Wol-Soon Jo

Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (14)25.46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs)-based cancer immunotherapy has been used various strategies to inhibit immune suppressive mechanisms. CD25 antibodies and cyclophosphamide are well-studied immunomodulators through inhibition of regulatory T cells (Treg) and a blockade the immune-checkpoint molecule, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) was recently targeted for immunomodulation. We used anti-CTLA-4 antibody, which is known to induce effective antitumor immunity by facilitating tumor-specific T-cell activation and suppressing Treg cells, as useful immunomodulator to provide a potentiating effect in the intratumoral injection of immature DCs (iDCs) into the irradiated tumor (IR/iDC). Ionizing radiation (IR) was applied at a dose of 10 Gy to the tumor on the right thigh of mice. Then, iDCs were intratumorally injected into the irradiated tumor. Anti-CTLA-4 antibody (100 µg/mouse) was administered intraperitoneally to mice on the same day with every iDCs injection. The growth of distant tumors was inhibited by IR/iDC and this effect was significantly augmented by combination treatment of anti-CTLA-4 antibody. Furthermore, the survival rate of tumor-bearing mice improved more by the combination treatment of anti-CTLA-4 antibody and IR/iDC compared with other groups. It was related to the increased tumor-specific interferon-γ-secreting T cells and CTL activity. Therefore, our results demonstrated that immunomodulator such as anti-CTLA-4 antibody enhances antitumor immunity of intratumoral injection of iDCs into irradiated tumor and suggested a new strategy to get more clinical benefits for cancer treatment.
    Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md.: 1997) 01/2014; 37(1):1-7. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) and its main functional component, cordycepin, has been shown to possess a number of pharmacological activities including immunological stimulation and antitumor effects. However, the pharmacological mechanisms of C. militaris on tumor immunity underlying its antitumor effect have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of C. militaris on FM3A tumor-bearing C3H/He mice, comparing wild-type C. militaris and cordycepin-enriched C. militaris (JLM 0636). The concentration of cordycepin produced by crossbred JLM 0636 was 7.42 mg/g dry weight, which was 7-fold higher than that of wild-type C. militaris. Dietary administration of C. militaris revealed retardation of tumor growth as well as elongation of survival rates of tumor-bearing mice. This effect was more pronounced in JLM 0636. There was a cordycepin-dependent decrease in IL-2 and TGF-β secretion and an increase in IL-4 secretion without changes in the proliferative responses of concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocytes, which suggested that C. militaris feeding might induce changes in the subpopulations of tumor-derived T lymphocytes. CD4+CD25+ cell population was significantly reduced in the total splenocytes from JLM 0636-administered mice, while CD4+ T cell population remained unchanged. FoxP3+-expressing Treg cells among CD4+CD25+ population showed a similar pattern. On the contrary, CD8+ T cells as well as the IFN-γ expressing CD8+ T cells from tumor-bearing mice were significantly upregulated by the administration of JLM 0636. These results demonstrated the suppressive role of JLM 0636 on the function of Treg cells contributing to tumor specific IFN-γ-expressing CD8+ T cell responses in tumor-bearing mice, which explained the underlying mechanism of the antitumor immunity of cordycepin. Therefore, cordycepin-enriched C. militaris is a promising candidate for an adjuvant in cancer immunotherapy.
    Oncology Reports 08/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The control of melanogenesis is an important strategy in the treatment of abnormal skin pigmentation for cosmetic purposes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-melanogenic effect of Asterina pectinifera (A. pectinifera) extracts by cell-free mushroom tyrosinase assay, cellular tyrosinase assay, melanin content assay and the analysis of related protein expression in melan-a cells. A. pectinifera was extracted with 80% methanol (80-MAP) and further fractionated with hexane (He-AP) and ethyl acetate (EA-AP). In addition, the enzyme extract (En-AP) of A. pectinifera, to which protease was added, was processed. EA-AP and En-AP among A. pectinifera extracts showed strong inhibitory activity against the cell-free mushroom tyrosinase activity. EA-AP and En-AP induced significant inhibition of melanin production and cellular tyrosinase activity. In the action of EA-AP and En-AP on melanogenesis, they reduced the expression of melanogenic genes and proteins including tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and dopachrome tautomerase (Dct). These results showed that EA-AP and En-AP inhibited melanogenesis by reducing tyrosinase activity and melanin production via subsequent downregulation of tyrosinase-related proteins. The overall results suggest that EA-AP and En-AP among A. pectinifera extracts may be promising candidates for the treatment of hyperpigmentation disorder and useful for self-tanning cosmetic products.
