Hiroshi Aikawa

Fukuoka University, Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan

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Publications (51)55.2 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stent-assisted coil embolization is effective for intracranial aneurysms, especially for wide-necked aneurysms; however, the optimal antiplatelet regimens for postoperative ischemic events have not yet been established. We aimed at determining the efficacy and safety of a triple antiplatelet therapy regimen after intracranial stent-assisted coil embolization. We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent stent-assisted coil embolization for unruptured intracranial aneurysms or during the chronic phase of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm (≥4 weeks after subarachnoid hemorrhage onset). We recorded the incidence of ischemic and bleeding events 140 days postoperatively. We assessed 79 cases in patients who received either dual (n = 51) or triple (n = 28) antiplatelet therapy. The duration of triple antiplatelet therapy was 49 ± 29 days. Seven patients in the dual group experienced postoperative ischemic events. Compared to the dual group, the triple group had a similar incidence of postoperative bleeding events but a significantly lower incidence of postoperative ischemic events (P < .05). Triple antiplatelet therapy had a significantly lower incidence of postoperative ischemic events and a similar incidence of postoperative bleeding events 140 days postoperatively. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 04/2015; 24(7). DOI:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2015.03.010 · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • Ayumu Eto · Kanji Nakai · Hiroshi Aikawa · Minoru Iko · Kouhei Nii · Kiyoshi Kazekawa ·
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    ABSTRACT: Recent sporadic reports have described successful endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms associated with fenestration. We experienced an unruptured cerebral aneurysm case, with fenestration of the horizontal portion of the anterior cerebral artery that was successfully treated with coil embolization using an intracranial stent. An 80-year-old man presented with a chief complaint of gait disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an incidental unruptured aneurysm. Three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography revealed a cerebral aneurysm associated with fenestration of the horizontal portion of the anterior cerebral artery. Endovascular surgery was performed at the patient's request. Conservation of the fenestrated vessels and perforators is important in the treatment of cerebral aneurysm associated with fenestration. Intracranial stents are reportedly useful for conserving not only parent vessels but also their perforators. In the present case, no postoperative perforator damage occurred. An endovascular approach is a potential treatment option with full evaluation of the relationship between the aneurysm and fenestrated vessels.
    No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery 01/2015; 43(1):75-8. DOI:10.11477/mf.1436202951 · 0.13 Impact Factor

  • 01/2015; DOI:10.5797/jnet.jnet.cr.2015-0009
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the incidence of embolic protection device retrieval difficulties at carotid artery stenting (CAS) with a closed-cell stent and demonstrated the usefulness of a manual carotid compression assist technique. Between July 2010 and October 2013, we performed 156 CAS procedures using self-expandable closed-cell stents. All procedures were performed with the aid of a filter design embolic protection device. We used FilterWire EZ in 118 procedures and SpiderFX in 38 procedures. The embolic protection device was usually retrieved by the accessory retrieval sheath after CAS. We applied a manual carotid compression technique when it was difficult to navigate the retrieval sheath through the deployed stent. We compared clinical outcomes in patients where simple retrieval was possible with patients where the manual carotid compression assisted technique was used for retrieval. Among the 156 CAS procedures, we encountered 12 (7.7%) where embolic protection device retrieval was hampered at the proximal stent terminus. Our manual carotid compression technique overcame this difficulty without eliciting neurologic events, artery dissection, or stent deformity. In patients undergoing closed-cell stent placement, embolic protection device retrieval difficulties may be encountered at the proximal stent terminus. Manual carotid compression assisted retrieval is an easy, readily available solution to overcome these difficulties. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 11/2014; 24(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2014.08.022 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: No predictor of postoperative ischemic events has been identified in patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS). We aimed to determine whether N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) in debris trapped by an embolic protection filter device is a predictor of postoperative ischemic events. Methods: We enrolled 27 patients (73.4 ± 7.2 years; 22 male, 5 female) who underwent CAS for carotid artery stenosis. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before and after the procedure. Protein samples were extracted from the debris. CML and myeloperoxidase were examined by solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis. Results: Seventeen patients had 0 or 1 new lesion (nonmultiple lesions) postoperatively, whereas 10 patients had 2 or more new lesions postoperatively (multiple lesions). The CML concentration of the protein sample was significantly higher in patients with multiple lesions than in those with nonmultiple lesions (6.26 ± 2.77 ng/mg protein and 3.36 ± 1.57 ng/mg protein, respectively; P = .010). Statin therapy for dyslipidemia was associated with a lower incidence of multiple lesions and a lower concentration of CML in the protein sample (P = .004 and P = .02, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve for CML was significantly greater than .5 (.877; 95% confidence interval, .742-1.00). Conclusions: CML derived from debris may distinguish between patients with postoperative multiple ischemic lesions and those with postoperative nonmultiple lesions who undergo CAS.
    Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 10/2014; 23(10). DOI:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2014.07.002 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preventing cerebral embolism from debris produced during carotid artery stenting (CAS) is important. This study compared the treatment outcomes of CAS using two types of filter-based embolic protection devices currently in use in Japan. We assessed 121 consecutive cases of CAS performed with FilterWire EZ™ between July 2010 and November 2012 and 37 consecutive cases of CAS performed with the Spider FX™ between November 2012 and June 2013. A Carotid Wallstent™ was used in all cases. The incidence of positive lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and stroke were compared between the groups. Postoperative DWI-positive lesions were observed in 38 (31.4%) and 14 (37.8%) patients in the FilterWire and Spider groups, respectively. In the FilterWire group, complications were transient ischemic attacks in 3 (2.5%) patients, cerebral infarction in 2 (1.7%) patients (1 patient each with minor and major stroke), and cerebral hemorrhage due to hyperperfusion syndrome in 1 (0.8%) patient. In the Spider group, except for cerebral infarction (minor stroke) in 1 (2.7%) patient, no complications were observed. No significant differences were observed in the incidence of complications between the groups. FilterWire EZ and Spider FX are comparable in terms of treatment outcome.
    SpringerPlus 03/2014; 3(1):132. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-3-132

  • Surgery for Cerebral Stroke 01/2014; 42(2):81-88. DOI:10.2335/scs.42.81
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    ABSTRACT: Stent-assisted coil embolization is effective for intracranial aneurysms, especially wide-necked aneurysms; however, the optimal antiplatelet regimens for ischemic events that develop after coil embolization have not yet been established. We aimed to determine the onset time of such postoperative ischemic events and the relationship between these events and antiplatelet therapy. We performed coil embolization using a vascular reconstruction stent for 43 cases of intracranial aneurysms and evaluated the incidence of postoperative ischemic events in these cases. Nine patients showed postoperative ischemic events during the follow-up period (13 ± 7 months). Two patients developed cerebral infarction within 24 hours. Five patients developed transient ischemic attack within 40 days while they were receiving dual antiplatelet therapy. In addition, 1 patient showed cerebral infarction 143 days postoperatively during single antiplatelet therapy, and a case of transient visual disturbance was reported 191 days postoperatively (49 days after antiplatelet therapy had been discontinued). We increased the number of antiplatelet agents in 4 of these patients. The other 5 patients were under strict observation with dual antiplatelet therapy. All these patients were shifted to single antiplatelet therapy 3-13 months postoperatively. No recurrence of ischemic events was noted. Postoperative ischemic events are most likely to occur within 40 days postoperatively. For patients with postoperative ischemic events, additional ischemic events can be prevented by increasing the number of antiplatelet agents; subsequently, they can be shifted to single antiplatelet therapy after the risk of recurrence has decreased.
    Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 08/2013; 23(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2013.07.008 · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • Y Matsumoto · K Nakai · M Tsutsumi · M Iko · H Oishi · H Eto · T Mizokami · K Nii · H Aikawa · K Kazekawa ·
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    ABSTRACT: The pull-through angioplasty technique allows stable wire tension and stabilization of the device during the procedure. In this technique, a guide wire is passed from one sheath to another, usually with the aid of a snare device. We describe the treatment of occlusive subclavian artery disease and lesion at the origin of the vertebral artery employing a brachiofemoral pull-through technique without using a snare device. In this technique, the guide wire is advanced from the femoral artery to the brachial artery. The guide wire is directly inserted into the sheath placed at the brachial artery. The brachial artery is compressed proximal to the point of sheath insertion to prevent bleeding. The sheath is extracted temporally and the guide wire is caught outside of the body. The sheath is then introduced again through the guide wire. We used the pull-through technique without a snare device in seven cases, and we were able to build the pull-through system in six of these cases without a snare device. This pull-through technique without a snare device is not difficult to use, and may reduce the time and cost of angioplasty procedures.
