Aya Takada

Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Saitama, Japan

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Publications (21)28.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: An eight-year-old Japanese boy developed abdominal pain, followed by convulsion and loss of consciousness. He was taken to an emergency room but could not be resuscitated. At autopsy, the left main coronary trunk (LMT) demonstrated an increase in caliber with severe luminal narrowing, and the left anterior descending branch (LAD) subsequent to the LMT showed severe stenosis. Microscopically, the intima of the LMT demonstrated severe fibrosis and infiltration of lymphocytes and histiocytes suggesting vasculitis, and the small lumen was occupied by a fresh thrombus. The LAD showed significant intimal thickening with strong lymphocytic inflammation at the edge of the thickening. The left ventricle showed widespread myocardial infarction in the recovery stage. There were no findings of atherosclerosis, vasculitis or fibrocellular changes in the ascending aorta or intravisceral arteries other than the LMT and the LAD under investigation. The increase in the caliber of the LMT and the limitation of arteritis to the LMT and the subsequent branch suggested Kawasaki disease (KD), but it was atypical that the patient had no clinical history consistent with KD. The present case showed no findings suggesting classical polyarteritis nodosa (cPAN) at the acute or scar stage in the other vessels being investigated, and cPAN in childhood is rare compared to KD. A nonspecific inflammatory reaction (single organ vasculitis, SOV) was also considered as a possible cause, but it is difficult to determine whether the cause of the coronary stenosis in the present case was SOV because the sampling of arteries was insufficient. If forensic pathologists make unusual findings suggesting vasculitis at autopsy, the collection of a sufficient number of vessels of various sizes is warranted.
    Legal Medicine 09/2014; · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel method for sex determination, based on the detection of the number of X chromosomes, was established. Current methods, based on the detection of the Y chromosome, can directly identify an unknown sample as male, but female gender is determined indirectly, by not detecting the Y chromosome. Thus, a direct determination of female gender is important because the quality (e.g., fragmentation and amelogenin-Y null allele) of the Y chromosome DNA may lead to a false result. Thus, we developed a novel sex determination method by analyzing the number of X chromosomes using a copy number variation (CNV) detection technique (the comparative Ct method). In this study, we designed a primer set using the amelogenin-X gene without the CNV region as the target to determine the X chromosome copy number, to exclude the influence of the CNV region from the comparative Ct value. The number of X chromosomes was determined statistically using the CopyCaller software with real-time PCR. All DNA samples from participants (20 males, 20 females) were evaluated correctly using this method with 1-ng template DNA. A minimum of 0.2-ng template DNA was found to be necessary for accurate sex determination with this method. When using ultraviolet-irradiated template DNA, as mock forensic samples, the sex of the samples could not be determined by short tandem repeat (STR) analysis but was correctly determined using our method. Thus, we successfully developed a method of sex determination based on the number of X chromosomes. Our novel method will be useful in forensic practice for sex determination.
    International journal of legal medicine. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The results of forensic tests, such as semen identification and short tandem repeat (STR) analysis of extremely aged seminal stains from unsolved sex crimes can provide important evidence. In this study we evaluated whether current forensic methods could be applied to seminal stains that were stored at room temperature for 33-56years (n=2, 33years old; n=1, 41years old; n=1, 44years old; n=1, 56years old). The prostatic acid phosphatase (SM-test reagent), microscopic (Baecchi stain method) and semenogelin (RSID™ Semen Laboratory Kit) tests were performed as discriminative tests for semen. In addition, the mRNA levels of the semen-specific proteins semenogelin 1 (SEMG1) and protamine 2 (PRM2) were investigated. STRs were analyzed using the AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ PCR Amplification Kit. All samples were positive in the prostatic acid phosphatase and semenogelin tests, and sperm heads were identified in all samples. The staining degree of the aged sperm heads was similar to that of fresh sperm. Although SEMG1 mRNA was not detected in any sample, PRM2 mRNA was detected in three samples. In the STR analysis, all loci were detected in the 33-years-old sample and five loci were detected in the 56-years-old sample. We confirmed that current forensic examinations - including STR analysis - could be applied to extremely aged seminal stains. These results could be useful for forensic practice.