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine 11/2012; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Raphanus sativus (Cruciferaceae), commonly known as radish is widely available throughout the world. From antiquity it has been used in folk medicine as a natural drug against many toxicants. The present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of radish (Raphanus sativus) enzyme extract (REE) in vitro and in vivo test. The IC50 values of REE in human liver derived HepG2 cells was over 5,000 μg/ml in tested maximum concentration. The effect of REE to protect tacrine-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. REE showed their hepatoprotective activities on tacrineinduced cytotoxicity and the EC50 value was 1,250 μg/ml. Silymarin, an antihepatotoxic agent used as a positive control exhibited 59.7% hepatoprotective activitiy at 100 μg/ml. Moreover, we tested the effect of REE on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver toxicity in rats. REE at dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg and silymarin at dose of 50 mg/kg were orally administered to CCl4-treated rats. The results showed that REE and silymarin significantly reduced the elevated levels of serum enzyme markers induced by CCl4. The biochemical data were supported by evaluation with liver histopathology. These findings suggest that REE, can significantly diminish hepatic damage by toxic agent such as tacrine or CCl4.
    Toxicological research. 09/2012; 28(3):165-172.
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    ABSTRACT: Resveratrol (3,4',5 tri-hydroxystilbene), a natural plant polyphenol, has gained interest as a non-toxic chemopreventive agent capable of inducing tumor cell death in a variety of cancer types. Several studies were undertaken to obtain synthetic analogues of resveratrol with potent anticancer activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of HS-1793 as a new resveratrol analog on apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in murine breast cancer cells. A pharmacological dose (1.3-20 µM) of HS-1793 exerted a cytotoxic effect on murine breast cancer cells resulting in apoptosis. HS-1793-mediated cytotoxicity in FM3A cells by several apoptotic events including mitochondrial cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-3 and PARP occurred. In addition, HS-1793 induced collapse of ∆Ψm and enhanced AIF and Endo G release from mitochondria while undergoing apoptosis. These results demonstrate that the cytotoxicity by HS-1793 in FM3A cells can mainly be attributed to apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway by caspase activation or contributions of AIF and Endo G.
    International Journal of Oncology 08/2012; 41(5):1628-34. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The immunostimulating factor (ISTF) plays an important role in immunopathologic changes associated with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans where it is located in the outer cell membrane. We describe a novel method by which ISTF can be monitored using a protein chip system based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The affinity of ISTF to its monoclonal antibodies and other proteins was compared. In fabrication of an ISTF immunosensor, a calix[4]crown ether monolayer was anchored onto a gold surface for use as an artificial protein linker system, and then characterized by Fourier Transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Anti-ISTF was immobilized onto the monolayer, and the interaction between ISTF and its antibodies was investigated by SPR. The calix[4]crown ether was found to assemble as a monolayer on the gold surface. Orientation and accessibility of anti-ISTF were assessed by the selective binding of ISTF. Modification of the SPR chip with the calix[4]crown monolayer provides a reliable and simple experimental platform for investigation of isolated proteins under experimental conditions resembling those of their native environment. FigureSchematic diagram of sensor chip configuration KeywordsImmunostimulating factor (ISTF), Calixarene crown ether–Prolinker™–Self-assembled monolayer (SAM)–Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)
    Microchimica Acta 01/2011; 172(1):171-176. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to elucidate anti-inflammatory activities from extracts of Asterina pectinifera on nitric oxide (NO) production, TNF-α and IL-6 release in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -stimulated murine macrophage cell, RAW264.7. We prepared the methanolic extracts (60-MAP, 70-MAP, 80-MAP and 90-MAP) , aqueous extract (W-AP) and functional bioactive compound fraction (He-AP and EA-AP) from Asterina pectinifera according to extract method. The 60-MAP, 70-MAP, 80-MAP, 90-MAP and W-AP were significantly suppressed LPS-induced production NO, TNF-α and IL-6 secretion in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05) . Especially, 80-MAP by extracted 80% methanol had the strongest activity in reduction of inflammatory mediators among these extracts. Indeed, to identify active fraction, which contained potential bioactive compounds, from 80-MAP of Asterina pectinifera, we tested anti-inflammatory activity of the He-AP or the EA-AP. The He-AP was next extracted from 80-MAP and the EA-AP were extracted from the other methanol layer except the He-AP. The EA-AP demonstrated a strong anti-inflammatory effect through its ability to reduce NO production and it also inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α at low concentration. These results suggested that the methanolic extract from Asterina pectinifera had the potential inhibitory effects on the production of these inflammatory mediators.
