from 38 patients diagnosed with Anisakis sensitization and sera from 35 patients with clinical suspicion of visceral larva migrans (VLM). These sera were assayed by the ELISA method against the crude extracts (CEs) and the purified antigens. When the sera from patients diagnosed with Anisakis sensitization were tested against the A. simplex CE, the IgG was the most abundant immunoglobulin. When the A. simplex larval antigens were purified using a column of IgG anti-A. simplex (PAK) or a column of IgG anti-Ascaris suum (PAS) were tested, we observed a higher diminution in the IgG levels, which coincides with the augmentation of the mean values against the "eluted of Ascaris" (EAS antigen). When the IgE was detected, only 18.4% of the sera reacted with the PAS antigen. We have observed that in the purification process of A. simplex antigen by affinity chromatography, the majority of the proteins that produced cross-reactivity against A. suum and Toxocara canis were eliminated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An evaluation of the sensitivity and the specificity of the Anisakis simplex antigens purified by affinity chromatography was performed using sera from patients diagnosed with Anisakis sensitisation and sera from patients previously diagnosed with different helminthic infections. Only the sera of the patients diagnosed with Schistosoma mansoni or Onchocerca volvulus parasitic infections were negative against the A. simplex antigen and its purified fractions (PAK antigen: A. simplex antigen purified using columns prepared with anti-A. simplex rabbit IgG and PAS antigen: PAK antigen purified using columns prepared with anti-Ascaris suum rabbit IgG). However all the sera were positive against the A. suum antigen. In all the sera from the patients diagnosed with Anisakis sensitisation, the antibody levels detected using the purified antigens (PAK and PAS antigens) were lower than the observed using the A. simplex crude extract with the highest diminution in the case of the IgG. When these same sera were tested against the A. simplex crude extract by Western blot, several bands of high molecular masses were observed as well as, intense bands at 60 and/or 40 kDa. A concentration of these last proteins was observed in the PAK and the PAS antigens. When the sensitivity and the specificity determinations were performed, only seven of the 38 patients diagnosed of Anisakis sensitisation were positive, as well as, the sera from the patients diagnosed with parasitisms by Echinococcus granulosus or Fasciola hepatica.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 06/2005; 100(3):293-301. DOI:10.1590/S0074-02762005000300015 · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anisakis simplex crude extracts (CE) (IPI, ASAC and ALK-ABELLO), A. simplex larval antigens purified using a column of IgG anti-A. simplex (PAK) or a column of IgG anti-Ascaris suum (PAS), antigen eluted from columns of IgG anti-A. suum (EAS) and an A. suum adult CE were assayed by the skin prick test. Thirty percent of assayed patients showed a negative reaction in the Anisakis skin prick test. Of 70% positives, two patients had a weal greater than that produced by histamine with the A. simplex extract from ABELLO and IPI. The A. suum skin prick test was positive in 35% of patients, with a lower reaction than that observed with the A. simplex extract from IPI in 57% of the sera and a higher reaction in 28% of the sera. All patients with positive reactions with the crude extract also showed positive weals with the two purified antigens, PAK and PAS. All patients, except three, with a reaction to A. suum antigen, were positive to the EAS antigen. In five patients the weal size produced by PAS was greater than that observed with PAK, whereas in another six patients the contrary was observed. Only one of these six patients did not react to EAS antigen, coincident with the patient showing only a slight increase (7%) in the weal size induced by PAK vs. PAS. When the EAS antigen was tested on patients positive to both PAK and PAS, six patients presented a weal size of >30% and only three patients who were positive to PAS did not react to the EAS antigen. These three patients were also negative against the A. suum CE. Purification by affinity chromatography eliminates from the PAS antigen the proteins responsible for producing cross-reactions with Ascaris (present in the EAS antigen).
