Veerle Reynders

Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany

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Publications (7)27.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: There is epidemiological evidence, that mesalazine can inhibit colon cancer development by affecting proliferation and apoptosis. Several studies suggest that supplementary intake of butyrate may yield to improved efficacy of mesalazine. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of such interaction remain unknown. This study addressed the combinatory effect of both substances on the growth of Caco-2 cells. Challenging of cells with mesalazine and butyrate provoked a time-dependent decrease in both cell counts and proliferation. Co-treatment with the substances could further intensify these effects. The growth-inhibitory action of mesalazine and butyrate was accompanied by a significant increase in caspase-3 activity, cleavage of PARP and caspase-8, while decreasing the expression of Xiap and Survivin simultaneously. Co-incubation of both substances exaggerated effects on all examined apoptosis-regulatory proteins except for Xiap. Our data demonstrate that co-treatment of mesalazine and butyrate evoked additive effects on inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in Caco-2 cells.
    Cancer letters 10/2008; 273(1):98-106. · 5.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mesalazine has been identified as a candidate chemopreventive agent in colon cancer prophylaxis because of its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects. However, the precise mechanisms of action are not entirely understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in mesalazine's anticarcinogenic actions in colorectal cancer cells. The effects of mesalazine on cell cycle distribution, cell count, proliferation and caspase-mediated apoptosis were examined in Caco-2, HT-29 and HCT-116 cells used as wild-type, dominant-negative PPARgamma mutant and empty vector cultures. We focused on caspase-3 activity, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase-8 and caspase-9, as well as on expression of survivin, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (Xiap), phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome ten (PTEN) and c-Myc. Techniques employed included transfection assays, immunoblotting, flow cytometry analysis, colorimetric and fluorometric assays. Mesalazine caused a time- and dose-dependent decrease in both cell growth and proliferation. Growth inhibition was accompanied by a G1/G0 arrest, a significant increase in PTEN, caspase-3 activity, cleavage of PARP and caspase-8, whereas the expressions of Xiap, survivin and c-Myc were decreased simultaneously. Cleavage of caspase-9 was not observed. Moreover, PPARgamma expression and activity were elevated. The growth-inhibitory effect of mesalazine was partially reduced in dominant-negative PPARgamma mutant cells, whereas the expression of c-Myc was not affected. Mesalazine-mediated increased caspase-3 activity, the expression of PTEN, cleavage of PARP and caspase-8 as well as reduced levels of survivin and Xiap were completely abolished in the PPARgamma mutant cell lines. This study clearly demonstrates that mesalazine-mediated pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions are regulated via PPARgamma-dependent and -independent pathways in colonocytes.
    Carcinogenesis 07/2008; 29(7):1407-14. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial peptides like human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) play an important role in the innate immune system protecting the intestinal mucosa against bacterial invasion. The dietary histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors sulforaphane (SFN) and butyrate have received a great deal of attention because of their ability to simultaneously modulate multiple cellular targets involved in cellular protection. In this study the influence of SFN and butyrate on HBD-2 expression as well as the molecular pathways involved in SFN-mediated induction of HBD-2 were scrutinized. Treatment of Caco-2, HT-29 and SW480 cells with SFN led to a time- and dose-dependent upregulation of HBD-2 mRNA expression as determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, HBD-2 protein production increased in response to SFN, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Induction of HBD-2 was also observed in response to butyrate. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the protein was localized in the cytosol. Coincubation of SFN with a vitamin D receptor (VDR), or an extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 or a nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitor all reduced HBD-2 mRNA upregulation. In contrast, transfection of cells with a dominant-negative peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) mutant vector to inhibit PPARgamma wild-type action and inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling did not affect SFN-mediated upregulation of HBD-2 mRNA. Moreover, SFN induced the expression of VDR, PPARgamma and phosphorylated ERK1/2 but did not affect p38 MAPK activation. The data clearly demonstrate for the first time that the dietary HDAC inhibitor SFN is able to induce antimicrobial peptides in colonocytes. In this process HBD-2 expression is regulated via VDR, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular-regulated kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB signalling.
    Immunology 04/2008; 125(2):241-51. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NF kappa B plays a major role in the control of immune responses and inflammation. Recently, butyrate has not only been demonstrated to suppress NF kappa B activation in colorectal cancer cells, but also to modulate the activity and expression of the Peroxisome-Proliferator-Activated-Receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Therefore, we investigated a putative involvement of both receptors in butyrate-mediated inhibition of inducible NF kappa B signalling. Treatment of HT-29 cells with butyrate attenuated basal p50 as well as TNFalpha- and LPS-induced p50 and p65 NF kappa B dimer activity in the nucleus as measured by transcription factor assay. Cytosolic expression of I kappa B alpha protein was reduced by butyrate, and TNFalpha but not by LPS. Challenge of cells with the VDR antagonist ZK191732 up-regulated basal NF kappa B activity by decreasing I kappa B alpha simultaneously, while basal signalling was not influenced by the PPAR gamma inhibitor GW9662. Pre-treatment with ZK191732 reduced the inhibitory effect of butyrate on NF kappa B activation caused by TNFalpha whereas no activation was noted in transfected dominant-negative PPAR gamma mutant vector cells. Adversely, the inhibitory effect of butyrate on NF kappa B activity induced by LPS was almost reversed in dominant-negative PPAR gamma mutant cells while pre-incubation of ZK191732 did not affect butyrate-mediated attenuation of LPS-induced NF kappa B signalling. These findings provide evidence for the involvement of the nuclear hormone receptors PPAR gamma and VDR in butyrate-mediated inhibition of inducible NF kappa B activation dependent on the stimulated signalling pathway. Moreover, VDR appears to play an inhibitory role in the regulation of basal NF kappa B signalling.
    Molecular Immunology 08/2007; 44(15):3625-32. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The human cathelicidin (LL-37) is one of the major antimicrobial peptides of the non-specific innate immune system in the intestinal tract. Altered expression has been associated with gastrointestinal disease. Recent studies demonstrated that butyrate induces LL-37 mRNA in colonic epithelial cells, however the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to investigate the regulatory pathways involved in butyrate-induced up-regulation of LL-37. Treatment of Caco-2 and HT-29 cells with butyrate led to a time-dependent up-regulation of LL-37 mRNA expression as determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Up-regulation of LL-37 mRNA by butyrate was subsequently followed by an increase in LL-37 protein expression as observed by immunofluorescence. Co-incubation of butyrate with a VDR, p38 MAPK, ERK 1/2 and TGF-beta1 receptor kinase inhibitor all reduced butyrate-mediated LL-37 mRNA up-regulation. In contrast, transfection of Caco-2 cells with a dominant-negative PPARgamma mutant vector did not affect butyrate-mediated up-regulation of LL-37 mRNA. Our results clearly demonstrate that butyrate-mediated up-regulation of LL-37 is influenced by several signalling pathways and receptors including MAPKs as well as VDR and TGF-beta1, but not by PPARgamma. These data may provide new opportunities in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases.
    Molecular Immunology 04/2007; 44(8):2107-14. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Butyrate, a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor, belongs to a promising new class of antineoplastic agents with the capacity to induce apoptosis of cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of action have yet not been elucidated. Aim: To further investigate the molecular events involved in butyrate-induced caspase-3 activation in Caco-2 wild-type, empty-vector and dominant-negative PPARγ mutant cells along the signalling pathway. In this context, the involvement and up-regulation of PPARγ was examined. Results: Stimulation of cells with butyrate resulted in increased expression of PPARγ mRNA, protein, and activity as well as phospho-p38 MAPK protein expression and caspase-3 activity. Arsenite, a direct stimulator of p38 MAPK, also led to an increased PPARγ expression, thereby mimicking the effects of butyrate. In contrast, butyrate-mediated up-regulation of PPARγ was counteracted by co-incubation with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Treatment of cells with butyrate resulted in both increased caspase-8 and -9 activity and reduced expression of XIAP and survivin. However, butyrate-mediated effects on these apoptosis-regulatory proteins leading to caspase-3 activation were almost completely abolished in Caco-2 dominant-negative PPARγ mutant cells. Conclusions: Our data clearly unveil PPARγ as a key target in the butyrate-induced signalling cascade leading to apoptosis via caspase-3 in Caco-2 cells.
    APOPTOSIS 09/2006; 11(10):1801-1811. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PPARs exhibit anti-inflammatory capacities and are potential modulators of the inflammatory response. We hypothesized that their expression and/or function may be altered in cystic fibrosis (CF), a disorder characterized by an excessive host inflammatory response. PPARalpha, beta and gamma mRNA levels were measured in peripheral blood cells of CF patients and healthy subjects via RT-PCR. PPARalpha protein expression and subcellular localization was determined via western blot and immunofluorescence, respectively. The activity of PPARalpha was analyzed by gel shift assay. In lymphocytes, the expression of PPARalpha mRNA, but not of PPARbeta, was reduced (-37%; p < 0.002) in CF patients compared with healthy persons and was therefore further analyzed. A similar reduction of PPARalpha was observed at protein level (-26%; p < 0.05). The transcription factor was mainly expressed in the cytosol of lymphocytes, with low expression in the nucleus. Moreover, DNA binding activity of the transcription factor was 36% less in lymphocytes of patients (p < 0.01). For PPARalpha and PPARbeta mRNA expression in monocytes and neutrophils, no significant differences were observed between CF patients and healthy persons. In all cells, PPARgamma mRNA levels were below the detection limit. Lymphocytes are important regulators of the inflammatory response by releasing cytokines and antibodies. The diminished lymphocytic expression and activity of PPARalpha may therefore contribute to the inflammatory processes that are observed in CF.
    Respiratory research 01/2006; 7:104. · 3.64 Impact Factor