Joanna Gajewska

Institute of Mother and Child, Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (88)62.25 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To assess the relationships between components of the growth hormone axis, body composition, and bone markers in obese children. Methods: We determined the levels of bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) by immunoenzymatic methods, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 45 obese and 20 non-obese children. Results: IGF-I and functional IGFBP-3 levels, IGF-I/total IGFBP-3, and functional IGFBP-3/total IGFBP-3 molar ratios were significantly higher in obese patients than in controls. Multivariate regression analysis in obese patients showed significant associations of BALP with IGF-I (p=0.047) and percent of body fat mass (p=0.002). Conclusion: The relationship of IGF-I and functional IGFBP-3 to BALP may support the concept of IGF-I influence on accelerated bone formation process in obesity. Moreover, IGF-I and percentage of body fat mass may be significant predictors of BALP in obese during the prepubertal period.
    Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM 02/2015; DOI:10.1515/jpem-2014-0326 · 0.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical bone metabolism markers in patients with bone tumors after anti-cancer treatment. The study included 27 patients (median age 15 years) with malignant bone tumors and 27 healthy children. In all subjects, BMD and body composition were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum bone markers were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. After completion of treatment, patients with bone tumors had significantly decreased total and lumbar spine BMD. We observed lower calcium and vitamin D levels in patients and comparable values of bone turnover markers (carboxyterminal telopeptide of collagen type I - CTX, bone alkaline phosphatase - BALP and osteocalcin - OC) in both groups of children. However, the level of carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC) was significantly lower (p<0.01) and undercarboxylated OC (ucOC) was higher (p<0.05) in patients than in controls. Additionally, we observed similar values of anthropometric parameters in the subgroups of patients treated with methotrexate (MTX) or without MTX. In patients treated without MTX we found lower (p<0.05) ratio of cOC/ucOC, lower vitamin D level and higher CTX concentrations. Patients with bone tumors after anticancer treatment had decreased bone mineral density and alterations in bone metabolism markers with potential decrease in bone formation. Keywords: bone cancer survivors, bone mineral density, bone formation markers, bone resorption markers, methotrexate.
    Neoplasma 01/2015; DOI:10.4149/neo_2015_034 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Recent data support the concept that adipokines, which are secreted by fat cells, are important modulators of bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between body composition parameters, adipokines (leptin, adiponectin) and bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with malignant bone tumors after anticancer therapy.ProcedureThe study included 35 patients (median age 14.8 years) with diagnosed malignant bone tumors treated according to obligatory protocols. Total fat mass, lean mass, bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD measurements were performed after treatment completion by dual energy-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Serum concentrations of leptin, leptin receptor and adiponectin were determined using immunoenzymatic assays. The control group consisted of 28 healthy children (median age 14.3 years).ResultsPatients with bone tumor after chemotherapy had significantly higher fat mass (P < 0.01), increased ratio of fat mass/lean mass (P < 0.001), and a decrease (P < 0.001) in total body and lumbar spine BMD compared with controls. We observed higher serum leptin concentration (P < 0.01) and lower soluble leptin receptor (P < 0.001) and adiponectin (P = 0.01) in patients than in controls. The ratios of leptin/leptin receptor and leptin/adiponectin were about three-fold higher in patients compared with the control group (P = 0.001). We found a significant positive correlation between BMD and body composition and a negative correlation between BMD and adiponectin in the patients group.Conclusions Changes in body composition parameters coexisting with disturbed adipokine levels, especially higher levels of leptin and lower levels of adiponectin, might be associated with bone status in patients treated for malignant bone tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 12/2014; DOI:10.1002/pbc.25377 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    Pediatria polska 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pepo.2014.03.011
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer and the use of a comprehensive anti-cancer treatment are unfavorable factors, which have a significant impact on bone mass accumulation, bone mineralization and consequently the occurrence of osteoporosis. Bone turnover is regulated by complex mechanisms, among which an important role play OPG/RANK/RANKL signaling pathway, adipokines, and fetuin-A. The aim of the study was to evaluate bone mineral density and concentrations of leptin and fetuin-A in patients with osteosarcoma after anti-cancer treatment.
    Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 08/2014; 37(218):86-90.
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Purpose: Some scientific studies show decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture frequency in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The mechanism for early bone loss in CF patients are multifactorial: chronic pulmonary inflammation, malnutrition, reduced physical activity, delayed pubertal maturation. The aim of this study was to assess bone metabolism markers with special attention paid to osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) balance in CF children. Material and Methods: The study included 35 children with diagnosed CF and 35 healthy controls aged 5-9 years (median 7.0 years). Serum levels of fat soluble vitamins were measured by chemiluminescence (vitamin D) and HPLC (vitamins A, E) methods. Concentrations of bone metabolism markers were determined by immunoenzymatic assay. Results: Mean levels of fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E) were lower in patients with CF compared to controls. In CF children we observed a significant (p<0.01) decrease in concentration of bone formation marker (osteocalcin) and similar bone resorption markers (CTX, TRACP5b) in comparison with healthy children. The serum level of OPG was significantly lower (p<0.05) and RANKL nearly 2-fold higher in patients with CF than in the healthy ones. The ratio of OPG to RANKL was about 2-fold lower in children with CF compared to healthy peers (p<0.01). Conclusion: In CF children, an imbalance between bone formation and resorption processes occurs. An increase serum RANKL concentration coexisting with lower levels of OPG may be associated with intensification of bone resorption.
    Advances in Medical Sciences 11/2013; DOI:10.2478/ams-2013-0011 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of lead exposure from cigarette smoke on fetal growth, blood lead concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in 150 healthy pregnant women. Mean lead concentrations in plasma and whole blood were significantly higher in the smoking group compared with the nonsmoking group in each trimester of pregnancy (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed the highest impact of the number of cigarettes smoked per day for serum lead concentration (β = 0.238; p < 0.05), while in whole blood, it was duration of smoking before conception (β = 0.297; p < 0.001). Birth weight of the smoking mothers' infants was significantly lower (mean ± SEM, 3,192 ± 50.8 and 3,569 ± 49.6 g, respectively; p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with lead levels in plasma (r = -0.38; p < 0.001) and in whole blood (r = -0.27; p < 0.001). Therefore, it is suggested that smoking during pregnancy increases lead concentrations in maternal blood. Fetal exposure to low doses of lead in utero may be a serious risk factor causing lower birth weight.
    Biological trace element research 08/2013; 155(2). DOI:10.1007/s12011-013-9775-8 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adipokines may influence bone metabolism in children, but this phenomenon is not well understood. Therefore, we studied the relationships between bone markers and adipokines during weight loss in obese children.We determined serum leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), adiponectin, BALP (bone alkaline phosphatase), CTX-I (C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen), body composition and bone mineral density (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in 100 obese prepubertal children before and after 3 months of lifestyle intervention (low-energy diet, physical activity). The control group consisted of 70 non-obese children.Obese children had higher BALP activity by about 20% (p<0.001) and similar value of CTX-I compared with non-obese children. After weight loss (-0.96 BMI-SDS mean change), the BALP value in obese patients decreased (p<0.001), whereas CTX-I concentration was unchanged. Changes in BALP were positively correlated with changes in BMI (Body Mass Index) (r=0.352, p<0.001), but not associated with adipokine levels. Trend analysis using SDS-BMI subgroups showed that greater reduction of body mass was associated with a greater decrease of BALP (p=0.035) and leptin values (p<0.001), as well as a greater increase of sOB-R (p<0.003).Obesity during the prepubertal period is associated with an alteration in the adipokines profile and greater whole-body bone mass as a result of increased bone formation rather than reduced bone resorption. Changes in bone metabolism during lifestyle intervention seem to be related to weight loss but not to changes in adipokines. Further studies should elucidate the influence of long-term therapy on bone mass in childhood.
    Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 06/2013; 121(8). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1347198 · 1.76 Impact Factor
  • 05/2013; DOI:10.1530/boneabs.1.PP504
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking on concentration of selected angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF, placenta growth factor PIGF) and somatomedin C (insulin-like growth factor-I) in blood of mothers and umbilical cord blood. The correlations between studied biochemical parameters and markers of estimated intensity of cigarette smoking as well as birth weight were also determined. Fifty healthy pregnant women were divided into two groups: smoking and tobacco abstinent group according to serum cotinine concentration. The current smokers were defined as those who had smoked 5 cigarettes per day for 2 years before conception and continued smoking during pregnancy. In the group of smoking mothers the mean serum concentration of cotinine was 91.6 microg/L and correlated positively with number of cigarettes daily consumed (r = 0.58, p < 0.01) as well as with time of smoking before conception (r = 0.40, p < 0.05). The mean serum concentration of PIGF in III trimester of pregnancy was significantly higher in the group of smokers than in non-smoking ones (p < 0.0001) and correlated with serum cotinine concentration (r = 0.41, p < 0.05) and number of cigarettes daily consumed (r = 0.58, p < 0.01). The concentration of serum VEGF was similar in both studied group. The mean serum level of IGF-I was significantly lower in group of smokers than in non-smokers in the I and III trimester of gestation (p < 0.01). Also in umbilical cord blood of smoking newborn the concentration of IGF-I was lower by 20% than in nonsmoking group (p < 0.05). We observed negative correlation between number of cigarettes daily consumed and serum level of IGF-I in blood of mothers as well as in blood of their children (I trimester: r = -0.43, p < 0.05; III trimester: r = -0.70, p < 0.001; umbilical cord blood: r = -0.45, p < 0.05). In both studied groups there were a positive correlation between birth weight and concentrations of IGF-I in blood of mothers and umbilical cord blood (group of smokers: mothers r = 0.43, p < 0.05, cord blood r = 0.50, p < 0.01; group of tobacco abstinent: mothers r = 0.51, p < 0.01, cord blood r = 0.41, p < 0.05). The birth weight of the smoking mothers' infants was lower by about 400 g (p < 0.01) and their birth body length by 1.5 cm (p < 0.05) and negatively correlated with number of cigarettes smoked per day (r = -0.55; p < 0.005). Our results indicate, that tobacco smoking during pregnancy increased serum PIGF levels in the final stages of gestation and has no effect on the concentration of VEGF, which may lead to an increase of trophoblast proliferation and uteroplacental dysfunction. Lower than in tobacco abstinent levels of IGF-I in serum of smoking mothers and in umbilical cord blood and their close relationship with birth weight, may suggests a direct effect of this factor on birth anthropometric parameters.
    Przegla̧d lekarski 01/2013; 70(10):800-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with cow's milk allergy (CMA) and following a cow milk protein-free diet for a long time are potentially at risk of developing bone abnormalities. To assess the balance between bone formation and resorption processes, we determined serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), fetuin-A, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in children with CMA. The study included 50 prepubertal children with diagnosed cow's milk allergy, who were under systematic medical and nutritional care at the Institute of Mother and Child and 40 healthy counterparts as a control group. The concentrations of bone metabolism markers were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. The diets of all investigated children were correct in terms of phosphorus and magnesium contents but deficient in terms of calcium and vitamin D. Serum OC and CTX as well as fetuin-A concentrations were similar in both studied groups. The BALP activity was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in children with cow's milk allergy than in the controls. Serum OPG concentration was comparable in both groups, but the RANKL level was higher (p < 0.05) in CMA children than in healthy ones. Hence, the ratio of OPG/RANKL was lower in children with CMA. Our study demonstrates slight disturbances in the profile of bone metabolism markers in growing children with CMA. The increase in RANKL level and decrease in OPG/RANKL ratio may contribute to intensification of bone resorption in these patients.
