[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neonatal candidiasis is an increasingly common occurrence causing significant morbidity and mortality and a higher risk of dissemination to the central nervous system (CNS) than that seen with older patients. The current understanding of optimal antifungal therapy in this setting is limited. We have developed a model of disseminated candidiasis with CNS involvement in juvenile mice to assess the efficacy of the echinocandin caspofungin relative to amphotericin B (AmB). Juvenile mice were inoculated intravenously with 5.64 × 10(4) CFU of Candida albicans MY1055. Treatment with caspofungin at 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg of body weight/day, AmB at 1 mg/kg/day, or a vehicle control (VC) was initiated 30 h after infection and continued for 7 days. Pharmacokinetic parameters for caspofungin were also determined. Culture and histology showed evidence of disseminated candidiasis with multifocal encephalitis at the start of antifungal therapy. Survival was 100% in all treated groups, while mortality was 100% in the VC by day 11 after infection. By day 5, all mice in the caspofungin treatment (four doses) groups showed reductions in kidney and brain burden relative to the VC, while AmB treatment reduced kidney burden but gave no reduction of brain fungal burden. Systemic levels of caspofungin were similar in infected and uninfected mice, while brain levels were higher in infected animals. In this juvenile mouse model, caspofungin demonstrated dose-dependent activity, equivalent to or better than that of AmB at 1 mg/kg, against disseminated candidiasis with CNS involvement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bridged monobactam beta-lactamase inhibitors were prepared and evaluated as potential partners for combination with imipenem to overcome class C beta-lactamase mediated resistance. The (S)-azepine analog 2 was found to be effective in both in vitro and in vivo assays and was selected for preclinical development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diaryl-(4-piperidinyl)-pyrrole derivatives bearing cyclic amine substituents have been synthesized and evaluated as anticoccidial agents. Improvements in potency of Et-PKG inhibition, such as azetidine derivative 3a, and broad spectrum anticoccidial activities in feed, such as morpholine derivative 8c, have been achieved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel oxazolidinone, AM 7359, was evaluated in two mouse models of Staphylococcus aureus infection. AM 7359 and linezolid were equally efficacious in a methicillin-susceptible S. aureus organ burden model and a methicillin-resistant S. aureus localized infection model. However, AM 7359 was eightfold more efficacious than linezolid against a linezolid- and methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain in this localized (thigh) infection model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coccidiosis is one of the more common and costly diseases in poultry that is caused by various Eimeria species. In our quest to discover coccidiostats from natural products, we discovered a microbial fermentation extract that exhibited in vivo anticoccidial activity. Fractionation of this extract led to the discovery of two potent antiprotozoals, emecorrugatin A (1) and coccidiostatin A (2). The former compound exhibited only in vitro activity, whereas the latter new compound exhibited in vivo activity against Eimeria species in chickens at 150 ppm dosed in chicken feed. The isolation, structure elucidation, relative configuration, and activity of coccidiostatin A (2) are described.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diaryl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivatives, such as 6a and 7i, have been synthesized and found to be potent inhibitors of parasite PKG activity. The most potent compounds are the 7-isopropylaminomethyl analog 6a and 2-isopropylamino analog 7i. These compounds are also fully active in in vivo assay as anticoccidial agents at 25 ppm in feed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The echinocandin caspofungin is a potent inhibitor of the activity of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase from Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus nidulans. In murine models of disseminated infection, caspofungin prolonged survival and reduced the kidney fungal burden. Caspofungin was at least as effective as amphotericin B against these filamentous fungi in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compounds 10a-10d and 10i are very potent inhibitors of Eimeria tenella cGMP-dependent protein kinase (0.081-0.32 nM) and are very efficacious antiparasitic agents in vivo when administered to chickens at 12.5-25 ppm levels in the feed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2-(4-Fluorophenyl)-3-(4-pyridinyl)-5-substituted pyrroles were prepared and evaluated as anticoccidial agents in both in vitro and in vivo assays. Among the compounds evaluated, the dimethylamine-substituted pyrrole 19a is the most potent inhibitor of Eimeria tenella PKG (cGMP-dependent protein kinase). Further SAR studies on the side chain of the 2-pyrrolidine nitrogen did not enhance in vivo anticoccidial activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compounds 10a (IC50 110 pM) and 21 (IC50 40 pM) are the most potent inhibitors of Eimeria tenella cGMP-dependent protein kinase activity reported to date and are efficacious in the in vivo antiparasitic assay when administered to chickens at 12.5 and 6.25 ppm levels in the feed. However, both compounds are positive in the Ames microbial mutagenesis assay which precludes them from further development as antiprotozoal agents in the absence of negative lifetime rodent carcinogenicity studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diaryl-(4-piperidinyl)-pyrrole derivatives bearing hydroxylated N-alkyl substituents have been synthesized and evaluated as anticoccidial agents. High potency in Et-PKG inhibition and broad-spectrum anticoccidial activities have been observed on compounds, such as 4b and 5h, which are fully efficacious in vivo at 50 ppm in feed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several analogs of 2,3-diaryl pyrroles were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of Eimeria tenella cGMP-dependent protein kinase and in in vivo anticoccidial assays. A 4-fluorophenyl group enhances both in vitro and in vivo activities. The most potent analogs are the 5-(N-methyl, N-ethyl, and N-methylazetidine methyl) piperidyl derivatives 12, 23, and 34. These compounds have a broad spectrum of activity. Based on the in vivo efficacy and cost of synthesis, the N-ethyl analog 23 was chosen as a novel anticoccidial agent for a field trial.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The trisubstituted pyrrole 4-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(1-methylpiperidine-4-yl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]pyridine (Compound 1) inhibits the growth of Eimeria spp. both in vitro and in vivo. The molecular target of Compound 1 was identified as cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) using a tritiated analogue to purify a approximately 120-kDa protein from lysates of Eimeria tenella. This represents the first example of a protozoal PKG. Cloning of PKG from several Apicomplexan parasites has identified a parasite signature sequence of nearly 300 amino acids that is not found in mammalian or Drosophila PKG and which contains an additional, third cGMP-binding site. Nucleotide cofactor regulation of parasite PKG is remarkably different from mammalian enzymes. The activity of both native and recombinant E. tenella PKG is stimulated 1000-fold by cGMP, with significant cooperativity. Two isoforms of the parasite enzyme are expressed from a single copy gene. NH(2)-terminal sequence of the soluble isoform of PKG is consistent with alternative translation initiation within the open reading frame of the enzyme. A larger, membrane-associated isoform corresponds to the deduced full-length protein sequence. Compound 1 is a potent inhibitor of both soluble and membrane-associated isoforms of native PKG, as well as recombinant enzyme, with an IC(50) of <1 nm.