[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: African Americans have a disproportionate burden of aggressive young-onset breast cancer. Genomic testing for inherited predisposition to breast cancer is increasingly common in clinical practice, but comprehensive mutation profiles remain unknown for most minority populations. We evaluated 289 patients who self-identified as African American with primary invasive breast cancer and with personal or family cancer history or tumor characteristics associated with high genetic risk for all classes of germline mutations in known breast cancer susceptibility genes using a validated targeted capture and multiplex sequencing approach. Sixty-eight damaging germline mutations were identified in 65 (22 %, 95 % CI 18-28 %) of the 289 subjects. Proportions of patients with unequivocally damaging mutations in a breast cancer gene were 26 % (47/180; 95 % confident interval [CI] 20-33 %) of those with breast cancer diagnosis before age 45; 25 % (26/103; 95 % CI 17-35 %) of those with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC); 29 % (45/156; 95 % CI 22-37 %) of those with a first or second degree relative with breast cancer before age 60 or with ovarian cancer; and 57 % (4/7; 95 % CI 18-90 %) of those with both breast and ovarian cancer. Of patients with mutations, 80 % (52/65) carried mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and 20 % (13/65) carried mutations in PALB2, CHEK2, BARD1, ATM, PTEN, or TP53. The mutational allelic spectrum was highly heterogeneous, with 57 different mutations in 65 patients. Of patients meeting selection criteria other than family history (i.e., with young age at diagnosis or TNBC), 48 % (64/133) had very limited information about the history of cancer in previous generations of their families. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 or another breast cancer gene occur in one in four African American breast cancer patients with early onset disease, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, or TNBC. Each of these criteria defines patients who would benefit from genomic testing and novel therapies targeting DNA repair pathways.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 11/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Essential tremor is one of the most frequent movement disorders of humans and can be associated with substantial disability. Some but not all persons with essential tremor develop signs of Parkinson disease, and the relationship between the conditions has not been clear. In a six-generation consanguineous Turkish kindred with both essential tremor and Parkinson disease, we carried out whole exome sequencing and pedigree analysis, identifying HTRA2 p.G399S as the allele likely responsible for both conditions. Essential tremor was present in persons either heterozygous or homozygous for this allele. Homozygosity was associated with earlier age at onset of tremor (P < 0.0001), more severe postural tremor (P < 0.0001), and more severe kinetic tremor (P = 0.0019). Homozygotes, but not heterozygotes, developed Parkinson signs in the middle age. Among population controls from the same Anatolian region as the family, frequency of HTRA2 p.G399S was 0.0027, slightly lower than other populations. HTRA2 encodes a mitochondrial serine protease. Loss of function of HtrA2 was previously shown to lead to parkinsonian features in motor neuron degeneration (mnd2) mice. HTRA2 p.G399S was previously shown to lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, altered mitochondrial morphology, and decreased protease activity, but epidemiologic studies of an association between HTRA2 and Parkinson disease yielded conflicting results. Our results suggest that in some families, HTRA2 p.G399S is responsible for hereditary essential tremor and that homozygotes for this allele develop Parkinson disease. This hypothesis has implications for understanding the pathogenesis of essential tremor and its relationship to Parkinson disease.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the genetic cause in 2 families of progressive ataxia, axonal neuropathy, hyporeflexia, and abnormal eye movements, accompanied by progressive hearing loss and ovarian dysgenesis, with a clinical diagnosis of Perrault syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate and timely diagnosis of inherited bone marrow failure and inherited myelodysplastic syndromes is essential to guide clinical management. Distinguishing inherited from acquired bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome poses a significant clinical challenge. At present, diagnostic genetic testing for inherited bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome is performed gene-by-gene, guided by clinical and laboratory evaluation. We hypothesized that standard clinically-directed genetic testing misses patients with cryptic or atypical presentations of inherited bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome. In order to screen simultaneously for mutations of all classes in bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome genes, we developed and validated a panel of 85 genes for targeted capture and multiplexed massively-parallel sequencing. In patients with clinical diagnoses