Journal of Helminthology 07/2004; 78(2):159-65. DOI:10.1079/JOH2003218 · 1.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to study cross-reactivity in the diagnosis of two related ascaridosis. Nineteen patients diagnosed with recidivous acute urticaria (RAU) caused by Anisakis simplex and 26 patients diagnosed with visceral larva migrans (VLM) caused by Toxocara canis were studied employing commercial diagnostic kits and "in house" assay kits. Cross-reactivity observed was greater when using "in house" assay kits, suggesting that T. canis excretory-secretory antigens were not only recognized by antibodies from patients with RAU but with greater intensity compared to the A. simplex excretory-secretory antigens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Major portal pressure increase occurs on the second day post-stenosing-ligation of the portal vein in the rat and it is associated with pancreatic edema, intraperitoneal free exudate, hypoalbuminemia and hypoproteinemia. All this suggests the development of a regional exudative inflammatory response. In order to verify this hypothesis the steroid budesonide, whose antiinflammatory activity could prevent these alterations, was administered to rats with prehepatic portal hypertension. Wistar male rats were divided into the following groups: Control rats that were administered saline solution (CS; n = 10), Control rats that were administered budesonide (36 mg/kg per day; CB; n = 10), triple stenosing ligation of portal vein (TSLP) with saline solution (n = 10) and triple stenosing ligation of portal vein with budesonide (36 mg/kg per day; n = 10). In rats with prehepatic portal hypertension at 48 h of postoperative evolution, budesonide decreases the incidence of pancreatic edema, of peritoneal free exudate, of mesenteric adenopathies and prevents hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia and hyper-beta-globulinemia. Some of the macroscopic intra-abdominal alterations and some of the changes in the electrophoretic pattern found in portal hypertensive rats could have an inflammatory etiopathogeny because budesonide shows an effective prophylaxis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to improve the specificity and sensitivity of the techniques for the diagnosis of human anisakidosis, a method of affinity chromatography for the purification of species-specific antigens from Anisakis simplex third-stage larvae (L3) has been developed. New Zealand rabbits were immunized with A. simplex or Ascaris suum antigens or inoculated with Toxocara canis embryonated eggs. The IgG-specific antibodies were isolated by means of protein A-Sepharose CL-4B bead columns. IgG anti-Anisakis simplex, anti-Ascaris suum and anti-T. canis were coupled to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. For the purification of the larval Anisakis simplex antigens, it was loaded into the anti-A. simplex column and bound antigens were eluted. For the elimination of the epitopes responsible for the cross-reactions, the A. simplex-specific proteins were loaded into the anti-Ascaris suum and anti- T. canis columns. To prove the specificity of the isolated proteins, immunochemical analyses by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting were carried out. Likewise, immunoaffinity columns were prepared using specific IgG from patients with Anisakis simplex sensitization, previously diagnosed by fluoro-enzymo-immunoassay. The protein patterns of antigen after purification by the human columns were similar to those obtained using the rabbit columns.
Parasitology Research 10/2001; 87(9):736-40. DOI:10.1007/s004360100439 · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Titres of parasite-specific IgE were investigated in 19 patients thought to have recurrent, acute urticaria caused by sensitization to Anisakis simplex (Dujardin, 1845), before and after they were placed on a fish-free diet. Patients with other allergic disease and those being treated with corticosteroids or antihistaminics were excluded. Skin-prick tests were carried out with A. simplex extract, and blue- and white-fish extracts. The CAP system (Pharmacia), a commercial test kit developed for the assay of food-specific IgE, was used to monitor serum concentrations of total IgE and antigen-specific IgE against Anisakis, Ascaris, Echinococcus, Toxocara, tuna, salmon, shrimp, mussel and cod. Before going on a fish-free diet, the 19 patients had CAP scores against A. simplex of 5 (three cases), 3 (seven) or 2 (nine). After a mean of 120 days on the diet, the scores against A. simplex were unchanged in 15 of the cases, reduced in three [from 5 to 4 (one case) or from 2 to 0 (two cases)] and increased in one (from 2 to 3). Most (16) of the patients no longer had any urticaria and the others reported significant reductions in the intensity and frequency of their symptoms.
