S Norley

Robert Koch Institut, Berlín, Berlin, Germany

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Publications (48)170.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: DNA electroporation is a powerful vaccine strategy that could be rapidly adapted to address emerging viruses. We therefore compared cellular and humoral immune responses in mice vaccinated with DNA expression plasmids encoding either the wildtype or a codon-optimized sequence of hemagglutinin from the novel swine origin H1N1 influenza virus. While expression of HA from the wildtype sequence was hardly detectable, the H1N1 hemagglutinin was well expressed from the codon-optimized sequence. Despite poor expression of the wildtype sequence, both plasmids induced similar levels of CD4(+) T-cell responses. However, CD8(+) T-cell and antibody responses were substantially higher after immunization with the codon-optimized DNA vaccine. Thus, efficient induction of immune effector mechanisms against HA of the novel H1N1 influenza virus requires codon-optimization of the DNA vaccines. Since DNA vaccines and several viral vector vaccines employ the same cellular RNA-Polymerase II dependent expression pathway, the poor expression levels from wildtype HA sequences might also limit the induction of immune effector mechanisms by such viral vector vaccines.
    Vaccine 03/2010; 28(19):3273-7. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Specific, effective and rapid neutralization assays are crucial for the development of an HIV vaccine based on the stimulation of neutralizing antibodies and the development of such an assay for the human immunodeficiency virus-2 (HIV-2) is described. Virus neutralization was measured as the reduction of provirus integration using a duplex real-time PCR with high efficiency (99.4%). This PCR uses primers and a probe specific for the proviral LTR. Amplification and quantitative analysis of the cellular GAPDH gene was carried out in parallel to control for toxic or growth-inhibitory components in the sera. The neutralization assay was used to screen sera from 23 HIV-2 infected patients. 21 sera were able to neutralize HIV-2(60415K), 20 sera neutralized HIV-2(7312A) and 7 sera cross-neutralized HIV-1 IIIB. In contrast, when 14 of these sera were tested in parallel with a conventional neutralization assay based on a p27Gag capture ELISA, only one was found to neutralize HIV-2(60415K) and 11 to neutralize HIV-2(7312A) compared with 12 and 13 sera respectively using the PCR-based assay.
    Journal of virological methods 08/2009; 159(1):40-6. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vaccination with exogenous antigens such as recombinant viral proteins, immunodeficiency virus-derived whole inactivated virus particles, or virus-like particles (VLP) has generally failed to provide sufficient protection in animal models for AIDS. Pseudotyping VLPs with the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G), which is known to mediate entry into dendritic cells, might allow more efficient stimulation of immune responses. Therefore, we pseudotyped noninfectious immunodeficiency virus-like particles with VSV-G and carried out a preliminary screen of their immunogenicity and vaccination efficacy. Incorporation of VSV-G into HIV-1 VLPs led to hundred-fold higher antibody titers to HIV-1 Gag and enhancement of T cell responses in mice. Repeated vaccination of rhesus monkeys for 65 weeks with VSV-G pseudotyped simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-like particles (VLP[G]) provided initial evidence for efficient suppression of viral load after mucosal challenge with the SIVmac239 virus. Challenge of monkeys after a 28 week vaccination regimen with VLP[G] led to a reduction in peak viremia, but persistent suppression of viral load was not achieved. Due to limitations in the number of animals available for this study, improved efficacy of VSV-G pseudotyped VLPs in nonhuman primates could not be demonstrated. However, mouse experiments revealed that pseudotyping of VLPs with fusion-competent VSV-G clearly improves their immunogenicity. Additional strategies, particularly adjuvants, should be considered to provide greater protection against a challenge with pathogenic immunodeficiency virus.