of Fanconi anemia, genomic analysis resolved subtype assignment, including those of patients with inconclusive complementation test results. Eight out of 71 patients with idiopathic bone marrow failure or myelodysplastic syndrome were found to harbor damaging germline mutations in GATA2, RUNX1, DKC1, or LIG4. All eight of these patients lacked classical clinical stigmata or laboratory findings of these syndromes and only four had a family history suggestive of inherited disease. These results reflect the extensive genetic heterogeneity and phenotypic complexity of bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome phenotypes. This study supports the integration of broad unbiased genetic screening into the diagnostic workup of children and young adults with bone marrow failure and myelodysplastic syndromes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population of Israel, 11% of breast cancer and 40% of ovarian cancer are due to three inherited founder mutations in the cancer predisposition genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. For carriers of these mutations, risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy significantly reduces morbidity and mortality. Population screening for these mutations among AJ women may be justifiable if accurate estimates of cancer risk for mutation carriers can be obtained. We therefore undertook to determine risks of breast and ovarian cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers ascertained irrespective of personal or family history of cancer. Families harboring mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 were ascertained by identifying mutation carriers among healthy AJ males recruited from health screening centers and outpatient clinics. Female relatives of the carriers were then enrolled and genotyped. Among the female relatives with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, cumulative risk of developing either breast or ovarian cancer by age 60 and 80, respectively, were 0.60 (± 0.07) and 0.83 (± 0.07) for BRCA1 carriers and 0.33 (± 0.09) and 0.76 (± 0.13) for BRCA2 carriers. Risks were higher in recent vs. earlier birth cohorts (P = 0.006). High cancer risks in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers identified through healthy males provide an evidence base for initiating a general screening program in the AJ population. General screening would identify many carriers who are not evaluated by genetic testing based on family history criteria. Such a program could serve as a model to investigate implementation and outcomes of population screening for genetic predisposition to cancer in other populations.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Polyarteritis nodosa is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis with a pathogenesis that is poorly understood. We identified six families with multiple cases of systemic and cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa, consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. In most cases, onset of the disease occurred during childhood. Methods We carried out exome sequencing in persons from multiply affected families of Georgian Jewish or German ancestry. We performed targeted sequencing in additional family members and in unrelated affected persons, 3 of Georgian Jewish ancestry and 14 of Turkish ancestry. Mutations were assessed by testing their effect on enzymatic activity in serum specimens from patients, analysis of protein structure, expression in mammalian cells, and biophysical analysis of purified protein. Results In all the families, vasculitis was caused by recessive mutations in CECR1, the gene encoding adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2). All the Georgian Jewish patients were homozygous for a mutation encoding a Gly47Arg substitution, The German patients were compound heterozygous for Arg169Gln and Pro251Leu mutations, and one Turkish patient was compound heterozygous for Gly47Val and Trp264Ser mutations. In the endogamous Georgian Jewish population, the Gly47Arg carrier frequency was 0.102, which is consistent with the high prevalence of disease. The other mutations either were found in only one family member or patient or were extremely rare. ADA2 activity was significantly reduced in serum specimens from patients. Expression in human embryonic kidney 293T cells revealed low amounts of mutant secreted protein. Conclusions Recessive loss-of-function mutations of ADA2, a growth factor that is the major extracellular adenosine deaminase, can cause polyarteritis nodosa vasculopathy with highly varied clinical expression. (Funded by the Shaare Zedek Medical Center and others.).
New England Journal of Medicine 02/2014; · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hallmarks of germline BRCA1/2-associated ovarian carcinomas include chemosensitivity and improved survival. The therapeutic impact of somatic BRCA1/2 mutations and mutations in other homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair genes is uncertain.
Using targeted capture and massively parallel genomic sequencing, we assessed 390 ovarian carcinomas for germline and somatic loss-of-function mutations in 30 genes, including BRCA1, BRCA2, and 11 other genes in the HR pathway.