    Archives of Medical Science 01/2013; 10(6). DOI:10.5114/aoms.2013.36906 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in birth size but the mechanism by which this occurs still remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tobacco smoking on concentrations of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), II (IGF-II) and binding proteins BP-3 and BP-4 in pregnant women and correlations between these parameters. Methods: Sixty healthy pregnant women were divided into smoking and tobacco-abstinent group according to results of serum cotinine concentration. The current smokers were defined as those who had smoked five or more cigarettes per day during pregnancy. Results: The mean serum concentrations of PAPP-A, IGF-I and IGF-II were significantly lower in smoking than in non-smoking pregnant women (p < 0.01). The level of PAPP-A correlated positively with the IGF-II concentration in both studied group (non-smoking: r = 0.54; p < 0.001; smoking: r = 0.40; p < 0.05). In tobacco-abstinent group negative correlation between IGF-II and IGFBP-4 concentrations was found (r = -0.35; p < 0.05). Conclusion: Tobacco smoking during pregnancy decreases the pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and insulin growth factors I and II levels. The correlation between PAPP-A and IGF-II may suggest function of this protein as a protease and regulator in the IGF system.
    The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 05/2012; 25(11):2377-80. DOI:10.3109/14767058.2012.696166 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tobacco smoking creates health problems which apply not only to individuals and the family but also to different ages and social groups, as well as the national economy. Epidemiologic studies conducted at the Institute of Mother and Child indicated that in Poland 25-30% women smoke during pregnancy. Lead exposure from cigarette smoke may have a negative effect on the transplacental flow of micronutrients and have an adverse influence on the growth and development of the fetus, and then on children. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking cigarettes on plasma and whole blood lead levels in pregnant women. Material and methods: Eighty healthy pregnant women, patients of the Clinical Department of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Institute of Mother and Child and Warsaw Medical University, were divided into two groups: group I - tobacco smokers and group II- tobacco abstainers according to questionnaire declaration and serum cotinine concentration. Current smokers were defined as those who had smoked 5 cigarettes per day for 2 years before conception and continued smoking during pregnancy. The women exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (smoking spouse or other family members, co-workers) were excluded from the non-smoking group. All pregnant volunteers signed a written, informed consent form, approved by the Institute's Ethical Committee. The concentrations of lead in plasma and whole blood were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on spectrometer analyzer ICP MS Elan 6100 (Perking Elmer, Germany). Levels of cotinine in serum were determined by Cotinine Direct ELISA test (Calbiotech Inc. Canada). Results: In the group of smoking mothers the mean serum cotinine concentration was 69.1 μg/L, whereas in the group of tobacco abstainers it was present only in trace amount. In group I we observed a significant positive correlation between serum cotinine and the number of cigarettes smoked daily (r=0.74; p<0.001), as well as the period of smoking before conception (r=0.60; p<0.001). The concentrations of lead in the plasma of smoking women were significantly higher than in the group of tobacco abstainers in each trimester of pregnancy (I trimester: 0.22 μg/dL vs 0.12 μg/dL p<0.01; II trimester: 0.19 μg/L vs 0.10 μg/L p<0.001; III trimester 0.28 μg/ dL vs 0.13 μg/dL p<0.0001). Tobacco smoking mothers also had a higher concentration of lead in whole blood as compared to pregnant non-smoking women. These differences were statistically significant and amounted to 2.15 μg/dL vs 1.28 μg/L in the first, 1.99 μg/dL vs 1.19 μg/dL in the second and 2.11 μg/dL vs 1.58 μg/dL in the third trimester of pregnancy. We observed that the level of lead was correlated with cotinine in blood, as well as with the number of cigarettes and the length of time women smoked before conception. Such an effect was observed in every trimester of gestation. A strong correlation between the number of cigarettes/day and lead concentration in plasma (r=0.57; p<0.001) and whole blood (r=0.54; p<0.001) was found in the third trimester of pregnancy. Conclusions: Tobacco smoking during pregnancy increased the concentrations in maternal blood lead. The level of lead in plasma and whole blood correlated with the degree of intensity of cigarette smoking in the pregnant women studied. It may be a result of influencing the mobilization of calcium from the bone with simultaneous release of lead deposited in the bone. Further studies are required to characterize the effect of higher lead level in the blood of mothers on the risk of premature labor, low birth weight of newborns and their inferior development.
    Medycyna wieku rozwojowego 01/2012; 16(3):196-204.
