Frank L Greenway

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States

Are you Frank L Greenway?

Claim your profile

Publications (186)884.56 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with increased blood pressure (BP), which in turn increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We found that the increase in leptin levels seen in diet-induced obesity (DIO) drives an increase in BP in rodents, an effect that was not seen in animals deficient in leptin or leptin receptors (LepR). Furthermore, humans with loss-of-function mutations in leptin and the LepR have low BP despite severe obesity. Leptin's effects on BP are mediated by neuronal circuits in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), as blocking leptin with a specific antibody, antagonist, or inhibition of the activity of LepR-expressing neurons in the DMH caused a rapid reduction of BP in DIO mice, independent of changes in weight. Re-expression of LepRs in the DMH of DIO LepR-deficient mice caused an increase in BP. These studies demonstrate that leptin couples changes in weight to changes in BP in mammalian species. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell. 12/2014; 159(6):1404-16.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A survey of obesity medicine specialists was conducted before the approval of new obesity medications in 2012.
    Obesity Surgery 10/2014; · 3.10 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diets that induce negative energy balance continue to be the cornerstone of obesity management. However, long-term volitional reduction in energy intake is challenging. Functional foods that enhance satiety may have an important practical application in increasing compliance to weight loss diets and thereby promoting sustained weight loss. Here, we present recent advances in identifying common foods that increase satiety.
    Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. 08/2014;
  • Candida J Rebello, Frank L Greenway, John W Finley
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nutrition plays an important role in the prevention and management of disease. Whole grain cereals contain a host of nutrients and bioactive substances that have health promoting effects. Epidemiological evidence shows a consistent inverse association between whole grain intake and the risk of chronic disease. Despite a concerted effort by scientists, educators, and policy makers, to promote the consumption of whole grains, it remains dismally short of the recommended intakes. Pulses (dried beans and peas) differ from whole grains in their structural and physicochemical properties, and have varying amounts of fiber, resistant starch, vitamins, minerals, and other bioactive components; nevertheless, these foods groups complement each other. Observational as well as intervention trials show that pulse consumption has beneficial effects on the prevention and management of chronic disease. The nutritional and phytochemical components of pulses coupled with that of whole grains suggest a potential synergistic effect that could provide unprecedented health benefits.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2014; · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Foods that enhance satiety can help consumers to resist environmental cues to eat, and improve the nutritional quality of their diets. Viscosity generated by oat beta-glucan, influences gastrointestinal mechanisms that mediate satiety. Differences in the source, processing treatments, and interactions with other constituents in the food matrix affect the amount, solubility, molecular weight, and structure of the beta-glucan in products, which in turn influences the viscosity. This study examined the effect of two types of oatmeal and an oat-based ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC) on appetite, and assessed differences in meal viscosity and beta-glucan characteristics among the cereals.
    Nutrition journal. 05/2014; 13(1):49.
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Caenorhabditis elegans model is a rapid and inexpensive method to address pharmacologic questions. We describe the use of C. elegans to explore 2 pharmacologic questions concerning candidate antiobesity drugs and illustrate its potential usefulness in pharmacologic research: (1) to determine a ratio of betahistine-olanzapine that blocks the olanzapine-induced intestinal fat deposition (IFD) as detected by Nile red staining and (2) to identify the mechanism of action of a pharmaceutical candidate AB-101 that reduces IFD. Olanzapine (53 μg/mL) increased the IFD (12.1 ± 0.1%, P < 0.02), which was blocked by betahistine (763 μg/mL, 39.3 ± 0.01%, P < 0.05) in wild-type C. elegans (N2). AB-101 (1.0%) reduced the IFD in N2 (P < 0.05), increased the pharyngeal pumping rate (P < 0.05), and reversed the elevated IFD induced by protease inhibitors atazanavir and ritonavir (P < 0.05). AB-101 did not affect IFD in a ACS null mutant strain acs-4(ok2872) III/hT2[bli-4(e937) let-?(q782) qIs48](I;III) suggesting an involvement of the lipid oxidation pathway and an upregulation of CPT-1. Our studies suggest that C. elegans may be used as a resource in pharmacologic research. This article is intended to stimulate a greater appreciation of its value in the development of new pharmaceutical interventions.
    American journal of therapeutics 05/2014; · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Achieving energy balance is critical for the interpretation of results obtained in respiratory chambers. However, 24-h energy expenditure (24EE) predictions based on estimated resting metabolic rate and physical activity level are often inaccurate and imprecise. We aimed to develop and validate equations to better achieve energy balance in a respiratory chamber by adding or subtracting food items. By using a randomized data set with measures of 24EE (n = 241) performed at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, we developed equations to predict 24EE from anthropometric, demographic, and body composition variables before and at 3 and 7 h into the chamber measurement. The equations were tested on an independent data set (n = 240) and compared with published predictive equations. By using anthropometric and demographic variables, the equation was as follows: 24EE (kcal/d) = 11.6 [weight (kg)] + 8.03 [height (cm)] - 3.45 [age (y)] + 217 (male) - 52 (African American) - 235. The mean prediction error was -9 ± 155 kcal/d (2046 ± 305 compared with 2055 ± 343 kcal/d for measured 24EE; P = 0.36). The prediction achieved a precision of ±10% of measured 24EE in 83% of the participants. Energy prescription was then refined by equations with the use of energy expenditure values after 3 h, 7 h, or both into the chamber study. These later equations improved the precision (±10% of measured 24EE) to 92% (P = 0.003) and 96% (P < 0.0001) of the participants at 3 and 7 h, respectively. Body composition did not improve 24EE predictions. We showed the use of a set of equations to prescribe and adjust energy intake to achieve energy balance in respiratory chambers over 24 h. These equations may be used in most respiratory chambers and modified to accommodate exercise or specific feeding protocols. Some of the data used in this study were from trials registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00493701, NCT00099151, NCT00565149, NCT01672632, NCT00945633, NCT00829140, NCT00936130, NCT01275235, NCT01898949, NCT01775163, and NCT00943215.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2014; · 6.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hyperphagia is a central feature of inherited disorders (e.g., Prader-Willi Syndrome) in which obesity is a primary phenotypic component. Hyperphagia may also contribute to obesity as observed in the general population, thus raising the potential importance of common underlying mechanisms and treatments. Substantial gaps in understanding the molecular basis of inherited hyperphagia syndromes are present as are a lack of mechanistic of mechanistic targets that can serve as a basis for pharmacologic and behavioral treatments. International conference with 28 experts, including scientists and caregivers, providing presentations, panel discussions, and debates. The reviewed collective research and clinical experience provides a critical body of new and novel information on hyperphagia at levels ranging from molecular to population. Gaps in understanding and tools needed for additional research were identified. This report documents the full scope of important topics reviewed at a comprehensive international meeting devoted to the topic of hyperphagia and identifies key areas for future funding and research.
    Obesity 02/2014; 22 Suppl 1:S1-S17. · 3.92 Impact Factor
  • C J Rebello, F L Greenway, J W Finley
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since the 1970s, the proportion of overweight and obese people in the United States has grown at an alarming rate. An awareness of the consequences of obesity on the health and well-being of individuals is evident in the plethora of strategic plans at the local and national levels, most of which have largely fallen short of their goals. If interventions continue to be unsuccessful, it is estimated that approximately three of four Americans will be overweight or obese by 2020. Prevention of excess weight gain can be accomplished with relatively small changes in lifestyle behaviours to control body weight. Small sustainable changes are perhaps better than efforts to achieve larger changes that cannot be sustained. Legumes can be a valuable food by which the needs of the undernourished or under-served populations could be met. They can be incorporated into meat products, such as sausages and burgers, to lower the energy density of these foods while providing important nutrients. Replacing energy-dense foods with legumes has been shown to have beneficial effects on the prevention and management of obesity and related disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. This review explores the nutritional value and obesity-related health benefits of legume consumption while focusing on pulses.
