Frank L Greenway

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States

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Publications (194)1016.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The effect of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) on food preference has not been examined in humans, but VSG decreases preference for fat and calorically dense foods in rodents. A validated Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ) assessed food preference changes before and 6 weeks after VSG in humans. The FPQ was completed before and 43 ± 19 days (Mean ± SD) after VSG. Fifteen subjects (14 females) completed the study. Hedonic ratings decreased for foods high in fat and sugar (p = 0.002) and high in fat and complex carbohydrate (p = 0.007). Fat preference (p = 0.048) decreased, VSG reduced preference for calorically dense foods high in fat, sugar, and complex carbohydrate, and these changes may contribute to the weight loss with VSG.
    Obesity Surgery 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11695-015-1602-1 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adverse effects of metformin are primarily related to gastrointestinal (GI) intolerance that could limit titration to an efficacious dose or cause discontinuation of the medication. Because some metformin side effects may be attributable to shifts in the GI microbiome, we tested whether a GI microbiome modulator (GIMM) used in combination with metformin would ameliorate the GI symptoms. A 2-period crossover study design was used with 2 treatment sequences, either placebo in period 1 followed by GIMM in period 2 or vice versa. Study periods lasted for 2 weeks, with a 2-week washout period between. During the first week, type 2 diabetes patients (T2D) who experienced metformin GI intolerance took 500 mg metformin along with their assigned NM504 (GIMM) or placebo treatment with breakfast and with dinner. In the second week, the 10 subjects took 500 mg metformin (t.i.d.), with GIMM or placebo consumed with the first and third daily metformin doses. Subjects were permitted to discontinue metformin dosing if it became intolerable. The combination of metformin and GIMM treatment produced a significantly better tolerance score to metformin than the placebo combination (6.78 ± 0.65 [mean ± SEM] versus 4.45 ± 0.69, P = .0006). Mean fasting glucose levels were significantly (P < .02) lower with the metformin-GIMM combination (121.3 ± 7.8 mg/dl) than with metformin-placebo (151.9 ± 7.8 mg/dl). Combining a GI microbiome modulator with metformin might allow the greater use of metformin in T2D patients and improve treatment of the disease. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.
    Journal of diabetes science and technology 03/2015; DOI:10.1177/1932296815577425
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    ABSTRACT: GSK1614235 and KGA-2727 are potent, selective inhibitors of the SGLT1 sodium-dependent glucose transporter. Nonclinical (KGA-2727) and clinical (GSK1614235) trials assessed translation of SGLT1 inhibitor effects from rats to normal human physiology. In rats, KGA-2727 (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle were given before oral administration of 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG) containing [(3)H]3-OMG tracer. Tracer absorption and distribution were assessed from plasma, urine and fecal samples. SGLT1 inhibition reduced urine 3-OMG recovery and increased fecal excretion. SGLT1 inhibitor effects on plasma glucose, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 concentrations were also measured during a standard meal. Incremental glucose, insulin and GIP concentrations were decreased, indicating down-regulation of β-cell and K-cell secretion. Minimal effects were observed in the secretion of the L-cell product, GLP-1. Using a 3-way, cross-over design, twelve healthy human subjects received placebo or GSK1614235 20 mg immediately before or after a meal. Five minutes into the meal, 3-OMG was ingested. Post-meal dosing had little impact, yet pre-meal dosing delayed and reduced 3-OMG absorption, with an AUC(0-10) of 231±31 µg.h/mL vs. 446±31 µg.h/mL, for placebo. Recovery of tracer in urine was 1.2±0.7 g for pre-meal dosing and 2.2±0.1 g for placebo. Incremental concentrations of insulin, C-peptide and GIP, were reduced for 2 hours with pre-meal GSK1614235. Total GLP-1 concentrations were significantly increased and a trend for increased PYY was noted. SGLT1 inhibitors block intestinal glucose absorption and reduce GIP secretion in rats and humans, suggesting SGLT1 glucose transport is critical for GIP release. Conversely, GLP-1 and PYY secretion are enhanced by SGLT1 inhibition in humans. Copyright © 2014, American Journal of Physiology- Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the effects of an egg breakfast on lunchtime energy intake in children (age 4-6 years) and adolescents (age 14-17 years). Methods: In 2 randomized crossover trials, participants received either an egg breakfast or an isocaloric bagel breakfast. In both trials, subsequent lunchtime energy intake was the primary outcome. The trial with adolescents also measured each participant's serum ghrelin, serum peptide YY (PYY), and self-assessment of appetite rated using a visual analog scale. Results: Lunchtime food intakes after egg and bagel breakfasts were not significantly different for either age group. Visual analog scale ratings of hunger and satiety were also not different between the 2 treatments in adolescents. Consumption of the egg breakfast led to a significant increase in serum PYY levels (p = 0.0001) in adolescents. However, increased levels of PYY were not correlated with reduced food intake. Conclusion: Short-term food intake in children and adolescents is not differentially altered by an egg breakfast compared to a bagel breakfast.