Pathogens and Global Health 05/2000; 94(3):259-68. DOI:10.1080/00034980050006447 · 1.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the cause of acute recidivous urticaria in patients who usually eat fish or other seafood. Twenty-five patients were studied. The skin prick test with larval Anisakis simplex extract was performed; total and specific IgE against A. simplex was measured with the CAP System; specific antibodies to A. simplex were determined by ELISA; and immunorecognition patterns of the sera were studied by Western blot. Nineteen patients showed specific IgE to A. simplex, but specific IgE to Ascaris was demonstrated in only two patients. No patients reacted to Toxocara canis or Echinoccocus granulosus antigens with the same test. The skin prick test was positive in 16 patients, in two of them persisting for 48 h. Five patients showed neither skin reaction nor specific IgE to A. simplex. Sera showed specific immunoglobulin levels against A. simplex larval crude extract, by both ELISA and Western blot. Likewise, specific immunoglobulin levels against excretory-secretory antigen were also measured by ELISA. Only one patient showed sensitization to fish. A. simplex was found to be the main cause of acute recidivous urticaria in patients who usually eat fish and are not sensitized to it.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dehumidifiers (DH) are potentially effective appliances as coadjuvant therapy in the treatment of bronchial asthma caused by sensitization to house dust mites. The aims of this study were to analyze DH tolerance in asthmatic patients, to assess the parasitological effects and to analyze the environmental effects produced by the use of these appliances in the bedrooms of asthmatic patients sensitized to house dust mites. 10 stable asthmatic patients sensitized to house dust mites were studied. DH appliances (CD-300) were installed in their bedrooms. Each patient was given symptom scoring tables and a portable peak expiratory flow (P.E.F.) during a period of 5 months, 1 month before installing the DH and 4 months afterwards. To study the parasitological efficacy of the DHs, we analyzed dust samples from the bedrooms and determined the Der p I, Der f I and Der II allergens by means of a modified ELISA based on monoclonal antibodies. Dust samples were collected before installing the DHs and after they had been working for 2 and 4 months. Dry temperature and relative humidity measurements at three time intervals (7-9, 15-17 and 22-24 h) were carried out. The 1st measurement was done prior to installation of the DHs in the patients' bedrooms and the 2nd and 3rd were achieved 2 and 4 months respectively after the installation. Statistical analysis was done by comparison of paired means. No significant differences were detected in the patients' symptoms nor in the P.E.F. measurements in the course of the study. Decreases in the house dust mite allergens were observed in 4 bedrooms. A significant decrease in relative humidity in the bedrooms of mite asthma patients after use of dehumidifier appliances was observed (p < 0.01). Significant differences between the measurements of the bedrooms with and without DH were detected (p < 0.01). In summary, DHs were well tolerated by stable asthmatic patients, produced a significant decrease in the relative humidity level and showed some parasitological efficacy.
Allergologia et Immunopathologia 03/1997; 25(2):67-72. · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on the case of a 32-year-old atopic patient who showed a severe anaphylactic reaction due to the ingestion of a pollen compound prepared in an herbalist's. A few minutes after ingestion, generalized pruritus, difuse erythema, facial edema, cough, hoarseness and dysphonia appeared, and the emergency administration of subcutaneous epinephrine and intravenous methylprednisolone was necessary. Skin tests with a battery of inhalants and food allergens were performed. The patient only showed sensitization to Artemisia vulgaris, Taraxacum officinalis and Salix alba. Specific IgE levels were evaluated by FEIA-CAP giving a seric level of CAP class 3 to Artemisia vulgaris and class 2 to Taraxacum officinalis and Salix alba. Samples of the pollen compound were shown in the microscopical analysis to be 93% pollens and 6% fungi. In the qualitative study Taraxacum officinalis (15%), Artemisia vulgaris (5%) and Salix alba (15%) were the main elements identified. In summary, this case study describes a food-induced systemic reaction due to a pollen compound in an atopic patient with a history of allergic rhinitis. Pollinic patients must be informed on the risks that the consumption of these compounds might cause.
Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology: official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología 05/1996; 6(3):208-9. · 2.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eosinophils are important effector cells in allergic inflammation described in allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic bronchial asthma (BA). During the pollen season serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil X protein/eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EPX/EDN) are increased in BA. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the serum levels of ECP and EPC in pollen atopic patients with AR and BA during the winter. 92 patients were studied. They were divided into three groups: I 29 patients with AR, II 51 patients with BA and III 12 healthy subjects. Allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma were diagnosed by routine clinical tests: clinical history, skin tests, total IgE and specific IgE. In addition ECP and EPX were determined in serum. All patients were asymptomatic, stable and without medical treatment. Methacholine challenge test (MCT) was performed in all patients. MCT were positive in 4 patients of group I and 45 patients of group II. ECP levels (ug/l) were: 21 (I), 24 (II) and 7 (III). EPX levels (ug/l) were 35 (I), 45 (II) and 21 (III). Statistical differences (p < 0.01) were observed both in ECP and EPX levels in patients with MCT positive in relation to patients with MCT negative, and in allergic patients (I and II) in comparison with the healthy subjects (III) (p < 0.01). ECP and EPX serum levels are increased in patients with a positive MCT in the winter, out of the pollen season, when patients are asymptomatic, stable and without treatment. This fact suggests that eosinophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.
Allergologia et Immunopathologia 01/1996; 24(6):243-7. · 1.74 Impact Factor