31% of ovarian carcinomas had a deleterious germline (24%) and/or somatic (9%) mutation in one or more of the 13 HR genes: BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, BARD1, BRIP1, CHEK1, CHEK2, FAM175A, MRE11A, NBN, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D. Non-serous ovarian carcinomas had similar rates of HR mutations to serous carcinomas (28% vs. 31%, p=0.6), including clear cell, endometrioid, and carcinosarcoma. The presence of germline and somatic HR mutations was highly predictive of primary platinum sensitivity (p=0.0002) and improved overall survival (p=0.0006), with median overall survival 66 months in germline HR mutation carriers, 59 months in cases with a somatic HR mutation, and 41 months for cases without an HR mutation.
Germline or somatic mutations in HR genes are present in almost one-third of ovarian carcinomas, including both serous and non-serous histologies. Somatic BRCA1/2 mutations and mutations in other HR genes have a similar positive impact on overall survival and platinum responsiveness as germline BRCA1/2 mutations. The similar rate of HR mutations in non-serous carcinomas supports their inclusion in PARP inhibitor clinical trials.
Clinical Cancer Research 11/2013; · 8.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent years have seen development and implementation of anticancer therapies targeted to particular gene mutations, but methods to assay clinical cancer specimens in a comprehensive way for the critical mutations remain underdeveloped. We have developed UW-OncoPlex, a clinical molecular diagnostic assay to provide simultaneous deep-sequencing information, based on >500× average coverage, for all classes of mutations in 194 clinically relevant genes. To validate UW-OncoPlex, we tested 98 previously characterized clinical tumor specimens from 10 different cancer types, including 41 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Mixing studies indicated reliable mutation detection in samples with ≥10% tumor cells. In clinical samples with ≥10% tumor cells, UW-OncoPlex correctly identified 129 of 130 known mutations [sensitivity 99.2%, (95% CI, 95.8%-99.9%)], including single nucleotide variants, small insertions and deletions, internal tandem duplications, gene copy number gains and amplifications, gene copy losses, chromosomal gains and losses, and actionable genomic rearrangements, including ALK-EML4, ROS1, PML-RARA, and BCR-ABL. In the same samples, the assay also identified actionable point mutations in genes not previously analyzed and novel gene rearrangements of MLL and GRIK4 in melanoma, and of ASXL1, PIK3R1, and SGCZ in acute myeloid leukemia. To best guide existing and emerging treatment regimens and facilitate integration of genomic testing with patient care, we developed a framework for data analysis, decision support, and reporting clinically actionable results.
The Journal of molecular diagnostics: JMD 11/2013; · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chimeric genes can be caused by structural genomic rearrangements that fuse together portions of two different genes to create a novel gene. We hypothesize that brain-expressed chimeras may contribute to schizophrenia. Individuals with schizophrenia and control individuals were screened genome wide for copy-number variants (CNVs) that disrupted two genes on the same DNA strand. Candidate events were filtered for predicted brain expression and for frequency < 0.001 in an independent series of 20,000 controls. Four of 124 affected individuals and zero of 290 control individuals harbored such events (p = 0.002); a 47 kb duplication disrupted MATK and ZFR2, a 58 kb duplication disrupted PLEKHD1 and SLC39A9, a 121 kb duplication disrupted DNAJA2 and NETO2, and a 150 kb deletion disrupted MAP3K3 and DDX42. Each fusion produced a stable protein when exogenously expressed in cultured cells. We examined whether these chimeras differed from their parent genes in localization, regulation, or function. Subcellular localizations of DNAJA2-NETO2 and MAP3K3-DDX42 differed from their parent genes. On the basis of the expression profile of the MATK promoter, MATK-ZFR2 is likely to be far more highly expressed in the brain during development than the ZFR2 parent gene. MATK-ZFR2 includes a ZFR2-derived isoform that we demonstrate localizes preferentially to neuronal dendritic branch sites. These results suggest that the formation of chimeric genes is a mechanism by which CNVs contribute to schizophrenia and that, by interfering with parent gene function, chimeras may disrupt critical brain processes, including neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, and dendritic arborization.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 10/2013; 93(4):697-710. · 11.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genes disrupted in schizophrenia may be revealed by de novo mutations in affected persons from otherwise healthy families. Furthermore, during normal brain development, genes are expressed in patterns specific to developmental stage and neuroanatomical structure. We identified de novo mutations in persons with schizophrenia and then mapped the responsible genes onto transcriptome profiles of normal human brain tissues from age 13 weeks gestation to adulthood. In the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during fetal development, genes harboring damaging de novo mutations in schizophrenia formed a network significantly enriched for transcriptional coexpression and protein interaction. The 50 genes in the network function in neuronal migration, synaptic transmission, signaling, transcriptional regulation, and transport. These results suggest that disruptions of fetal prefrontal cortical neurogenesis are critical to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. These results also support the feasibility of integrating genomic and transcriptome analyses to map critical neurodevelopmental processes in time and space in the brain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genetic causes of premature ovarian failure (POF) are highly heterogeneous, and causative mutations have been identified in more than ten genes so far. In two families affected by POF accompanied by hearing loss (together, these symptoms compose Perrault syndrome), exome sequencing revealed mutations in LARS2, encoding mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase: homozygous c.1565C>A (p.Thr522Asn) in a consanguineous Palestinian family and compound heterozygous c.1077delT and c.1886C>T (p.Thr629Met) in a nonconsanguineous Slovenian family. LARS2 c.1077delT leads to a frameshift at codon 360 of the 901 residue protein. LARS2 p.Thr522Asn occurs in the LARS2 catalytic domain at a site conserved from bacteria through mammals. LARS2 p.Thr629Met occurs in the LARS2 leucine-specific domain, which is adjacent to a catalytic loop critical in all species but for which primary sequence is not well conserved. A recently developed method of detecting remote homologies revealed threonine at this site in consensus sequences derived from multiple-species alignments seeded by human and E. coli residues at this region. Yeast complementation indicated that LARS2 c.1077delT is nonfunctional and that LARS2 p.Thr522Asn is partially functional. LARS2 p.Thr629Met was functional in this assay but might be insufficient as a heterozygote with the fully nonfunctional LARS2 c.1077delT allele. A known C. elegans strain with the protein-truncating alteration LARS-2 p.Trp247Ter was confirmed to be sterile. After HARS2, LARS2 is the second gene encoding mitochondrial tRNA synthetase to be found to harbor mutations leading to Perrault syndrome, further supporting a critical role for mitochondria in the maintenance of ovarian function and hearing.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 03/2013; · 11.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perrault syndrome is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous autosomal-recessive condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and ovarian failure. By a combination of linkage analysis, homozygosity mapping, and exome sequencing in three families, we identified mutations in CLPP as the likely cause of this phenotype. In each family, affected individuals were homozygous for a different pathogenic CLPP allele: c.433A>C (p.Thr145Pro), c.440G>C (p.Cys147Ser), or an experimentally demonstrated splice-donor-site mutation, c.270+4A>G. CLPP, a component of a mitochondrial ATP-dependent proteolytic complex, is a highly conserved endopeptidase encoded by CLPP and forms an element of the evolutionarily ancient mitochondrial unfolded-protein response (UPR(mt)) stress signaling pathway. Crystal-structure modeling suggests that both substitutions would alter the structure of the CLPP barrel chamber that captures unfolded proteins and exposes them to proteolysis. Together with the previous identification of mutations in HARS2, encoding mitochondrial histidyl-tRNA synthetase, mutations in CLPP expose dysfunction of mitochondrial protein homeostasis as a cause of Perrault syndrome.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 03/2013; · 11.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GOALS: Few studies have comprehensively tested all ovarian cancer patients for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations. We sought to determine if clinically identified mutation carriers differed in clinical characteristics and outcomes from mutation carriers not identified during routine clinical care. METHODS: We included women with ovarian, tubal or peritoneal carcinoma. BROCA, an assay using targeted capture and massively parallel sequencing was used to identify mutations in BRCA1/2 and 19 other tumor suppressor genes. We identified subjects with BRCA1/2 mutations using BROCA that had not previously received standard genetic testing (BROCA, n = 37) and compared them to subjects with BRCA1/2 mutations identified during routine clinical care (known, n = 70), and to those wildtype for 21 genes using BROCA (wildtype, n = 291). RESULTS: BROCA mutation carriers were older than known carriers, median age of 58 (range 41 - 77), vs. 51 (range 33-76, p=0.003, Mann-Whitney). 58/70 (82.9%) of known carriers had a strong family history, compared with 15/37 (40.5%) of BROCA carriers, p<0.0001, (Fisher's Exact). Median overall survival was significantly worse for BROCA mutation carriers compared to known mutation carriers, (45 vs. 93 months, p < 0.0001, HR 3.47 (1.79 - 6.72), Log-rank test). The improved survival for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (known and BROCA) compared with wildtype cases (69 vs. 44 months, p=0.0001, HR 0.58 (0.43 - 0.77), Log-rank test) was driven by known mutation carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, absence of a strong family history, and poor survival are all associated with decreased clinical identification of inherited BRCA1/2 mutations in women with ovarian cancer. Using age and family history to direct genetic testing will miss a significant percentage of mutation carriers. Testing should be initiated at the time of diagnosis to maximize identification of mutations and minimize survival bias.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer) and adenomatous polyposis syndromes frequently have overlapping clinical features. Current approaches for molecular genetic testing are often stepwise, taking a best-candidate gene approach with testing of additional genes if initial results are negative. We report a comprehensive assay called ColoSeq that detects all classes of mutations in Lynch and polyposis syndrome genes using targeted capture and massively parallel next-generation sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq2000 instrument. In blinded specimens and colon cancer cell lines with defined mutations, ColoSeq correctly identified 28/28 (100%) pathogenic mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, EPCAM, APC, and MUTYH, including single nucleotide variants (SNVs), small insertions and deletions, and large copy number variants. There was 100% reproducibility of detection mutation between independent runs. The assay correctly identified 222 of 224 heterozygous SNVs (99.4%) in HapMap samples, demonstrating high sensitivity of calling all variants across each captured gene. Average coverage was greater than 320 reads per base pair when the maximum of 96 index samples with barcodes were pooled. In a specificity study of 19 control patients without cancer from different ethnic backgrounds, we did not find any pathogenic mutations but detected two variants of uncertain significance. ColoSeq offers a powerful, cost-effective means of genetic testing for Lynch and polyposis syndromes that eliminates the need for stepwise testing and multiple follow-up clinical visits.
The Journal of molecular diagnostics: JMD 05/2012; 14(4):357-66. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pentosuria is one of four conditions hypothesized by Archibald Garrod in 1908 to be inborn errors of metabolism. Mutations responsible for the other three conditions (albinism, alkaptonuria, and cystinuria) have been identified, but the mutations responsible for pentosuria remained unknown. Pentosuria, which affects almost exclusively individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, is characterized by high levels of the pentose sugar L-xylulose in blood and urine and deficiency of the enzyme L-xylulose reductase. The condition is autosomal-recessive and completely clinically benign, but in the early and mid-20th century attracted attention because it was often confused with diabetes mellitus and inappropriately treated with insulin. Persons with pentosuria were identified from records of Margaret Lasker, who studied the condition in the 1930s to 1960s. In the DCXR gene encoding L-xylulose reductase, we identified two mutations, DCXR c.583ΔC and DCXR c.52(+1)G > A, each predicted to lead to loss of enzyme activity. Of nine unrelated living pentosuric subjects, six were homozygous for DCXR c.583ΔC, one was homozygous for DCXR c.52(+1)G > A, and two were compound heterozygous for the two mutant alleles. L-xylulose reductase was not detectable in protein lysates from subjects' cells and high levels of xylulose were detected in their sera, confirming the relationship between the DCXR genotypes and the pentosuric phenotype. The combined frequency of the two mutant DCXR alleles in 1,067 Ashkenazi Jewish controls was 0.0173, suggesting a pentosuria frequency of approximately one in 3,300 in this population. Haplotype analysis indicated that the DCXR c.52(+1)G > A mutation arose more recently than the DCXR c.583ΔC mutation.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2011; 108(45):18313-7. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inherited loss-of-function mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and other tumor suppressor genes predispose to ovarian carcinomas, but the overall burden of disease due to inherited mutations is not known. Using targeted capture and massively parallel genomic sequencing, we screened for germ-line mutations in 21 tumor suppressor genes in genomic DNA from women with primary ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma. Subjects were consecutively enrolled at diagnosis and not selected for age or family history. All classes of mutations, including point mutations and large genomic deletions and insertions, were detected. Of 360 subjects, 24% carried germ-line loss-of-function mutations: 18% in BRCA1 or BRCA2 and 6% in BARD1, BRIP1, CHEK2, MRE11A, MSH6, NBN, PALB2, RAD50, RAD51C, or TP53. Six of these genes were not previously implicated in inherited ovarian carcinoma. Primary carcinomas were generally characterized by genomic loss of normal alleles of the mutant genes. Of women with inherited mutations, >30% had no family history of breast or ovarian carcinoma, and >35% were 60 y or older at diagnosis. More patients with ovarian carcinoma carry cancer-predisposing mutations and in more genes than previously appreciated. Comprehensive genetic testing for inherited carcinoma is warranted for all women with ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma, regardless of age or family history. Clinical genetic testing is currently done gene by gene, with each test costing thousands of dollars. In contrast, massively parallel sequencing allows such testing for many genes simultaneously at low cost.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2011; 108(44):18032-7. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of genes responsible for medically important traits is a major challenge in human genetics. Due to the genetic heterogeneity of hearing loss, targeted DNA capture and massively parallel sequencing are ideal tools to address this challenge. Our subjects for genome analysis are Israeli Jewish and Palestinian Arab families with hearing loss that varies in mode of inheritance and severity.
A custom 1.46 MB design of cRNA oligonucleotides was constructed containing 246 genes responsible for either human or mouse deafness. Paired-end libraries were prepared from 11 probands and bar-coded multiplexed samples were sequenced to high depth of coverage. Rare single base pair and indel variants were identified by filtering sequence reads against polymorphisms in dbSNP132 and the 1000 Genomes Project. We identified deleterious mutations in CDH23, MYO15A, TECTA, TMC1, and WFS1. Critical mutations of the probands co-segregated with hearing loss. Screening of additional families in a relevant population was performed. TMC1 p.S647P proved to be a founder allele, contributing to 34% of genetic hearing loss in the Moroccan Jewish population.
Critical mutations were identified in 6 of the 11 original probands and their families, leading to the identification of causative alleles in 20 additional probands and their families. The integration of genomic analysis into early clinical diagnosis of hearing loss will enable prediction of related phenotypes and enhance rehabilitation. Characterization of the proteins encoded by these genes will enable an understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in hearing loss.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perrault syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by ovarian dysgenesis and sensorineural hearing loss. In a nonconsanguineous family with five affected siblings, linkage analysis and genomic sequencing revealed the genetic basis of Perrault syndrome to be compound heterozygosity for mutations in the mitochondrial histidyl tRNA synthetase HARS2 at two highly conserved amino acids, L200V and V368L. The nucleotide substitution creating HARS2 p.L200V also created an alternate splice leading to deletion of 12 codons from the HARS2 message. Affected family members thus carried three mutant HARS2 transcripts. Aminoacylation activity of HARS2 p.V368L and HARS2 p.L200V was reduced and the deletion mutant was not stably expressed in mammalian mitochondria. In yeast, lethality of deletion of the single essential histydyl tRNA synthetase HTS1 was fully rescued by wild-type HTS1 and by HTS1 p.L198V (orthologous to HARS2 p.L200V), partially rescued by HTS1 p.V381L (orthologous to HARS2 p.V368L), and not rescued by the deletion mutant. In Caenorhabditis elegans, reduced expression by RNAi of the single essential histydyl tRNA synthetase hars-1 severely compromised fertility. Together, these data suggest that Perrault syndrome in this family was caused by reduction of HARS2 activity. These results implicate aberrations of mitochondrial translation in mammalian gonadal dysgenesis. More generally, the relationship between HARS2 and Perrault syndrome illustrates how causality may be demonstrated for extremely rare inherited mutations in essential, highly conserved genes.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2011; 108(16):6543-8. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inherited mutations in the BRCA2-interacting protein PALB2 are known to be associated with increased risks of developing breast cancer. To evaluate the contribution of PALB2 to familial breast cancer in the United States, we sequenced the coding sequences and flanking regulatory regions of the gene from constitutional genomic DNA of 1,144 familial breast cancer patients with wild-type sequences at BRCA1 and BRCA2. Overall, 3.4% (33/972) of patients not selected by ancestry and 0% (0/172) of patients specifically of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry were heterozygous for a nonsense, frameshift, or frameshift-associated splice mutation in PALB2. Mutations were detected in both male and female breast cancer patients. All mutations were individually rare: the 33 heterozygotes harbored 13 different mutations, 5 previously reported and 8 novel mutations. PALB2 heterozygotes were 4-fold more likely to have a male relative with breast cancer (P = 0.0003), 6-fold more likely to have a relative with pancreatic cancer (P = 0.002), and 1.3-fold more likely to have a relative with ovarian cancer (P = 0.18). Compared with their female relatives without mutations, increased risk of developing breast cancer for female PALB2 heterozygotes was 2.3-fold (95% CI: 1.5-4.2) by age 55 and 3.4-fold (95% CI: 2.4-5.9) by age 85. Loss of the wild-type PALB2 allele was observed in laser-dissected tumor specimens from heterozygous patients. Given this mutation prevalence and risk, consideration might be given to clinical testing of PALB2 by complete genomic sequencing for familial breast cancer patients with wild-type sequences at BRCA1 and BRCA2.
Cancer Research 02/2011; 71(6):2222-9. · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microinvasive carcinomas and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasms are commonly discovered within the fallopian tube of BRCA1 mutation carriers at the time of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, suggesting that many BRCA1-mutated ovarian carcinomas originate in tubal epithelium. We hypothesized that changes in gene expression profiles within the histologically normal fallopian tube epithelium of BRCA1 mutation carriers would overlap with the expression profiles in BRCA1-mutated ovarian carcinomas and represent a BRCA1 preneoplastic signature. Laser capture microdissection of frozen sections was used to isolate neoplastic cells or histologically normal fallopian tube epithelium, and expression profiles were generated on Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 gene expression arrays. Normal-risk controls were 11 women wild type for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (WT-FT). WT-FT were compared with histologically normal fallopian tube epithelium from seven women with deleterious BRCA1 mutations who had foci of at least intraepithelial neoplasm within their fallopian tube (B1-FTocc). WT-FT samples were also compared with 12 BRCA1 ovarian carcinomas (B1-CA). The comparison of WT-FT versus B1-FTocc resulted in 152 differentially expressed probe sets, and the comparison of WT-FT versus B1-CA resulted in 4079 differentially expressed probe sets. The BRCA1 preneoplastic signature was composed of the overlap between these two lists, which included 41 concordant probe sets. Genes in the BRCA1 preneoplastic signature included several known tumor suppressor genes such as CDKN1C and EFEMP1 and several thought to be important in invasion and metastasis such as E2F3. The expression of a subset of genes was validated with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry.
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 12/2010; 12(12):993-1002. · 5.40 Impact Factor