A M Halliday

Moredun Research Institute, Penicuik, Scotland, United Kingdom

Are you A M Halliday?

Claim your profile

Publications (7)15 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to elucidate transcriptional changes in the parasitic nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta upon encountering either naïve or immune ovine hosts. Pools of 100 000 exsheathed 3rd- stage T. circumcincta larvae were exposed in vitro to either an immune or naïve ovine abomasal environment, RNA was extracted from the larvae and sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. Each sample produced approximately 82 000 reads that assembled to give approximately 5500 Isotigs (contigs). The two sequence datasets were clustered together to give a total of 6969 clusters of which 18 were differentially expressed (P<0·001) between the two groups. Clusters with a predominance of reads in larvae exposed to the immune abomasal environment encoded homologues of peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase, heat shock-protein 16-2 and IDA-1, a tyrosine phosphatase-like receptor protein. Clusters with a predominance of reads in the naïve environment encoded homologues of cytochrome b, EGg Laying defective family member 21 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5. Gene ontology analyses indicated that larvae exposed to the immune environment showed an increase in expression of genes involved in 'carbon utilization', 'response to stimulus' and 'developmental process'. These data suggest that T. circumcincta modulates gene expression in response to the immune status of the host.
    Parasitology 01/2012; 139(3):387-405. · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    A M Halliday, W D Smith
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A ConcanavilinA (ConA)-binding fraction of a detergent-soluble membrane extract from Teladorsagia circumcincta (formerly Ostertagia circumcincta) fourth-stage larvae was isolated, and two vaccine trials were conducted with this preparation in groups of 7 worm-free sheep. All groups were challenged with a total of 5000 T. circumcincta larvae from 1 week after the final immunization and protection assessed by comparing the egg and worm counts, and length of developing worms, of the immunized groups with their respective controls. Immunization with the ConA-binding antigen induced high-titre serum antibody responses in both trials. However, no significant reduction in either egg count or worm burdens was observed in the vaccinated groups in either trial. It was concluded that detergent-soluble, ConA-binding extracts prepared from T. circumcincta fourth-stage larvae did not contain significantly protective antigens, despite the fact that an extract prepared in a similar manner from Ostertagia ostertagi had previously significantly protected calves against homologous challenge.
    Parasite Immunology 07/2011; 33(10):554-60. · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    A M Halliday, W D Smith
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ConA lectin was used to isolate glycoproteins from detergent extracts of fourth stage Ostertagia ostertagi larvae. This preparation contained proteins additional to those observed in a similar fraction prepared from adult O. ostertagi. Two vaccine trials were conducted with this preparation, and sub-fractions thereof, in groups of 6-8 worm-free calves. All groups were challenged with 50,000 O. ostertagi larvae 1 week after the final immunization, and protection was assessed by comparing the egg and worm counts of the immunized groups with their respective controls. Immunization with the ConA-binding antigen or its sub-fractions induced high titre serum antibody responses. In the first trial, the cumulative egg count of the group immunized with unfractionated antigen was 60% lower than the corresponding control value, and worm counts were 47% lower. In the second trial, the cumulative egg counts of the vaccinated groups ranged from 70% to 85% lower than the corresponding controls, with worm counts up to 64% lower. It was concluded that detergent-soluble, ConA-binding extracts prepared from O. ostertagi fourth stage larvae contained protective immunogens that were as effective as the best antigens published for O. ostertagi to date.
    Parasite Immunology 04/2010; 32(9-10):656-63. · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    A M Halliday, H C McAllister, W D Smith
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Groups of 5-month-old lambs which had been trickle infected with Teladorsagia circumcincta for 8 weeks then drenched, and worm-free control lambs were challenged with 50 000 T. circumcincta L3s. From 10 days later fewer parasites were recovered from the previously infected sheep, and secondary cellular and humoral responses were observed in the gastric lymph. Increases in CD4+ and CD25+ T lymphoblast traffic on day 3, followed by CD21+ and IgA+ lymphoblasts on day 5, and an increase in total and parasite specific IgA concentrations peaking on day 6 were observed in previously infected lambs. Similar peaks in lymphoblast output were not observed until days 10-12 in the control lambs. This data was highly comparable with that obtained recently from yearling sheep subjected to an identical infection-challenge regime, and contrasted with that obtained from similar experiments in the 1980s when 4(1/2)-month-old previously infected lambs were more susceptible to and had much weaker immune responses to challenge than 10-month-old sheep. The fact that 40% fewer larvae were given during the trickle infection regime in the four recent trials is offered as an explanation for this difference.