    Interventional Neuroradiology 06/2013; 19(2):167-72. · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rise in the incidence of tuberculosis is generally related to human immunodeficiency virus infection. However, intracranial tuberculoma, a complication of tuberculosis considered to be a critical disease, can develop even in the absence of immunosuppressive state. Here, we describe 2 cases of intracranial tuberculoma occurring in patients with no evidence of immunosuppressive state or past history of tuberculosis. In Case 1, lesions were observed in the right lateral ventricle, with histological examination revealing granulomatous lesions. In Case 2, scattered lesions were observed in the cranium and the lung fields. In both cases, the QuantiFERON Test (QFT) was positive, and improvements were observed in the symptoms following administration of antituberculous drugs. Intracranial tuberculoma cannot be considered rare, and needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of intracranial lesions. Diagnosis can be tricky since this disease can develop in a patient in a non-immunosuppressive state or without a past history of tuberculosis. The QFT is an effective test to enable the diagnosis of tuberculomas in atypical patients.
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica 04/2013; 53(4):259-62. DOI:10.2176/nmc.53.259 · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical effects of two different types of antiplatelet drugs, cilostazol and thienopyridine drugs, were compared in patients treated by carotid artery stenting (CAS). Two hundred patients scheduled for CAS were randomized to either cilostazol or a thienopyridine drug (ticlopidine or clopidogrel). The study was conducted in open-label design. Aspirin was also given to all patients. All episodes of periprocedural hemodynamic instability (bradycardia, hypotension) were recorded together with all instances of stroke, cardiac morbidity, and death within 30 days of the procedure. Angiographic follow-up studies were conducted about 6 months after CAS. Finally, 197 patients were enrolled in this study; 97 were treated with cilostazol (cilostazol group) and 100 with a thienopyridine drug (thienopyridine group). In the 30-day follow-up period, the incidence of stroke, cardiac adverse effects, and death was not significantly different between the 2 groups (cilostazol group 7.2%, thienopyridine group 11.0%; p = 0.85). The incidence of intra- and postprocedural bradycardia was significantly lower in the cilostazol group (cilostazol group 18.6% and 2.1%, thienopyridine group 40.0% and 18.0%, respectively; p < 0.01). Although the incidence of intraprocedural hypotension did not significantly differ between the 2 groups, postprocedural hypotension was significantly lower in the cilostazol group (16.5% vs. 34.0%, p < 0.01). In-stent restenosis on follow-up angiograms was lower in the cilostazol group but not significantly (0% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.12). This small open-label study shows that cilostazol may reduce periprocedural bradycardia and hypotension compared with thienopyridine drugs in patients treated by CAS.
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica 03/2013; 53(3):163-70. DOI:10.2176/nmc.53.163 · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) porous material (GORE(®) PRECLUDE(®) Dura Substitute) does not degenerate or deteriorate in vivo, and is currently used as artificial dura mater. This material does not adhere well to the surrounding tissues, but cerebrospinal fluid leakage along the suture line has been observed in several cases. We describe a case of craniotomy for tumor resection performed 14 years after dural repair with ePTFE sheet. Histological examination of the ePTFE sheet revealed that the sheet was structurally intact, with no evidence of tissue adhesion or cellular infiltration. However, collagen deposition was observed around the suture thread. When the suture thread was removed the collagen was also removed, and the original needle hole appeared again. No significant changes were observed in the features of the ePTFE sheet even 14 years postoperatively. The formation of fibrous tissue around the needle hole was important in preventing cerebrospinal fluid leakage.
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica 01/2013; 53(1):43-6. DOI:10.2176/nmc.53.43 · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: This retrospective study aimed to compare the effectiveness of the embolization prevention mechanism of two types of embolic protection device (EPD)-a distal protection balloon (DPB) and a distal protection filter (DPF). Methods: Subjects were 164 patients scheduled to undergo carotid artery stenting: a DPB was used in 82 cases (DPB group) from April 2007 until June 2010, and a DPF was used in 82 cases (DPF group) from July 2010 to July 2011. Rates of positive findings on postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and stroke incidence were compared. Results: Positive postoperative DWI results were found in 34 cases in the DPB group (41.4 %), but in only 22 cases in the DPF group (26.8 %), and there was only a small significant difference within the DPF group. In the DPB group, there was one case of transient ischemic attack (TIA) (1.2 %) and four cases of brain infarction (2 minor strokes, 2 major strokes; 4.9 %), compared to the DFP group with one case of TIA (1.2 %) and no cases of minor or major strokes. Conclusions: In this study, significantly lower rates of occurrence of DWI ischemic lesions and intraoperative embolization were associated with use of the DPF compared to the DPB.
    Japanese journal of radiology 11/2012; 31(1). DOI:10.1007/s11604-012-0145-9 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS) is a rare but severe complication after carotid artery stenting (CAS). Reliable methods for predicting HPS remain to be developed. We aimed to establish a predictive value of hemorrhagic HPS after CAS. Our retrospective study included 136 consecutive patients who had undergone CAS. We determined the cerebral circulation time (CCT) by measuring the interval between the point of maximal opacification of the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and the cortical vein. We calculated intraprocedural CCT changes (ΔCCT) by subtracting postprocedural CCT values from preprocedural CCT values. The mean ΔCCT was 0.9 ± 0.9 seconds; 3 patients (2.2%) with prolonged ΔCCT (2.7, 5.4, and 5.8 seconds) developed HPS. The cutoff time of 2.7 seconds predicted hemorrhagic HPS retrospectively with 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity. Our findings suggest that post-CAS HPS can be predicted by using the ΔCCT value obtained by intraprocedural digital subtraction angiography. Patients with a ΔCCT >2.7 seconds require careful intensive hemodynamic and neurologic monitoring after CAS.
    Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 12/2011; 22(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2011.10.015 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selection of the appropriate diameter of stent is difficult in patients with the size mismatch between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the common carotid artery (CCA). Although stent overexpansion (SOE) in the ICA after carotid artery stenting (CAS) is suspected of producing restenosis, SOE has not been well established. We discuss its incidence, predictors, and outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed follow-up angiographs of 206 CAS-treated arteries in 201 patients who had undergone CAS. SOE was defined as angiographic evidence of an intimal gap between the non-stented normal and the dilated stented ICA at the distal stent edge. We also collected data on the patients' clinical status, comorbidities, and radiological and procedural data. Patients with SOE were further followed up closely by duplex ultrasound scans. SOE was detected in nine of 206 CAS-treated ICAs (4.4%). Univariate analysis revealed a significant association between SOE and open-cell stents, the stent diameter (p < 0.01), pre-procedural stenosis, the ICA diameter, ICA/CCA ratio, and the ICA/stent ratio (p < 0.05). Entering these variables into a logistic regression model, open-cell stents were the only variable that significantly increased the risk for SOE (OR 2.36; 95% CI 0.99-4.60; p < 0.05). During a mean clinical follow-up of 31.1 months (range 24-39 months), none of the patients with SOE developed new neurologic ischemic symptoms, stent-edge stenosis, or in-stent restenosis. SOE after CAS was not associated with clinical adverse effects. This study suggests that the diameter of stent should be determined by reference to the CCA diameter without respect to the ICA diameter.
    Neuroradiology 07/2011; 54(5):481-6. DOI:10.1007/s00234-011-0902-y · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The difference between coil-embolized ruptured and unruptured aneurysms with respect to intra-aneurysmal thrombus formation remains to be determined. We examined whether there was a difference between ruptured and unruptured coil-embolized aneurysms in the rate and timing of thrombus formation in the aneurysmal sac and discuss the effect of thrombus on the treatment outcome. We evaluated 209 aneurysms with an aneurysmal dome smaller than 10 mm and a neck size less than 4 mm. Of these, 91 (43.5%) were ruptured. We assessed intra-aneurysmal thrombus formation by the coil-packing ratio (CPR): the percentage of coil volume occupying the aneurysmal sac. The initial CPR was defined as the CPR at which contrast influx into the sac ceased and the final CPR as that at the end of the procedure. ΔCPR was calculated as the difference between initial and final CPRs. Embolized aneurysms were evaluated on follow-up angiograms. The initial CPR was significantly lower in ruptured aneurysms (P < .01), and there was not a significant difference in the final CPR between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms (P = .05). ΔCPR was significantly higher in ruptured aneurysms (P < .01). The rate of aneurysmal recanalization was significantly higher in ruptured aneurysms (P < .05). The incidence of recanalization was high in ruptured aneurysms with low initial CPR and ΔCPR values. In ruptured aneurysms, intra-aneurysmal thrombus formation tends to occur in the earlier stages of coil embolization. In some cases, thrombus formation may inhibit dense coil packing and result in recanalization.
    Neurosurgery 04/2011; 69(3):651-8; discussion 658. DOI:10.1227/NEU.0b013e31821bc4b4 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three women older than 75 years presented with spontaneous superficial temporal artery (STA) pseudoaneurysms manifesting as a pulsatile mass in the preauricular region. None of the patients had a history of trauma. Histological examination of the surgically removed masses identified pseudoaneurysms based on the presence of connective tissue and adventitia. Spontaneous STA pseudoaneurysms are extremely rare. We suggest that all 3 aneurysms were associated with latent dissection and external force exerted by the frames of glasses.
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica 01/2011; 51(10):713-5. DOI:10.2176/nmc.51.713 · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rates of hemodynamic depression (HD) and thromboembolism were compared in 95 carotid artery stenting (CAS) procedures performed in 87 patients with severe carotid artery stenosis using self-expandable braided Elgiloy stents (Wallstent) in 52 and slotted-tube Nitinol stents (Precise) in 43 procedures. The blood pressure, pulse rate, and neurological signs were recorded at short intervals during and after CAS. All patients underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging within 5 days after the procedure. The incidences of hypotension, bradycardia, and both were 17.9%, 3.2%, and 11.6%, respectively. The rate of postprocedural HD was 23.1% with Wallstent and 44.2% with Precise; the difference was significant (p = 0.025). No patient manifested major cardiovascular disease after CAS. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed thromboembolism after 26.9% and 34.9% of Wallstent and Precise stent placement procedures, respectively; the difference was not significant. The type of self-expandable stent placed may affect the risk of procedural HD in patients undergoing CAS. Postprocedural HD was resolved successfully by the administration of vasopressors and by withholding antihypertensive agents.
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica 01/2011; 51(8):556-60. DOI:10.2176/nmc.51.556 · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in the cerebral blood flow (CBF) are important for planning postoperative care in patients treated by carotid artery stenting (CAS). The relationship between intraprocedural changes in the angiographic cerebral circulation time (CCT) and perioperative CBF changes were retrospectively studied in 49 CAS procedures performed in 46 patients with carotid artery stenosis. The CCT, defined as the interval between the timing of maximal opacification at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and at the cortical vein, was determined by referring to time-density curves of data obtained from routine intraprocedural digital subtraction angiography. The intraoperative change in CCT (Delta CCT) was calculated for each of the 49 procedures. CBF studies, using dynamic perfusion computed tomography, were performed 10-2 days before and 2-4 days after CAS. Perioperative changes in the ratio of the CBF in the territory of the middle cerebral artery on the affected side to CBF on the contralateral side (%CBF) were calculated by subtracting pre- from postoperative %CBF (Delta%CBF) and the correlation between Delta CCT and Delta%CBF was evaluated. Mean CCT was shortened by 1.1 seconds from 5.3 to 4.2 seconds after CAS. Mean %CBF increased by 11.9% from 91.8% to 103.7% after the procedure. Delta CCT and Delta%CBF showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.61, p = 0.008). Intraprocedural changes in angiographic CCT are predictive of postoperative CBF in patients with CAS.
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica 04/2010; 50(4):269-74. DOI:10.2176/nmc.50.269 · 0.72 Impact Factor

  • 01/2010; 4(1):21-26. DOI:10.5797/jnet.4.21