    Legal medicine (Tokyo, Japan). 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The results of forensic tests, such as semen identification and short tandem repeat (STR) analysis of extremely aged seminal stains from unsolved sex crimes can provide important evidence. In this study we evaluated whether current forensic methods could be applied to seminal stains that were stored at room temperature for 33–56 years (n = 2, 33 years old; n = 1, 41 years old; n = 1, 44 years old; n = 1, 56 years old). The prostatic acid phosphatase (SM-test reagent), microscopic (Baecchi stain method) and semenogelin (RSID™ Semen Laboratory Kit) tests were performed as discriminative tests for semen. In addition, the mRNA levels of the semen-specific proteins semenogelin 1 (SEMG1) and protamine 2 (PRM2) were investigated. STRs were analyzed using the AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ PCR Amplification Kit. All samples were positive in the prostatic acid phosphatase and semenogelin tests, and sperm heads were identified in all samples. The staining degree of the aged sperm heads was similar to that of fresh sperm. Although SEMG1 mRNA was not detected in any sample, PRM2 mRNA was detected in three samples. In the STR analysis, all loci were detected in the 33-year-old sample and five loci were detected in the 56-year-old sample. We confirmed that current forensic examinations—including STR analysis—could be applied to extremely aged seminal stains. These results could be useful for forensic practice.
    Legal Medicine. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) is a rare anomaly. It may contribute to myocardial ischemia or sudden death, although the lesion is usually asymptomatic. We report a sudden death case of a 58-year-old man with ARCAPA coexisting with severe atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. He had been healthy until he complained of chest pain, several days before death, despite the discovery of heart murmur in childhood and suspicion of valvular heart disease. The autopsy revealed not only typical findings of the right coronary anomaly with well-developed collateral circulations but also severe atherosclerotic lesions of the left coronary artery, and ischemic change of the myocardium in the left and right coronary arterial perfusion territory. In addition to the "coronary steal" phenomenon primarily caused by ARCAPA, the reduced flow of both coronary arteries and further increase of "coronary steal" due to atherosclerotic obstructive coronary disease might have contributed to the patient's death.
    Legal Medicine 12/2013; · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 03/2013; 462(3):369. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bones and teeth would be the only available samples from highly decomposed bodies and several methods are reported for the DNA extractions. TBONE EX KIT was used as a new extraction kit for identification of 7 degraded skeletal remains. More than 23 pg DNA/μl was extracted from all samples. It was efficient for autosomal STR and mtDNA analysis and the results confirmed the alleged relationship between missing person and their relatives in 5 cases. This kit could be a simple, useful and reliable tool for forensic caseworks.
    Forensic Science International Genetics Supplement Series 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: In forensic science, the identification of feces is very important in a variety of crime investigations. However, no sensitive and simple fecal identification method using molecular biological techniques has been reported. Here, we focused on the fecal bacteria, Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and developed a novel fecal identification method by detection of the gene sequences specific to these bacteria in various body (feces, blood, saliva, semen, urine, vaginal fluids and skin surfaces) and forensic (anal adhesions) specimens. Bacterial gene detection was performed by real-time PCR using a minor groove binding probe to amplify the RNA polymerase β-subunit gene of B. uniformis and B. vulgatus, and the α-1-6 mannanase gene of B. thetaiotaomicron. At least one of these bacteria was detected in the feces of 20 donors; the proportions of B. uniformis, B. vulgatus and B. thetaiotaomicron were 95, 85 and 60%, respectively. Bacteroides vulgatus was also detected in one of six vaginal fluid samples, but B. thetaiotaomicron and B. uniformis were not detected in body samples other than feces. Further, we applied this method to forensic specimens from 18 donors. Eighteen anal adhesions also contained at least one of three bacteria; B. uniformis, B. vulgatus and B. thetaiotaomicron were detected in 89, 78 and 56%, respectively, of the specimens. Thus, these bacteria were present at a high frequency in the fecal and forensic specimens, while either B. uniformis or B. vulgatus was detected in all samples. Therefore, B. uniformis and B. vulgatus represent more appropriate target species than B. thetaiotaomicron for the identification of fecal material. If B. vulgatus and/or B. uniformis are detected, it is likely that the sample contains feces. Taken together, our results suggest that the use of molecular biological techniques will aid the detection of feces in forensic practice, although it is possible that the samples contained both feces and vaginal fluid.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics 10/2012; · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that detection of Streptococcus salivarius is feasible for proving the presence of saliva in a forensic sample. Here, a simple and rapid method for the detection of S. salivarius in forensic samples was developed that uses loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The LAMP primer set was designed using S. salivarius-specific sequences of glucosyltransferase K. To simplify the procedure, the sample was prepared by boiling and mutanolysin treatment only, and the entire analytical process was completed within 2.5 h. The cut-off value was set at 0.1 absorbance units, measured at 660 nm, upon termination of the reaction. S. salivarius was identified in all saliva samples, but was not detected in other body fluids or on the skin surface. Using this method, S. salivarius was successfully detected in various mock forensic samples. We therefore suggest that this approach is useful for the identification of saliva in forensic practice.