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    ABSTRACT: Phenylketonuria, galactosemia and celiac disease are disorders in which elimination diets are the only known therapy, which reverses many clinical manifestations of acute phase in the patients. Unfortunately, most of them develop long-term complications, including bone turnover impairment and low bone mineral density. These disturbances are not only observed in adulthood but also in childhood and adolescence. Insufficient accumulation of peak bone mass in these periods is a risk factor for osteoporosis and fractures in later life. The pathological mechanisms leading to a diminished bone mineral content in these disorders are not well known. The patients might be at risk for a decreased bone mineral content because of either dietary deficiencies secondary to the elimination diets and/or unknown intrinsic factors. This article overviews bone metabolism disturbances in phenylketonuria, galactosemia and celiac disease during childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The available data and own results concerning bone markers in children with these disorders and proposal for the prevention of osteoporosis in pediatric patients treated with elimination diets are discussed.
    Medycyna wieku rozwojowego 01/2012; 16(1):61-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of this study was to assess bone formation and resorption processes and bone metabolism regulators, such as osteoprotegerin and fetuin-A in children with cystic fibrosis. Material and methods: We examined 45 children with cystic fibrosis aged 5-13 years treated at the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw. The control group consisted of 35 healthy children in the same synage range without any diseases which may influence bone metabolism. We determined serum calcium and phosphate levels by colorimetric methods, vitamin D3 by the chemiluminiscence method and bone metabolism markers (osteocalcin, 5b isoenzyme of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, osteoprotegerin, fetuin-A) by immunoenzymatic methods. Results: Mean serum concentrations of calcium and phosphate in the studied children were within the reference ranges. However, the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was significantly lower in patients with cystic fibrosis compared to the controls (19.3±7.6 vs 25.2±8.9 ng/ml, p<0.01). In cystic fibrosis children we observed a statistically significant lower concentration of osteocalcin (81.9±28.9 vs 97.9±28.6 ng/ ml, p<0.01) and similar activity of 5b isoenzyme of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (12.5±2.9 vs 13.4±3.5 U/L) as compared to healthy peers. Mean serum concentration of osteoprotegerin in patients with CF was significantly lower than in the control children (4.1±0.98 vs 4.59±0.86 pmol/l, p<0.05). Serum concentration of fetuin-A was comparable in both groups of children. Conclusions: In children with cystic fibrosis changes in the profile of bone metabolism markers were observed. Even patients with CF who are clinically stable and supplemented with vitamins are at risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis in their later life. Therefore, they should be under a comprehensive medical and nutritional care in order to achieve their optimal peak bone mass.
    Medycyna wieku rozwojowego 01/2012; 16(2):117-123.
  • Bone 05/2011; 48. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2011.03.606 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of tobacco smoking during pregnancy on oxidative damage and antioxidant defence in matched samples of maternal blood and cord blood. Healthy, pregnant women (n=140) were divided into non-smoking and smoking groups according to the concentration of cotinine in serum and urine. Oxidative damage was measured through levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and plasma antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring concentrations of total radical trapping parameters (TRAP) and selected antioxidants (β-carotene, vitamin A, vitamin E, uric acid). Statistical analysis was done using the SAS System for Windows (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). In the course of pregnancy the concentration of MDA increased, but to higher values in smoking women than in non-smoking ones. It was accompanied by significantly lower TRAP in the smoking group than in the controls (p<0.05). Plasma concentration of uric acid (p<0.05) and antioxidant vitamins E (p<0.01), A and β-carotene (p<0.0001) were all reduced in smokers as compared with non-smoking pregnant women especially in the third trimester. Concentration of MDA in plasma of cord blood of newborns of smoking mothers was significantly higher (p<0.01) but the antioxidant defence was lower (p<0.0001) than in non-smoking ones. It was particularly pronounced for β-carotene (32%; p<0.0001) and vitamin A (28%; p<0.001). A significant negative correlation was found between MDA and TRAP levels of maternal plasma (non-smoking and smoking: r=-0.50, p<0.0001) and cord plasma (non-smoking: r=-0.54, p=0.0057; smoking: r=-0.71, p=0.0004) in all the study subjects. Total antioxidant status positively correlated with concentrations of uric acid and vitamin E in non-smoking and smoking mothers as well as their newborns. Tobacco smoke enhances lipid peroxidation and depletes antioxidant potential in the plasma of pregnant women and umbilical cord blood. Therefore smoking during pregnancy may stimulate free radical damage in the mother and the growing fetus.