    Toxicological research. 03/2010; 26(1):37-46.
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    ABSTRACT: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a gram-negative, nonmotile coccobacillus bacterium that is associated with several human diseases, including endocarditis, meningitis, osteomyelitis, subcutaneous abscesses and periodontal diseases. A full-length Omp1-like protein gene from A. actinomycetemcomitans was cloned into a pQE30 vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells. The protein revealed sequence homologies to Seventeen kilodalton proteins (Skp) from Pasteurella multocida and E. coli that have been characterized as periplasmic chaperones. This soluble Omp1-like protein was successfully purified to homogeneity for further folding and functional studies. The purity, identity, and conformation of the protein were determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopic, and differential scanning calorimetric studies. We showed that the protein formed an oligomer larger than a tetramer. We found, further, that it is comprised of mostly -helices and boasts high thermal stability.
    Bulletin- Korean Chemical Society 01/2010; 31(2):275-280. · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Gram-negative bacteria, type I protein secretion systems and tripartite drug efflux pumps have a periplasmic membrane fusion protein (MFP) as an essential component. MFPs bridge the outer membrane factor and an inner membrane transporter, although the oligomeric state of MFPs remains unclear. The most characterized MFP AcrA connects the outer membrane factor TolC and the resistance-nodulation-division-type efflux transporter AcrB, which is a major multidrug efflux pump in Escherichia coli. MacA is the periplasmic MFP in the MacAB-TolC pump, where MacB was characterized as a macrolide-specific ATP-binding-cassette-type efflux transporter. Here, we report the crystal structure of E. coli MacA and the experimentally phased map of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans MacA, which reveal a domain orientation of MacA different from that of AcrA. Notably, a hexameric assembly of MacA was found in both crystals, exhibiting a funnel-like structure with a central channel and a conical mouth. The hexameric MacA assembly was further confirmed by electron microscopy and functional studies in vitro and in vivo. The hexameric structure of MacA provides insight into the oligomeric state in the functional complex of the drug efflux pump and type I secretion system.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 05/2009; 387(5):1286-97. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TolC is an outer membrane porin protein and an essential component of drug efflux and type-I secretion systems in Gram-negative bacteria. TolC comprises a periplasmic alpha- helical barrel domain and a membrane-embedded beta-barrel domain. TdeA, a functional and structural homolog of TolC, is required for toxin and drug export in the pathogenic oral bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Here, we report the expression of the periplasmic domain of TdeA as a soluble protein by substitution of the membraneembedded domain with short linkers, which enabled us to purify the protein in the absence of detergent. We confirmed the structural integrity of the TdeA periplasmic domain by size-exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and electron microscopy, which together showed that the periplasmic domain of the TolC protein family can fold correctly on its own. We further demonstrated that the periplasmic domain of TdeA interacts with peptidoglycans of the bacterial cell wall, which supports the idea that completely folded TolC family proteins traverse the peptidoglycan layer to interact with inner membrane transporters.
    Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 05/2008; 18(5):845-51. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the single dose toxicity and the protective effect of water extract of Cordyceps militaris grown upon Protaetia dreujtarsis (CMPD extract) on liver damage on carbon tetrachloride ()- induced acute hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The CMPD extract was once administered orally to both sexes of rats at dose of 2,000, 1,000 and 500 mg/kg body weight, the recommended maximum limit dose for acute toxicity. Neither significant toxic signs nor death was observed during the observation period. These results indicate that (lethal dose of 50%) of CMPD extract is greater than 2,000 mg/kg body weight in SD rats. To investigate also the effect of hepatoprotection of CMPD extract, SD rats were orally treated with CMPD extract (50, 25 and 12.5 mg/kg body weight) or silymarin (25 mg/kg body weight) before and after administration of (2 mL/kg body weight, 20% in olive oil). Treatment with CMPD extract or silymarin could decrease the GPT (glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) and GOT (glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase) levels in serum when compared with -treated group. Therefore, the results of this study show that CMPD extract can be proposed to protect the liver against -induced hepatic damage in rats.
    Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology. 01/2008; 40(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Immunostimulating factor (ISTF) isolated from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans which has been described previously, is distinct from lipopolysaccharide and induces proliferation of B cells. This study was undertaken to investigate whether ISTF might enhance the stimulation of other immune cells. Immunohistochemically, ISTF exhibited a profound stimulating effect on macrophages and dendritic cells as well as B cells in the spleen of BALB/c mice. ISTF was also recognized for its capacity to induce direct activation of mouse macrophages to produce IL-6, TNF-alpha, and NO and MHC class II expression. Therefore, it is postulated that ISTF stimulates macrophages and possibly other cells to produce a wide variety of proinflammatory mediators, which may be involved in the chronicity and tissue destruction of periodontal disease.
    Microbiology and Immunology 02/2006; 50(7):535-42. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that herbimycin A (HMA) alters the mode of cell death of K562 cells induced by radiation and enhanced their radiosensitivity. In the present study, we explored the apoptosis-inducing activity of HMA and the fundamental mechanism via which it regulates radiation-induced cell death. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell line K562 was used. For X-irradiation and drug treatment, cells were plated at approximately 2x10(5) cells/ml. Exponentially growing cells were treated with 10 Gy of X-ray using a 6-MeV X-ray machine at a dose rate of 200-300 cGy/min. The cells were treated with 0.25 microM HMA immediately after irradiation and HMA remained for the entire culture period. The modes of cell death were discriminated by morphological changes, analysis of cell cycle, analysis of the mitochondrial events, and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. Our data demonstrates that radiation induced a significant time-dependent increase of cell death and failed to sustain a prolonged G2 arrest in K562 cells. Radiation-induced cell death caused the accumulation of cyclinB1 and weak nuclear fragmentation, suggesting a mitotic catastrophe. This mitotic catastrophe was dependent upon the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) opening and was independent of caspase-3. In contrast, K562 cells treated with radiation and HMA had an accelerated cell death and induced a p53-independent apoptosis. This apoptotic pathway was dependent upon an initial hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane, following the release of cytochrome c and subsequent caspase-3 activation. Two mechanisms of radiation-induced cell death in K562 cells, mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis, are regulated through distinct pathways, mitochondria and caspase-independent and -dependent, respectively. The findings of this study may provide new insights into improving the efficiency of radiotherapy in CML patients.
    International Journal of Radiation Biology 08/2005; 81(7):531-43. · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Platelet activation is an important process in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. However, the serial changes of platelet activation in atherosclerotic ischemic stroke have not been determined. In this study, we measured serially platelet expression of CD63 and P-selectin and platelet aggregability to ADP and collagen. Measurements were made 24 and 72 h and 7 and 90 days after the ischemic event in 29 patients with atherosclerotic ischemic stroke. Platelet aggregability was significantly decreased after 72 h compared to that at 24 h of stroke onset. However, platelet CD63 and P-selectin expression remained high even 90 days after the events. These findings suggest that platelet hyperactivation in atherosclerotic ischemic stroke may be sustained for a considerable period.
    Platelets 03/2004; 15(1):3-7. · 2.24 Impact Factor