    Virology 08/2006; 351(1):133-44. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Candidate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine strategies that induce strong cellular immune responses protect rhesus macaques that are infected with recombinant simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIV89.6p from acute CD4+ T-cell loss and delay progression to AIDS. However, similar strategies have not proven as efficacious in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac model of AIDS, an infection that causes a slow, steady loss of CD4+ T-cell function and numbers in rhesus macaques similar to that caused by HIV-1, the principal cause of AIDS in humans. Efforts to increase vaccine efficacy by repeated boosting with the same vector are quickly limited by rising anti-vector immune responses. Here, the sequential use of three different vectors (DNA, Semliki Forest virus and modified vaccinia virus Ankara) encoding the same SIVmac structural and regulatory antigens was investigated and demonstrated to prevent or slow the loss of CD4+ T-cells after mucosal challenge with the highly pathogenic SIVmac251 strain. Of particular interest was an inverse association between the extent of T-helper 2 cytokine responses and steady-state virus load. Although limited in the number of animals, this study provides important proof of the efficacy of the triple-vector vaccine strategy against chronic, progressive CD4+ T-cell loss in the rigorous SIVmac/rhesus macaque model of AIDS.
    Journal of General Virology 11/2004; 85(Pt 10):2915-24. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) model of AIDS is widely used for the development of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine strategies, particularly for the analysis of correlates of protective immunity. As it is not always possible to establish autologous B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCL) for use as targets in the analysis of cytotoxic T cell (CTL) activity, we have compared B-LCL with primary simian skin cells. Using a well-defined SIV gag-encoded CTL epitope restricted by Mamu A*01 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, we have shown that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from vaccinated and infected macaques can kill MHC class I-matched skin fibroblasts presenting the cognate epitope but that skin fibroblasts are a less sensitive target than B-LCL for the detection of CTL.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 01/2002; 258(1-2):137-40. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of a multicomponent vaccination with modified vaccinia Ankara constructs (rMVA) expressing structural and regulatory genes of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV(mac251/32H/J5)) was investigated in cynomolgus monkeys, following challenge with a pathogenic SIV. Vaccination with rMVA-J5 performed at week 0, 12, and 24 induced a moderate proliferative response to whole SIV, a detectable humoral response to all but Nef SIV antigens, and failed to induce neutralizing antibodies. Two months after the last boost, the monkeys were challenged intravenously with 50 MID50 of SIV(mac251). All control monkeys, previously inoculated with non-recombinant MVA, were infected by week two and seroconverted by weeks four to eight. In contrast a sharp increase of both humoral and proliferative responses at two weeks post-challenge was observed in vaccinated monkeys compared to control monkeys. Although all vaccinated monkeys were infected, vaccination with rMVA-J5 appeared to partially control viral replication during the acute and late phase of infection as judged by cell- and plasma-associated viral load.
    Journal of Medical Primatology 09/2001; 30(4):197-206. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A quantitative RT-PCR assay was developed for SIVagm and was used to measure the levels of viral RNA in the plasma of experimentally and naturally infected African green monkeys. The number of productively infected PBMCs and the number of cells carrying integrated provirus were also measured. Plasma virus loads in experimentally infected animals peaked at 2 weeks postinfection, ranging from 2.9 x 10(5) to 4.2 x 10(7) RNA copies/ml plasma. Set points of 2.1 x 10(3) to 2.8 x 10(6) RNA copies/ml plasma were maintained for one year. Similarly, the number of cells carrying integrated SIVagm provirus remained relatively stable in individual animals for one year with set points ranging from 73 to 810 proviral copies per 10(6) PBMC. However, the number of productively infected cells fluctuated considerably during this period. Virus loads in the 26 naturally infected AGMs ranged from 8.3 x 10(3) to 1.1 x 10(7) (mean 1.7 x 10(6)) RNA copies/ml plasma. These levels of viremia are similar to those seen in pathogenic systems (HIV-1, SIVmac), indicating that control of SIVagm replication is not the reason for the natural host's resistance to disease progression.
    Virology 06/2001; 283(2):324-31. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-16 (IL-16) acts as a chemoattractant for CD4+ cells, as a modulator of T-cell activation, and plays a key role in asthma. This report describes the cytokine-inducing effects of IL-16 on total peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and PBMC subpopulations. While CD4+ T lymphocytes did not secrete cytokines in response to rhIL-16, CD14+ CD4+ monocytes and maturing macrophages secrete IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-15 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) upon rhIL-16 stimulation. The mRNA species for these four cytokines were detected as early as 4 hr post-stimulation, with protein being secreted by 24 hr. Secretion of IL-1beta and IL-6 by total PBMC was dose dependent, with maximal secretion being observed using 50 ng/ml rhIL-16. However, for IL-15 or TNF-alpha maximal secretion by total PBMC occurred with all concentrations between 5 ng/ml to 500 ng/ml rhIL-16. Purified monocytes/macrophages secreted maximal concentrations of all four cytokines in the presence of 500 ng/ml rhIL-16, except for monocytes where maximal secretion of IL-15 was, interestingly, observed with only 50 ng/ml rhIL-16. The use of higher concentrations of rhIL-16 (1000 ng/ml) inhibited secretion of all four cytokines. While these IL-16-induced cytokines are likely to be involved in the immune system's response to antigen, the data suggest that IL-16 may play a key role in initiating and/or sustaining an inflammatory response.
    Immunology 06/2000; 100(1):63-9. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primate gamma-2 herpesviruses (rhadinoviruses) have so far been found in humans (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [KSHV], also called human herpesvirus 8), macaques (Macaca spp.) (rhesus rhadinovirus [RRV] and retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus [RFHV]), squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) (herpesvirus saimiri), and spider monkeys (Ateles spp.) (herpesvirus ateles). Using serological screening and degenerate consensus primer PCR for the viral DNA polymerase gene, we have detected sequences from two distinct gamma-2 herpesviruses, termed Chlorocebus rhadinovirus 1 (ChRV1) and ChRV2, in African green monkeys. ChRV1 is more closely related to KSHV and RFHV, whereas ChRV2 is closest to RRV. Our findings suggest the existence of two distinct rhadinovirus lineages, represented by the KSHV/RFHV/ChRV1 group and the RRV/ChRV2 group, respectively, in at least two Old World monkey species. Antibodies to members of the RRV/ChRV2 lineage may cross-react in an immunofluorescence assay for early and late KSHV antigens.
    Journal of Virology 03/2000; 74(3):1572-7. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing number of African primate species have been shown to be infected in the wild with their own distinct variants of simian immunodeficiency virus. The most striking feature of these natural host systems is the lack of AIDS-like disease despite long-term infection. In the African green monkey (AGM)/SIVagm system there is no evidence that a vigorous antiviral immune response, a lack of variability or a low virus load accounts for this lack of pathogenicity. New-born AGMs appear to be even more resistant to the virus than adults, despite their immature immune system and higher pool of target cells. The fact that AGMs, unlike HIV-infected humans, lack a humoral immune response to non-denatured Gag protein and do not show trapping of virus in the lymph nodes suggested that tolerance to Gag might prevent the formation of immune complexes which would normally be filtered out by the lymphoid tissues with detrimental results. This apparent tolerance to Gag is a common feature of many, if not all, of the natural host systems and might explain why the lymph nodes and immune system in general remain intact in these primates in the face of continuous, high level virus replication.
    Immunology Letters 04/1999; 66(1-3):47-52. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether vaccination of macaques with attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)macC8 could induce long-term protective immunity against rectal exposure to SIVsm and intravenous exposure to the more divergent HIV-2. Eight months after vaccination with live attenuated SIVmacC8, four cynomolgus monkeys were challenged with SIVsm intrarectally and another four vaccinated monkeys were challenged with HIV-2 intravenously. Sixteen months after SIVmacC8 vaccination, another two monkeys were challenged with SIVsm across the rectal mucosa. Two vaccinees shown to be protected against SIVsm were rechallenged 8 months after the first challenge. Ten naive animals were used as controls. Serum antigenaemia, virus isolation, antibody responses, cell-mediated immunity and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subpopulations were monitored. PCR-based assays were used to distinguish between virus populations. At the time of challenge, eight out of 10 vaccinees were PCR-positive for SIVmacC8 DNA but no virus could be isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. After SIVsm challenge, three out of six vaccinees were repeatedly SIVsm PCR-negative. In one of the three infected monkeys, the challenge virus was initially suppressed but the monkey ultimately developed AIDS after increased replication of the pathogenic virus. Rechallenged monkeys remained protected. All HIV-2-challenged vaccinees became superinfected. All controls became infected with either SIVsm or HIV-2. At the time of challenge the vaccinees had neutralizing antibodies to SIVmac but no demonstrable cross-neutralizing antibodies to SIVsm or HIV-2. Titres of antigen-binding or neutralizing antibodies did not correlate with protection. Cytotoxic T-cell responses to SIV Gag/Pol and virus-specific T-cell proliferative responses were low. The live attenuated SIVmacC8 vaccine was able to induce long-term protection against heterologous intrarectal SIVsm challenge in a proportion of macaques but not against the more divergent HIV-2, which was given intravenously.
    AIDS 01/1999; 12(17):2261-70. · 6.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to select, from a panel of candidate European human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clade B primary virus isolates, one isolate based on replication properties in chimpanzee peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Secondly, to evaluate the in vivo kinetics of primary infection of the selected isolate at two different doses in two mature, outbred chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Four different low passage, human PBMC-cultured 'primary' HIV-1 isolates with European clade B consensus sequence were compared for their ability to replicate in vitro in chimpanzee versus human PBMC. The isolate which yielded the highest titre and most vigorous cytopathic effect in chimpanzee PBMC was evaluated for coreceptor usage and chosen for evaluation in vivo. Only the HIV-1Han2 isolate replicated in chimpanzee PBMC in vitro at detectable levels. This isolate was demonstrated to utilize CCR4, CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptors and could be inhibited by beta-chemokines. Infection of chimpanzees was demonstrated by viral RNA and DNA PCR analysis, both in plasma as well as in PBMC and lymph node cells as early as 3 weeks after inoculation. Antibodies developed within 6 weeks and continued to increase to a maximum titre of approximately 12800, thereafter remaining in this range over the follow-up period of 2 years. Compared to cell line-adapted HIV-1 isolates there were slight but no dramatic differences in the kinetics of infection of chimpanzees with this particular primary isolate.
    Journal of General Virology 01/1999; 79 ( Pt 12):2895-903. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infection of macaques with attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) induces potent superinfection resistance that may be applicable to the development of an AIDS vaccine but little information exists concerning the conditions necessary for the induction of this vaccine effect. We report that only a high dose of attenuated SIVmac protected macaques against intravenous challenge with more virulent virus 15 weeks after primary infection. Three of four animals given 2000-20000 TCID50 of SIVmacC8, a molecular clone of SIVmac251(32H) with a 12 bp deletion in the nef gene, essentially resisted superinfection with uncloned SIVmac. In two animals challenge virus was never detected by PCR and in one animal challenge virus was detected on one occasion only. Although animals given 2-200 TCID50 of attenuated virus were superinfected they were spared from the loss of CD4 cells seen in infected naive controls. Protection from superinfection did not correlate with immune responses, including the levels of virus-specific antibodies or virus-neutralizing activity measured on the day of challenge; although, after superinfection challenge, Nef-specific CTL responses were detected only in animals infected with high doses of attenuated SIV. Unexpectedly, cell-associated virus loads 2 weeks after inoculation were significantly lower in animals infected with a high dose of attenuated SIV compared to those in animals infected with a low dose. Our results suggest that the early dynamics of infection with attenuated virus influence superinfection resistance.
    Journal of General Virology 09/1998; 79 ( Pt 8):1935-44. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Groups of four rhesus monkeys were immunised at 0, 1, 2, and 13 months with whole inactivated SIVmac32H, SIVmac depleted of the outer envelope glycoprotein gp130, virus cores depleted of the lipid membrane (and hence transmembrane glycoproteins), or purified gag protein. These macaques plus controls were challenged with either the homologous SIVmac251-32H grown in human cells or the same virus passed once through monkey cells. None of those challenged with monkey-grown virus were protected, whereas all in the whole and gp130-depleted virus groups, and one in the core group resisted challenge with human-grown virus. As the only difference between the challenge viruses was a single in vitro passage in monkey cells it can be concluded that protection was solely due to human cell components. Finally, passive transfer of high titer IgG from monkeys infected with the homologous challenge virus failed to protect monkeys from infection despite the presence of circulating neutralising antibodies.