    European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 04/2011; 155(2):132-6. DOI:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2010.12.006 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is widely recognized that lifestyle intervention with modification of dietary habits and physical activity is effective in weight reduction and may improve the biochemical parameters in obese children and adolescents. However, the levels of adiponectin multimeric complexes during lifestyle intervention have not been extensively studied in obese children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the 3-months weight-reduction programme on serum adiponectin multimeric complexes in obese prepubertal children. Changes in clinical, anthropometric and metabolic parameters including total adiponectin and its multimeric forms were assessed in 30 obese children aged 4-10 years, after a 3-months lifestyle intervention programme. This programme consisted of dietary and physical activity modifications and behaviour therapy including individual psychological care for the child and its family. The recommended daily intake from low-energy diet was 1200-1400 kcal/day. The reference group consisted of 35 healthy normal-weight children. Concentration of serum total adiponectin (Total-A) and its multimeric complexes: low molecular weight (LMW) adiponectin, medium molecular weight (MMW) adiponectin and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were measured by ELISA kit. We observed that the concentrations of total adiponectin and HMW adiponectin were 25% (p<0.01) and 45% (p<0.0001) lower respectively, in obese children compared to controls. HMW/ Total-A ratio was lower in the obese children than in the controls (p<0.001), whereas LMW/Total-A ratio was higher in the obese as compared to the normal-weight children (p<0.001). After 3-months therapy the increases of total adiponectin concentration (by 20%, p<0.001), HMW (by 25%, p<0.001) and MMW adiponectin (by 30%, p<0.05) were recorded in these patients in comparison to baseline values. The increase of HMW/Total-A ratio (p<0.05) and the decrease of LMW/Total-A ratio (p<0.05) were also found in obese patients after weight-reduction programme as compared to the level before therapy. After modification of the diet and physical activity, the BMI of the obese children declined by 10% (p<0.01). Our results indicate that the weight loss in children after 3-months therapy is associated with the increase of total and HMW, MMW adiponectin concentration. This suggests that the intervention programme is sufficient to detect significant changes in adiponectin multimeric profile, which confirms the efficacy of this therapy in prepubertal obese children.
    Medycyna wieku rozwojowego 01/2011; 15(3):298-305.
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    ABSTRACT: Vegetarian diets are considered to promote health and reduce the risk of some chronic diseases. It is also known that restriction or exclusion of animal foods may result in low intake of essential nutrients. The aim of the presented study was to assess the intake and serum status of vitamin B12, folate, vitamins A, E and D, as well as concentrations of homocysteine, total antioxidant status and iron balance in Polish vegetarian children. The study included 50 children, aged 5-11 who had been referred to the Institute of Mother and Child for dietary consultation. From those, 32 were vegetarians (aged 6.5±4.2 years) and 18 omnivores (aged 7.9±2.7 years). Dietary constituents were analyzed using the nutritional programme Dietetyk2®. Folate and vitamin B12 were determined with a chemiluminescence immunoassay, total homocysteine with a fluorescence polarization immunoassay and TAS (total antioxidant status) by colorimetric method. Vitamin A and E in serum were determined by the high-pressure liquid chromatography method (HPLC) and vitamin D by immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA). Concentrations of iron, ferritin, transferrin and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) in serum were determined by commercially available kits. In vegetarian children daily intake of vitamin B12 (1.6 ěg) was in the recommended range, that of folate (195 ěg) and vitamin A (1245 ěg) higher, but vitamin E slightly lower (6.6 ěg) and three-fold lower vitamin D (1.1 ěg) than references allowance. Serum concentrations of vitamin B12 (548 pg/ml), folate (12.8 ng/ml), vitamin A (1.2 ěmol/L), vitamin E (15.6 ěmol/l) were within physiological range, but that of vitamin D (13.7 ěg/L) was only half of the lowest limit of the reference value. In vegetarian children in comparison to omnivorous similar levels of homocysteine (6.13 ěmol/L vs 5.45 ěmol/L) and vitamin A (1,17 ěmol/L vs 1.32 ěmol/L) were observed. Lower (p<0.05) values of vitamin E (15.6 ěmol/L vs 18.4 ěmol/L) and TAS (1.21 mmol/L vs 1.30 mmol/L; p<0.0001) were found. Concentrations of iron markers were in physiological range. Obtained results indicated that intakes of vitamin B12 and folic acid from vegetarian diets are sufficient to maintain serum concentrations of both homocysteine and iron in the range observed in omnivorous children. High consumption of vitamin A and low vitamin E only slightly affected their serum values. Significantly lower concentration of serum vitamin E in vegetarian children in comparison to nonvegetarians may be reflected with statistically significant lowering of total antioxidant status. Insufficient intake of vitamin D and its low serum concentration should be under close monitoring in vegetarian children. In order to prevent vitamin D deficiency appropriate age-dependent supplementation should be considered.