    Journal of Forensic Sciences 01/2011; 56 Suppl 1:S158-61. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied eight X-STRs (DXS7132, DXS7423, DXS8378, DXS10074, DXS10101, DXS10134, DXS10135, HPRTB) polymorphism in 494 unrelated Japanese individuals (313 males, 181 females) using Mentype Argus X-8 PCR Amplification Kit. PD of the eight X-STRs ranged from 0.558 (male) to 0.987 (female). Allele frequencies, number of alleles, and PIC were 0.001-0.587, 6-20, and 0.470-0.913, respectively.
    Legal Medicine 04/2009; 11 Suppl 1:S451-2. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an extremely rare autopsy case with traumatic dissection of the extracranial vertebral artery due to blunt injury caused by a traffic accident. The patient complained of nausea and numbness of the hands at the scene of the accident. His consciousness deteriorated and he fell into a coma within 12h, then died 4 days after the collision. Brain CT/MRI disclosed massive infratentorial cerebral infarction while MRA imaged neither of the vertebral arteries. Autopsy revealed a seatbelt mark on the right side of the lower neck, with fracture of the right transverse process of the sixth cervical vertebra. The right extracranial vertebral artery (V2) showed massive medial dissection from the portion adjacent to the fracture throughout the upper end of the extracranial part of the artery and was occluded by a thrombus. An intimal tear was confirmed near the starting point of the dissection. The brain disclosed massive infarction of posterior circulation territories with changes to the so-called respirator brain. The victim's left vertebral artery was considerably hypoplastic. We concluded that a massive infratentorial infarction was caused by dissection of the right extracranial vertebral artery and consecutive thrombus formation brought about by impact with the seatbelt at the time of the collision.
    Legal Medicine 04/2009; 11 Suppl 1:S520-2. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We pathologically evaluated coronary artery lesions of left ventricular ruptures during acute myocardial infarctions (148 sudden out-of-hospital death cases; 93 men and 55 women; age range 42-94 years; mean age 68.9 years; 143 atherosclerotic and 5 non-atherosclerotic lesions). Among the 143 hearts with atherosclerotic coronary lesions, three-vessel disease was most frequent, and plaque rupture or erosion and occlusive thrombus were identified in most cases. Ages of the main component of the occlusive thrombus in the culprit coronary artery corresponded histopathologically to those of myocardial infarction. One of the most outstanding features in this pathological study is that acute thrombus in the culprit coronary artery was identified morphologically in most of the cases with advanced myocardial infarction (3 or more days). On the other hand, in cases of fresh myocardial infarction, a preceding mural non-occlusive organizing thrombus was observed mostly underneath the main component of the thrombus. It is suggested that, in most cases, cardiac rupture during acute myocardial infarction occurs at the time of a new ischemic event caused by a new thrombotic coronary lesion.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 01/2009; 205(4):241-7. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have used DNA amplification methods to detect common oral bacterial strains to test for the presence of saliva in forensic samples. Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus mutans were detected in various forms of saliva samples, whereas these streptococci were not detected in semen, urine, vaginal fluid, or on skin surfaces. Therefore, we demonstrated that these streptococci are promising new marker for the forensic identification of saliva. Our data indicated that S. salivarius is more reliable than S. mutans as an indicator of saliva presence, because the detection rates for S. salivarius and S. mutans by this method were 100% and 90%, respectively. Furthermore, S. salivarius was detected in all saliva stain samples, whereas S. mutans was only identified in 60% of the stains. Finally, using this method we were able to successfully detect S. salivarius and S. mutans in mock forensic samples. We therefore suggested that this method is useful for the identification of saliva in forensic science.
    Forensic science international 12/2008; 183(1-3):20-3. · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the histopathologic age of ruptured left ventricular acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 148 out-of-hospital sudden death cases (93 men and 55 women; aged 42-94 years; mean age 68.9 years). Most of the ruptures (90%) occurred within 9 days of infarction, with 27% occurring within 24 h and 26 % occurring at 6-9 days, showing two peaks of incidence. In cases of super-acute myocardial infarction, the cardiac ruptures can not be solely explained by thinning and softening of the infarcted myocardium.
    International journal of cardiology 09/2007; 129(3):447-8. · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allele frequencies and haplotypes for 16 Y-chromosome STR loci, DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, Y GATA H4, and DYS385a/b, were determined in 161 unrelated Japanese males using AmpFlSTR Yfiler PCR Amplification Kit. This population was demonstrated 153 haploytpes, of which 146 were unique, six were found in two individuals, and one was found in three individuals. The haplotypes diversity calculated from the 16 Y-STR loci was 0.9994 and the discrimination capacity was 0.9503.
    Legal Medicine 06/2007; 9(3):161-70. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We pathologically evaluated endocardial tears and rupture tracts of left ventricular ruptures during acute myocardial infarctions (50 sudden out-of-hospital death cases; 28 men and 22 women; age range 42-88 years; mean age 68.4 years). Endocardial tears were frequently seen at or near the base of the papillary muscles (54%) or in the area where the septum meets the free wall (42%). The endocardial tear was longer in the adjacent septum (mean 2.1+/-1.0cm) than at the papillary muscle base (mean 1.0+/-0.8cm). Accessory tears were observed near the main endocardial tear in about half of the cases (44%). The rupture tract was located well within the infarcted area in 88% and at the border of the infarcted and normal myocardium in 12%. Mature fresh thrombus was found on most main endocardial tears. In most rupture tracts, the thrombus was more mature in the subendocardial than in the subepicardial zone. Morphologically, this study confirmed that most cardiac ruptures start with an endocardial tear at or near the base of the papillary muscles or in the area where the septum meets the free wall, and rapidly progress independent of the histopathologic age of the infarction.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 02/2006; 202(12):857-62. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fifteen short tandem repeat (STR) loci D3S1358, TH01, D21S11, D18S51, Penta E, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSF1PO, Penta D, vWA, D8S1179, TPOX and FGA were analyzed in 164 unrelated Japanese using the PowerPlex® 16 System kit. The genotype frequency distribution of each locus did not deviate from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Penta E was the best STR for forensic purpose. The combined power of discrimination (PD) was 0.999999999999999978.
    International Congress Series 01/2004; 1261:204-206.
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    ABSTRACT: Nine short tandem repeat (STR) loci, D3S1358, D5S818, vWA, TH01, D13S317, TPOX, FGA, D7S820 and CSF1PO, were investigated in semen stains of various ages using the AmpFLSTR Profiler Kit. The nine STR loci were typed from semen stains stored for up to 25 years with the application of 1-10 ng DNA. This system provides a useful tool in medicolegal individualization of aged semen stains. During this investigation we found a new variant allele 18.1 at the vWA locus.
    Legal Medicine 07/2003; 5(2):93-6. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Old myocardial infarction (OMI) is one of the most important pathological manifestations in sudden cardiac death. Fatal arrhythmia arising from a fibrotic scar has been determined as the cause of death in most cases with old myocardial infarction. However, the significance of acute plaque disruption/thrombosis of the coronary arteries in those patients has not been investigated. We examined a series of 33 hearts from individuals with OMI who died suddenly during the period from 1998 to 2001. Detailed coronary pathological findings on these hearts indicated fresh or recent rupture of the coronary plaque with thrombosis in 18 cases (55%). As a result of comprehensive analysis, the sudden deaths were explained by acute coronary syndrome in 18 cases (55%), fatal arrhythmia in eight (24%), cardiac pump failure in five (14%), and other causes in two (6%) cases. Our findings revealed that a new coronary plaque rupture independent of the old infarct was a major cause of sudden cardiac death with OMI.
    Legal Medicine 04/2003; 5 Suppl 1:S292-4. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As the pathological features of acute massive pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) remain unclear, early diagnosis is difficult. We examined 14 autopsy cases of sudden death by massive PTE. Eight cases were male and six female, with a mean age of 57+/-18 years. While none of the cases were diagnosed with PTE during their lifetime, 12 cases had predicting factors for thrombosis. Deep vein thrombosis was found at autopsy in 11 cases. Cross sections of each segmental pulmonary artery were dissected for histological examination. The distribution of fresh thrombi and organized thrombi in the pulmonary arteries was investigated. Results revealed that 13 cases contained both fresh and organized thrombi. More detailed examination indicated that as the organized thrombi were spread in all lobes, the distribution of thrombi extended from the proximal to peripheral arteries. Our findings indicated that most cases of fatal PTE had a subclinical recurrent history. Thus, proper diagnosis and treatment of prior emboli may be vital for the prophylaxis of sudden death by PTE.
    Legal Medicine 04/2003; 5 Suppl 1:S315-7. · 1.08 Impact Factor