    Parasite Immunology 02/2010; 32(2):81-90. · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    A M Halliday, W I Morrison, W D Smith
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Groups of yearling sheep were trickle infected with Teladorsagia circumcincta for 8 weeks, then the infection cleared with anthelmintic and both these animals and a group of parasite naïve sheep were challenged with 50 000 infective T. circumcincta larvae. The previously infected sheep demonstrated acquired immunity to the parasite, manifested by reduced worm burdens which were evident as early as 2 days after challenge. Cannulation of the common efferent gastric lymph duct allowed the kinetics of their local cell traffic to be monitored, and the phenotype of these lymphocytes was analysed. A blast cell response, consisting of both T and B lymphocytes, was observed in both groups of sheep, however this occurred more rapidly in the previously infected, immune animals. CD4+, CD8+ and CD25+ blast cell output peaked at day 3 in the previously infected animals, whereas CD21+ blast cell output peaked slightly later at day 5. In the control group the peak output of all phenotypes of blast cells occurred more slowly, peaking 10 days after infection.
    Parasite Immunology 08/2009; 31(7):402-11. · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Groups of yearling sheep, which had been trickle infected with Teladorsagia circumcincta for 8 weeks and then drenched, were challenged with 50 000 T. circumcincta larvae together with groups of worm-free controls. Fewer parasites and a greater proportion of early fourth stage larvae were recovered from previously infected sheep compared to controls. Worm loss and arrested development were evident by 5 days after challenge whereas growth retardation of developing worms was observed by day 10. In the previously infected sheep a secondary IgA response was observed in the efferent gastric lymph from 5 days post-infection. Western blot analysis showed the lymph IgA to be predominantly dimeric and nonsecretory in nature and that the somatic antigens recognized were predominantly in the 100-250 kDa range. The concentration of IgA in lymph was always higher than in blood and in the previously infected sheep increased fivefold 8 days post-challenge in contrast to blood where IgA levels were unchanged. The timing of the response suggested that it occurred too late to have been the cause of worm loss or arrested development, though it may have retarded the growth of developing parasites.
    Parasite Immunology 09/2007; 29(8):425-34. · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Teladorsagia circumcincta is a common, pathogenic abomasal nematode of sheep. In order to improve disease control in parasite isolates resistant to several anthelmintics, alternative methods must be sought. Sheep develop acquired immunity to T. circumcincta so vaccination is a valid option for control. For this reason, we are investigating parasite excretory/secretory products for molecules, which have potential to invoke protective immunity against T. circumcincta. Here, we describe experiments in which we identified a novel, immunogenic cathepsin F secreted by L4 T. circumcincta. This protease, initially identified by mass spectrometry analysis, is the most abundant molecule in excretory/secretory products released in vitro by T. circumcincta harvested at 5, 6 or 9 days p.i. and is a target of specific, local IgA responses in sheep which are immune to challenge infection. The full-length cDNA encoding this secreted protease was isolated. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the protease (designated T. circumcincta cathepsin F-1, Tci-CF-1) belongs to the cathepsin F class and exhibits greatest identity (>60%) to expressed sequence tags present in the Ostertagia ostertagi and Haemonchus contortus expressed sequence tag databases. Tci-CF-1 also displays high identity to hypothetical proteins identified in the genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae, both proteins having been described as cathepsin F enzymes. Specific inhibitor binding assay of larval excretory/secretory products confirmed the classification of this excretory/secretory component as a cathepsin F. Reverse transcription-PCR studies indicated that Tci-cf-1 is developmentally regulated and is particular to the host parasitic stages of T. circumcincta. The abundance, immunogenicity and temporal expression pattern of Tci-CF-1 make this a potential vaccine candidate for teladorsagiosis.
    International Journal for Parasitology 03/2006; 36(3):277-86. · 3.40 Impact Factor