    Journal of the American College of Nutrition 03/2015; DOI:10.1080/07315724.2014.942471 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired brain glucose metabolism appears to be a potential pathogenic feature of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study examined the potential for increasing circulating ketone bodies through medium chain triglyceride (MCT) supplementation, as a means to beneficially modulate brain homeostasis in subjects with MCI.
    01/2015; 108. DOI:10.1016/j.bbacli.2015.01.001
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with increased blood pressure (BP), which in turn increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We found that the increase in leptin levels seen in diet-induced obesity (DIO) drives an increase in BP in rodents, an effect that was not seen in animals deficient in leptin or leptin receptors (LepR). Furthermore, humans with loss-of-function mutations in leptin and the LepR have low BP despite severe obesity. Leptin's effects on BP are mediated by neuronal circuits in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), as blocking leptin with a specific antibody, antagonist, or inhibition of the activity of LepR-expressing neurons in the DMH caused a rapid reduction of BP in DIO mice, independent of changes in weight. Re-expression of LepRs in the DMH of DIO LepR-deficient mice caused an increase in BP. These studies demonstrate that leptin couples changes in weight to changes in BP in mammalian species. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell 12/2014; 159(6):1404-16. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.058 · 33.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A survey of obesity medicine specialists was conducted before the approval of new obesity medications in 2012.
    Obesity Surgery 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11695-014-1466-9 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diets that induce negative energy balance continue to be the cornerstone of obesity management. However, long-term volitional reduction in energy intake is challenging. Functional foods that enhance satiety may have an important practical application in increasing compliance to weight loss diets and thereby promoting sustained weight loss. Here, we present recent advances in identifying common foods that increase satiety.
    Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 08/2014; DOI:10.1097/MCO.0000000000000110 · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Candida J Rebello, Frank L Greenway, John W Finley
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    ABSTRACT: Nutrition plays an important role in the prevention and management of disease. Whole grain cereals contain a host of nutrients and bioactive substances that have health promoting effects. Epidemiological evidence shows a consistent inverse association between whole grain intake and the risk of chronic disease. Despite a concerted effort by scientists, educators, and policy makers, to promote the consumption of whole grains, it remains dismally short of the recommended intakes. Pulses (dried beans and peas) differ from whole grains in their structural and physicochemical properties, and have varying amounts of fiber, resistant starch, vitamins, minerals, and other bioactive components; nevertheless, these foods groups complement each other. Observational as well as intervention trials show that pulse consumption has beneficial effects on the prevention and management of chronic disease. The nutritional and phytochemical components of pulses coupled with that of whole grains suggest a potential synergistic effect that could provide unprecedented health benefits.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2014; 62(29). DOI:10.1021/jf500932z · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims To test whether a breakfast including eggs(EB) containing high-quality protein decreases subsequent food intake and increases satiety-related hormones in overweight or obese adults more than a breakfast including cereal(CB) of lower protein quality, but matched for energy density and macronutrient composition. Methods Twenty healthy overweight or obese subjects were randomized to eat an EB or a CB daily under supervision for one week, followed by a crossover to the opposite breakfast week after a two-week washout period. On days 1 and 7 of each test week, a structured lunch was provided ad libitum. Food intake, hunger and satiety scores, and blood parameters were measured before and after breakfast. Outcomes were analyzed using mixed effects statistical models for repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Compared to the CB week, during the EB week, a) feeling of fullness was greater (P < 0.05) on day 1 but not on day 7; b) energy intake was not significantly lower on either day; c) right before lunch, acylated ghrelin was lower and PYY3-36 was higher on day 1(P < 0.01 and < 0.002, respectively) but not on day 7; d) PYY3-36, but not ghrelin, showed greater rise between breakfast and lunch on days 1(P < 0.001) and 7(P < 0.01). Conclusion Despite a highly similar energy density and macronutrient composition, the higher protein quality breakfast significantly influenced fullness, ghrelin and PYY3-36. Only the effect on PYY3-36 lasted throughout the week. A next step would be to test if the benefits are pronounced and lasting, if protein quality of all meals is increased.
    Journal of diabetes and its complications 07/2014; 28(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2014.02.002 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Foods that enhance satiety can help consumers to resist environmental cues to eat, and improve the nutritional quality of their diets. Viscosity generated by oat β-glucan, influences gastrointestinal mechanisms that mediate satiety. Differences in the source, processing treatments, and interactions with other constituents in the food matrix affect the amount, solubility, molecular weight, and structure of the β-glucan in products, which in turn influences the viscosity. This study examined the effect of two types of oatmeal and an oat-based ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC) on appetite, and assessed differences in meal viscosity and β-glucan characteristics among the cereals. Methods Forty-eight individuals were enrolled in a randomized crossover trial. Subjects consumed isocaloric breakfast meals containing instant oatmeal (IO), old-fashioned oatmeal (SO) or RTEC in random order at least a week apart. Each breakfast meal contained 218 kcal (150 kcal cereal, and 68 kcal milk) Visual analogue scales measuring appetite were completed before breakfast, and over four hours, following the meal. Starch digestion kinetics, meal viscosities, and β-glucan characteristics for each meal were determined. Appetite responses were analyzed by area under the curve. Mixed models were used to analyze response changes over time. Results IO increased fullness (p = 0.04), suppressed desire to eat (p = 0.01) and reduced prospective intake (p < 0.01) more than the RTEC over four hours, and consistently at the 60 minute time-point. SO reduced prospective intake (p = 0.04) more than the RTEC. Hunger scores were not significantly different except that IO reduced hunger more than the RTEC at the 60 minute time-point. IO and SO had higher β-glucan content, molecular weight, gastric viscosity, and larger hydration spheres than the RTEC, and IO had greater viscosity after oral and initial gastric digestion (initial viscosity) than the RTEC. Conclusion IO and SO improved appetite control over four hours compared to RTEC. Initial viscosity of oatmeal may be especially important for reducing appetite.
    Nutrition Journal 05/2014; 13(1):49. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-13-49 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Caenorhabditis elegans model is a rapid and inexpensive method to address pharmacologic questions. We describe the use of C. elegans to explore 2 pharmacologic questions concerning candidate antiobesity drugs and illustrate its potential usefulness in pharmacologic research: (1) to determine a ratio of betahistine-olanzapine that blocks the olanzapine-induced intestinal fat deposition (IFD) as detected by Nile red staining and (2) to identify the mechanism of action of a pharmaceutical candidate AB-101 that reduces IFD. Olanzapine (53 μg/mL) increased the IFD (12.1 ± 0.1%, P < 0.02), which was blocked by betahistine (763 μg/mL, 39.3 ± 0.01%, P < 0.05) in wild-type C. elegans (N2). AB-101 (1.0%) reduced the IFD in N2 (P < 0.05), increased the pharyngeal pumping rate (P < 0.05), and reversed the elevated IFD induced by protease inhibitors atazanavir and ritonavir (P < 0.05). AB-101 did not affect IFD in a ACS null mutant strain acs-4(ok2872) III/hT2[bli-4(e937) let-?(q782) qIs48](I;III) suggesting an involvement of the lipid oxidation pathway and an upregulation of CPT-1. Our studies suggest that C. elegans may be used as a resource in pharmacologic research. This article is intended to stimulate a greater appreciation of its value in the development of new pharmaceutical interventions.
    American journal of therapeutics 05/2014; DOI:10.1097/MJT.0000000000000061 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners (CS), glucose, sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup, are associated with weight gain. Beverages sweetened with intense sweeteners (IS) are marketed as low-calorie substitutes to prevent beverages-associated weight gain. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, the effects on intestinal fat deposition (IFD) and pharyngeal pumping rate (PPR) of cola beverages sweetened with glucose, aspartame, or aspartame plus acesulfame-potassium (AceK) were compared. Control groups received Escherichia coli (OP50) only. Study I: the nematodes received additional glucose- or IS-sweetened beverages. Study II: the nematodes received additional glucose, aspartame, or aspartame plus AceK (AAK). Beverages containing CS or IS (aspartame or AAK) did not alter IFD in wild type (N2) or in daf-16 deficiency. The CS cola increased IFD in sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05). The AAK-cola increased IFD in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency and sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05). Glucose increased IFD in N2 and daf-16 deficiency (P<0.05). Aspartame showed a tendency towards reduced IFD in N2 and decreased IFD in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency (P<0.05). AAK increased IFD in daf-16 deficiency and sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05), and reversed the aspartame-induced reduction in IFD. The aspartame-sweetened cola increased the PPR in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency and daf-16 deficiency (P<0.05); similar results were obtained in N2 with both IS (P<0.05). AAK increased the PPR in daf-16/daf-2, daf-16, and sir-2.1 deficiencies (P<0.05). Thus, IS increased the PPR, a surrogate marker of lifespan. Aspartame may have an independent effect in reducing IFD to assist humans desiring weight loss. AceK may increase IFD in presence of insulin resistance.
    Chemico-biological interactions 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.cbi.2014.02.016 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Achieving energy balance is critical for the interpretation of results obtained in respiratory chambers. However, 24-h energy expenditure (24EE) predictions based on estimated resting metabolic rate and physical activity level are often inaccurate and imprecise. We aimed to develop and validate equations to better achieve energy balance in a respiratory chamber by adding or subtracting food items. By using a randomized data set with measures of 24EE (n = 241) performed at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, we developed equations to predict 24EE from anthropometric, demographic, and body composition variables before and at 3 and 7 h into the chamber measurement. The equations were tested on an independent data set (n = 240) and compared with published predictive equations. By using anthropometric and demographic variables, the equation was as follows: 24EE (kcal/d) = 11.6 [weight (kg)] + 8.03 [height (cm)] - 3.45 [age (y)] + 217 (male) - 52 (African American) - 235. The mean prediction error was -9 ± 155 kcal/d (2046 ± 305 compared with 2055 ± 343 kcal/d for measured 24EE; P = 0.36). The prediction achieved a precision of ±10% of measured 24EE in 83% of the participants. Energy prescription was then refined by equations with the use of energy expenditure values after 3 h, 7 h, or both into the chamber study. These later equations improved the precision (±10% of measured 24EE) to 92% (P = 0.003) and 96% (P < 0.0001) of the participants at 3 and 7 h, respectively. Body composition did not improve 24EE predictions. We showed the use of a set of equations to prescribe and adjust energy intake to achieve energy balance in respiratory chambers over 24 h. These equations may be used in most respiratory chambers and modified to accommodate exercise or specific feeding protocols. Some of the data used in this study were from trials registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00493701, NCT00099151, NCT00565149, NCT01672632, NCT00945633, NCT00829140, NCT00936130, NCT01275235, NCT01898949, NCT01775163, and NCT00943215.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2014; 99(4). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.113.079566 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperphagia is a central feature of inherited disorders (e.g., Prader-Willi Syndrome) in which obesity is a primary phenotypic component. Hyperphagia may also contribute to obesity as observed in the general population, thus raising the potential importance of common underlying mechanisms and treatments. Substantial gaps in understanding the molecular basis of inherited hyperphagia syndromes are present as are a lack of mechanistic of mechanistic targets that can serve as a basis for pharmacologic and behavioral treatments. International conference with 28 experts, including scientists and caregivers, providing presentations, panel discussions, and debates. The reviewed collective research and clinical experience provides a critical body of new and novel information on hyperphagia at levels ranging from molecular to population. Gaps in understanding and tools needed for additional research were identified. This report documents the full scope of important topics reviewed at a comprehensive international meeting devoted to the topic of hyperphagia and identifies key areas for future funding and research.
    Obesity 02/2014; 22 Suppl 1(S1):S1-S17. DOI:10.1002/oby.20646 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Obesity is a health concern. Resistant starch (RS) type 2 from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) and dietary sodium butyrate (SB) reduce abdominal fat in rodents. RS treatment is associated with increased gut hormones peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), but it is not known if SB increases these hormones. Design & Methods: This was investigated in a 2 x 2 rat study with HAM-RS2 (0 or 28% weight) and dietary sodium butyrate (0 and 3.2%) resulting in isocaloric treatments: energy control (EC), sodium butyrate (SB), HAM-RS2 (RS), and the combination (SBRS). Results: RS and SB reduced abdominal fat and the combination reduced abdominal fat compared to SB and RS. RS was associated with increased fermentation in the cecum. Serum PYY and GLP-1 total were increased with RS treatment. RS treatment was associated with increased cecal butyrate produced from fermentation of RS, but there was no cecal increase for dietary SB. Conclusions: SB after its absorption into the blood appears to not affect production of PYY and GLP-1, while butyrate from fermentation in the cecum promotes increased PYY and GLP-1. Future studies with lower doses of RS and SB are warranted and the combination may be beneficial for human health.
    Obesity 02/2014; 22(2). DOI:10.1002/oby.20501 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy and safety of 32 mg naltrexone sustained-release (SR)/360 mg bupropion SR (NB) in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes with or without background oral antidiabetes drugs.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a 56-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which 505 patients received standardized lifestyle intervention and were randomized 2:1 to NB or placebo. Coprimary end points were percent weight change and achievement of 5% weight loss. Secondary end points included achievement of HbA(1c) <7% (53 mmol/mol), achievement of weight loss 10%, and change in HbA(1c), waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and lipids.RESULTSIn the modified intent-to-treat population (54% female, 80% Caucasian, and mean age 54 years, weight 106 kg, BMI 37 kg/m(2), and HbA(1c) 8.0% [64 mmol/mol]), NB resulted in significantly greater weight reduction (-5.0 vs. -1.8%; P < 0.001) and proportion of patients achieving 5% weight loss (44.5 vs. 18.9%, P < 0.001) compared with placebo. NB also resulted in significantly greater HbA(1c) reduction (-0.6 vs. -0.1% [6.6 vs. 1.1 mmol/mol]; P < 0.001), percent of patients achieving HbA(1c) <7% (53 mmol/mol) (44.1 vs. 26.3%; P < 0.001), and improvement in triglycerides and HDL cholesterol compared with placebo. NB was associated with higher incidence of nausea (42.3 vs. 7.1%), constipation (17.7 vs. 7.1%), and vomiting (18.3 vs. 3.6%). No difference was observed between groups in the incidence of depression, suicidal ideation, or hypoglycemia.CONCLUSIONSNB therapy in overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes induced weight loss, which was associated with improvements in glycemic control and select cardiovascular risk factors and was generally well tolerated with a safety profile similar to that in patients without diabetes.
    Diabetes Care 01/2014; 37(2):587-587. DOI:10.2337/dc14-er02 · 8.57 Impact Factor
  • C J Rebello, F L Greenway, J W Finley
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    ABSTRACT: Since the 1970s, the proportion of overweight and obese people in the United States has grown at an alarming rate. An awareness of the consequences of obesity on the health and well-being of individuals is evident in the plethora of strategic plans at the local and national levels, most of which have largely fallen short of their goals. If interventions continue to be unsuccessful, it is estimated that approximately three of four Americans will be overweight or obese by 2020. Prevention of excess weight gain can be accomplished with relatively small changes in lifestyle behaviours to control body weight. Small sustainable changes are perhaps better than efforts to achieve larger changes that cannot be sustained. Legumes can be a valuable food by which the needs of the undernourished or under-served populations could be met. They can be incorporated into meat products, such as sausages and burgers, to lower the energy density of these foods while providing important nutrients. Replacing energy-dense foods with legumes has been shown to have beneficial effects on the prevention and management of obesity and related disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. This review explores the nutritional value and obesity-related health benefits of legume consumption while focusing on pulses.
    Obesity Reviews 01/2014; DOI:10.1111/obr.12144 · 7.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy and safety of 32 mg naltrexone sustained-release (SR)/360 mg bupropion SR (NB) in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes with or without background oral antidiabetes drugs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a 56-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which 505 patients received standardized lifestyle intervention and were randomized 2:1 to NB or placebo. Coprimary end points were percent weight change and achievement of ≥5% weight loss. Secondary end points included achievement of HbA1c <7% (53 mmol/mol), achievement of weight loss ≥10%, and change in HbA1c, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and lipids. RESULTS In the modified intent-to-treat population (54% female, 80% Caucasian, and mean age 54 years, weight 106 kg, BMI 37 kg/m2, and HbA1c 8.0% [64 mmol/mol]), NB resulted in significantly greater weight reduction (−5.0 vs. −1.8%; P < 0.001) and proportion of patients achieving ≥5% weight loss (44.5 vs. 18.9%, P < 0.001) compared with placebo. NB also resulted in significantly greater HbA1c reduction (−0.6 vs. −0.1% [6.6 vs. 1.1 mmol/mol]; P < 0.001), percent of patients achieving HbA1c <7% (53 mmol/mol) (44.1 vs. 26.3%; P < 0.001), and improvement in triglycerides and HDL cholesterol compared with placebo. NB was associated with higher incidence of nausea (42.3 vs. 7.1%), constipation (17.7 vs. 7.1%), and vomiting (18.3 vs. 3.6%). No difference was observed between groups in the incidence of depression, suicidal ideation, or hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS NB therapy in overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes induced weight loss, which was associated with improvements in glycemic control and select cardiovascular risk factors and was generally well tolerated with a safety profile similar to that in patients without diabetes.
    Diabetes Care 11/2013; 36(12):4022-4029. DOI:10.2337/dc13-0234 · 8.57 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,016.23 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2015
    • Louisiana State University
      • • School of Kinesiology
      • • Pennington Biomedical Research Center
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
  • 1995–2015
    • Pennington Biomedical Research Center
      • Nutrient Sensing and Adipocyte Signaling Laboratory
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
  • 2011
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 2008
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      New Orleans, LA, United States