    Journal of Medical Primatology 09/1998; 27(4):184-92. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have demonstrated that newborn animals are more susceptible to disease development following infection with retroviruses than adults. Adult African green monkeys (AGMs) infected with SIVagm do not develop AIDS-like disease and the objective of the study was to determine whether experimental infection of newborn AGMs with SIVagm would result in pathogenesis. Neonatal AGMs were found to have a higher percentage of circulating CD4+ lymphocytes than adults (62% versus 14%) and therefore a higher potential pool of target cells for SIVagm infection. However, no differences in the in vitro replication kinetics of SIVagm in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of adult or neonatal AGMs could be observed. In vivo, the neonatal AGMs became viremic at the earliest two months after inoculation whereas the adult AGMs had evidence of virus replication already 2 to 6 weeks after infection. None of the animals developed AIDS-like symptoms upon infection. In the heterologous cynomolgus macaque host, a newborn infected with SIVagm developed early high virus loads and died two months after birth with AIDS-like histopathologic features. It would therefore appear that in contrast to the situation with many other retroviruses, newborn AGMs are no more permissive to SIVagm infection than are adults.
    Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 08/1998; 18(3):210-20.
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    ABSTRACT: Factors secreted by CD8(+) T cells have been described to suppress immunodeficiency virus replication. The research efforts to identify these factors led to the proposal of some candidate proteins as being responsible for the antiviral effects. Chemokines and IL-16 are secreted by CD8(+) T cells and inhibit HIV replication through different mechanisms. However, their antiviral properties cannot fully explain the inhibitory activities found in cell culture supernatants from CD8(+) T cells.
    Pathobiology 02/1998; 66(3-4):128-30. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunization of adult macaques with live attenuated simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) lacking the nef genes has been shown to protect against challenge with full-length pathogenic SIV. To test live attenuated virus vaccines for the first time in a natural host we have constructed a mutant SIV from African green monkeys (SIVagm) with a deletion of 125 bp in the nef gene (SIVagm3 delta nef). This mutant showed moderately delayed in vitro replication in the T cell line MOLT-4/8 and in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells from African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aetiops) and pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) compared with cloned wild-type SIVagm3. In contrast, in vivo replication of SIVagm3 delta nef in African green monkeys was severely impaired or undetectable and did not induce seroconversion. After challenge with wild-type SIVagm3 the SIVagm3 delta nef preinoculated African green monkeys showed a memory antibody response that declined after week 2. In three of four African green monkeys the cell-associated virus load and in two of four African green monkeys the plasma virus load was dramatically decreased after the challenge compared with naive control animals. The remaining animal showed no evidence of productive challenge virus replication. This study demonstrates that a strong vaccine effect or protection in the SIVagm/African green monkey system is possible using a live attenuated vaccine in the absence of a productive infection and corresponding humoral immune response.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/1997; 94(8):4062-7. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • S Norley, R Kurth
    Springer Seminars in Immunopathology 02/1997; 18(3):391-405. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transmembrane glycoproteins of all retroviruses contain a conserved region composed of a leucine zipper, an immunosuppressive domain, and an immunodominant Cys-Cys loop. The amino acid sequence of the immunosuppressive domain of gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1; amino acids 583-599) is closely related, but not identical, to the immunosuppressive domains of type C and D retroviruses. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the immunosuppressive domain of HIV-1 (immunosuppressive peptide, ISU-peptide) inhibits mitogen and lymphokine stimulation of T lymphocytes. It is interspecies reactive and inhibits both human and mouse lymphocytes. The inhibitory effect is not based on direct cytotoxicity and the peptide is immunosuppressive only when conjugated to a carrier protein. The ISU-peptide of HIV-1 also inhibits B lymphocyte stimulation by the B cell mitogen lipopolysaccharide and by specific antibodies against delta and mu chains of cell surface immunoglobulins. These data suggest that the immunosuppressive domain of gp41 may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of AIDS.
    Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 09/1996; 12(5):442-50.
  • B Beer, S Norley, K Cichutek, R Kurth
    AIDS 07/1996; 10(6):681-2. · 6.41 Impact Factor