    Medycyna wieku rozwojowego 01/2011; 15(3):318-25.
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    ABSTRACT: THE AIM of our study was to investigate associations between serum adipocytokines status and anthropometric parameters as well as total energy and macronutrient intake in vegetarian, normal-weight omnivorous and obese omnivorous children. We examined 90 healthy prepubertal children aged 4-10 years who had been referred to the Department of Nutrition at the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw for dietary consultation. Patients with endocrine disorders or genetic syndromes, as well as those who were taking medications that could affect growth, pubertal development or nutritional status were excluded. Children were divided into groups: vegetarians (n=30), normal-weight omnivores (n=30) and obese omnivores (n=30). Anthropometric measurement (weight, height) was performed in all children and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. A whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was performed to determine fat mass, the percentage of body fat and lean body mass using a Lunar Prodigy (GE, USA). Dietary constituents were assessed by questionnaire (nutrient intake from a 3-day period: 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) and calculated using the nutritional computer program Dietetyk2®. Serum total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides concentrations were assessed by standard enzymatic methods. Serum levels of leptin, soluble leptin receptor and adiponectin were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. There were no significant differences in body weight, height, BMI and lean mass values between vegetarians and normal-weight children on traditional mixed diet. Children on vegetarian diet had lower fat mass (p<0.05) and fat mass/lean mass ratio (p<0.05) than normal-weight omnivores. However, omnivorous children with simple obesity had significantly higher body weight, height, BMI, fat and lean mass in comparison to vegetarian as well to normal-weight omnivorous children. The fat mass/lean mass ratio in obese children was about 2.5-fold higher than in normal-weight subjects on traditional diet. Total energy and percentage of energy from macronutrients in diets of all children were within the recommended daily intake. Children on vegetarian diet was related with lower fat and higher carbohydrates intake in comparison to their omnivorous peers. Vegetarian children had significantly lower mean total cholesterol (151.5±18.0 mg/dL), low-density lipoprotein (81.0±13.6 mg/dL) and triglycerides (61.6±20.5 mg/dL) than omnivores, especially the obese ones (165.0±22.3 mg/dL, 94.7±19.2 mg/dL, 82.4±32.3 mg/dL, respectively). These differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). Serum concentration of leptin was significantly lower in vegetarian children (3.0±2.1 ng/ml) compared with omnivores (6.8±3.4 ng/ml in normal weight versus 37.8±12.7 ng/ml in obese) (p<0.0001). However, serum soluble leptin receptor as well as adiponectin were at higher levels in vegetarians than in omnivores (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively). We observed that serum leptin levels positively and soluble leptin receptor negatively correlated with body mass index and fat mass in prepubertal children. Moreover, leptin levels negatively correlated with its soluble receptor and with adiponectin. In children different kinds of diet might modify not only body mass and lipid profile but also serum concentration of adipocytokines. Determination of leptin and its soluble receptor, as well as adiponectin levels may be clinically useful in the medical and nutritional care of obese as well as vegetarian prepubertal children.
    Medycyna wieku rozwojowego 01/2011; 15(3):326-34.

Publication Stats

231 Citations
62.25 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992–2014
    • Institute of Mother and Child
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2002–2012
    • Instytut Matki i Dziecka
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2000
    • Medical University of Warsaw
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland