Ronak Amin

Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, United States

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Publications (4)21.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Unsymmetrical biquinone and trimeric quinone derivatives were synthesized using halotriflate-biselectrophilic naphthoquinones through stepwise regioselective quinone substitution chemistry and evaluated for their ability to inhibit the cytopathogenic effects of HIV-1 using an MTT colorimetric assay. Compounds were also screened for their ability to inhibit the activity of HIV-1 integrase in vitro. Pyranylated trimeric quinones and biquinones exhibited both antiviral activity and integrase inhibitory activity. Conocurvone 1 and trimeric quinone 21 were the most potent HIV integrase inhibitors in the series. All of the biquinones showed HIV inhibitory activity. Simple methoxy substituted biquinones did not inhibit HIV-1 integrase.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 09/2006; 14(16):5651-65. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Indolicidin is a host defense tridecapeptide that inhibits the catalytic activity of HIV-1 integrase in vitro. Here we have elucidated its mechanism of integrase inhibition. Using crosslinking and mass spectrometric footprinting approaches, we found that indolicidin interferes with formation of the catalytic integrase-DNA complex by directly binding DNA. Further characterization revealed that the peptide forms covalent links with abasic sites. Indolicidin crosslinks single- or double-stranded DNAs and various positions of the viral cDNA with comparable efficiency. Using truncated and chemically modified peptides, we show that abasic site crosslinking is independent of the PWWP motif but involves the indolicidin unique lysine residue and the N- and C- terminal NH2 groups. Because indolicidin can also inhibit topoisomerase I, we believe that multiple actions at the level of DNA might be a common property of antimicrobial peptides.
    Nucleic Acids Research 02/2006; 34(18):5157-65. · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Integration is essential for retroviral replication and gene therapy using retroviral vectors. Human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), integrase specifically recognizes the terminal sequences of each long terminal repeat (LTR) and cleaves the 3'-end terminal dinucleotide 5'-GT. The exposed 3'-hydroxyl is then positioned for nucleophilic attack and subsequent strand transfer into another DNA duplex (target or chromosomal DNA). We report that both the terminal cytosine at the protruding 5'-end of the long terminal repeats (5'-C) and the integrase residue Gln-148 are critical for strand transfer. Proximity of the 5'-C and Gln-148 was demonstrated by disulfide cross-linking. Cross-linking is inhibited by the inhibitor 5CITEP 1-(5-chloroindol-3-yl)-3-hydroxy-3-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-propenone. We propose that strand transfer requires a conformational change of the integrase-viral (donor) DNA complex with formation of an H-bond between the N-3 of the 5'-C and the amine group of Gln-148. These findings have implications for the molecular mechanisms coupling 3'-processing and strand transfer as well as for the molecular pharmacology of integrase inhibitors.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2006; 281(1):461-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The viral protein HIV-1 integrase is required for insertion of the viral genome into human chromosomes and for viral replication. Integration proceeds in two consecutive integrase-mediated reactions: 3'-processing and strand transfer. To investigate the DNA minor groove interactions of integrase relative to known sites of integrase action, we synthesized oligodeoxynucleotides containing single covalent adducts of known absolute configuration derived from trans-opening of benzo-[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide by the exocyclic 2-amino group of deoxyguanosine at specific positions in a duplex sequence corresponding to the terminus of the viral U5 DNA. Because the orientations of the hydrocarbon in the minor groove are known from NMR solution structures of duplex oligonucleotides containing these deoxyguanosine adducts, a detailed analysis of the relationship between the position of minor groove ligands and integrase interactions is possible. Adducts placed in the DNA minor groove two or three nucleotides from the 3'-processing site inhibited both 3'-processing and strand transfer. Inosine substitution showed that the guanine 2-amino group is required for efficient 3'-processing at one of these positions and for efficient strand transfer at the other. Mapping of the integration sites on both strands of the DNA substrates indicated that the adducts both inhibit strand transfer specifically at the minor groove bound sites and enhance integration at sites up to six nucleotides away from the adducts. These experiments demonstrate the importance of position-specific minor groove contacts for both the integrase-mediated 3'-processing and strand transfer reactions.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2004; 279(9):7947-55. · 4.65 Impact Factor