    Obesity Reviews 01/2014; · 6.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims To test whether a breakfast including eggs(EB) containing high-quality protein decreases subsequent food intake and increases satiety-related hormones in overweight or obese adults more than a breakfast including cereal(CB) of lower protein quality, but matched for energy density and macronutrient composition. Methods Twenty healthy overweight or obese subjects were randomized to eat an EB or a CB daily under supervision for one week, followed by a crossover to the opposite breakfast week after a two-week washout period. On days 1 and 7 of each test week, a structured lunch was provided ad libitum. Food intake, hunger and satiety scores, and blood parameters were measured before and after breakfast. Outcomes were analyzed using mixed effects statistical models for repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Compared to the CB week, during the EB week, a) feeling of fullness was greater (P < 0.05) on day 1 but not on day 7; b) energy intake was not significantly lower on either day; c) right before lunch, acylated ghrelin was lower and PYY3-36 was higher on day 1(P < 0.01 and < 0.002, respectively) but not on day 7; d) PYY3-36, but not ghrelin, showed greater rise between breakfast and lunch on days 1(P < 0.001) and 7(P < 0.01). Conclusion Despite a highly similar energy density and macronutrient composition, the higher protein quality breakfast significantly influenced fullness, ghrelin and PYY3-36. Only the effect on PYY3-36 lasted throughout the week. A next step would be to test if the benefits are pronounced and lasting, if protein quality of all meals is increased.
    Journal of diabetes and its complications 01/2014; · 2.11 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners (CS), glucose, sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup, are associated with weight gain. Beverages sweetened with intense sweeteners (IS) are marketed as low-calorie substitutes to prevent beverages-associated weight gain. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, the effects on intestinal fat deposition (IFD) and pharyngeal pumping rate (PPR) of cola beverages sweetened with glucose, aspartame, or aspartame plus acesulfame-potassium (AceK) were compared. Control groups received Escherichia coli (OP50) only. Study I: the nematodes received additional glucose- or IS-sweetened beverages. Study II: the nematodes received additional glucose, aspartame, or aspartame plus AceK (AAK). Beverages containing CS or IS (aspartame or AAK) did not alter IFD in wild type (N2) or in daf-16 deficiency. The CS cola increased IFD in sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05). The AAK-cola increased IFD in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency and sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05). Glucose increased IFD in N2 and daf-16 deficiency (P<0.05). Aspartame showed a tendency towards reduced IFD in N2 and decreased IFD in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency (P<0.05). AAK increased IFD in daf-16 deficiency and sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05), and reversed the aspartame-induced reduction in IFD. The aspartame-sweetened cola increased the PPR in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency and daf-16 deficiency (P<0.05); similar results were obtained in N2 with both IS (P<0.05). AAK increased the PPR in daf-16/daf-2, daf-16, and sir-2.1 deficiencies (P<0.05). Thus, IS increased the PPR, a surrogate marker of lifespan. Aspartame may have an independent effect in reducing IFD to assist humans desiring weight loss. AceK may increase IFD in presence of insulin resistance.
    Chemico-biological interactions 01/2014; · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Plastic and reconstructive surgery 09/2013; 132(3):483e-4e. · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic procedures for morbid obesity are becoming standard of care which, in experienced hands, has a very low mortality and morbidity. Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis has been reported in the literature after different bariatric and nonbariatric laparoscopic procedures. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a relatively new procedure in the treatment of morbid obesity; its complications being well-known including staple line leak, bleeding, and stricture among others. We present a case of superior mesenteric vein thrombosis after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy successfully managed conservatively with therapeutic anticoagulation, and propose a different hypothesis for the development of such a complication.
    Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 08/2013; 6(1):109-11. · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: The physicochemical properties of soluble oat fiber (β-glucan) affect viscosity-dependent mechanisms that influence satiety. The objective of this study was to compare the satiety impact of oatmeal with the most widely sold ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC) when either was consumed as a breakfast meal. Methods: Forty-eight healthy individuals ≥18 years of age were enrolled in a randomized crossover trial. Following an overnight fast, subjects consumed either oatmeal or RTEC in random order at least a week apart. The breakfasts were isocaloric and contained 363 kcal (250 kcal cereal, 113 kcal milk). Visual analogue scales measuring appetite and satiety were completed before breakfast and throughout the morning. The content and physicochemical properties of oat β-glucan were determined. Appetite and satiety responses were analyzed by area under the curve (AUC). Physicochemical properties were analyzed using t tests. Results: Oatmeal, higher in fiber and protein but lower in sugar than the RTEC, resulted in greater increase in fullness (AUC: p = 0.005 [120 minute: p = 0.0408, 180 minute: p = 0.0061, 240 minute: p = 0.0102]) and greater reduction in hunger (AUC: p = 0.0009 [120 minute: p = 0.0197, 180 minute: p = 0.0003, 240 minute: p = 0.0036]), desire to eat (AUC: p = 0.0002 [120 minute: p = 0.0168, 180 minute: p < 0.0001, 240 minute: p = 0.0022]), and prospective intake (AUC: p = 0.0012 [120 minute: p = 0.0058, 180 minute: p = 0.006, 240 minute: p = 0.0047]) compared to the RTEC. Oatmeal had higher β-glucan content, higher molecular weight (p < 0.0001), higher viscosity (p = 0.025), and larger hydration spheres (p = 0.0012) than the RTEC. Conclusion: Oatmeal improves appetite control and increases satiety. The effects may be attributed to the viscosity and hydration properties of its β-glucan content.
    Journal of the American College of Nutrition 08/2013; 32(4):272-9. · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use.
    Obesity Reviews 06/2013; · 6.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are currently used to measure abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in humans; however, more widely available and less costly dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) also has the potential to measure VAT. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine reproducibility and clinical thresholds for DXA-derived VAT. Design and Methods: The sample included 2317 white and African American adults 18-74 years of age. VAT areas (cm(2) ) were measured using a Hologic DXA scanner equipped with APEX 4.0 software. Reproducibility was assessed using repeated measurements on 101 participants scanned 14 days apart. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess clinical utility and select thresholds that identified elevated cardiometabolic risk, defined as the presence of ≥2 risk factors. Results: Reproducibility of DXA-VAT was 8.1%. The areas under the ROC curves ranged from 0.754 in African American men to 0.807 in white women. The thresholds were higher in white men (154 cm(2) ) and women (143 cm(2) ) compared to African American men (101 cm(2) ) and women (114 cm(2) ). Conclusion: The results demonstrate that DXA VAT is a useful clinical marker of cardiometabolic risk; however, further research is required to determine associations with health outcomes using longitudinal studies.
    Obesity 06/2013; · 3.92 Impact Factor
  • Ann G Liu, Steven R Smith, Ken Fujioka, Frank L Greenway
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of combination caffeine/ephedrine and leptin A-200 on visceral fat massand weight loss over 24 weeks. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm trial, 90 obese subjects received one of three treatments for 24 weeks: 200 mg caffeine/20 mg ephedrine t.i.d. (CE), leptin A-200 (recombinant methionyl human Fc-leptin, 20 mg q.d.) (L), or combination leptin A-200 and caffeine/ephedrine (LCE). Outcomes included change in weight, visceral fat mass by computed tomography (CT), lean massand fat mass by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Groups treated with CE and LCE lost significant amounts of weight (-5.9 ± 1.2% and -6.5 ± 1.1%, P < 0.05) and whole body fat mass (-9.6 ± 2.4% and -12.4 ± 2.3%, P < 0.05) compared to leptin only group. Only treatment with LCE significantly reduced visceral fat mass (-11.0 ± 3.3%, P < 0.05). There were no differences in lean mass between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that CE is a modestly effective weight loss agent and produces significant reductions in fat mass. Leptin A-200 was not effective in producing weight loss and did not have any significant additive or synergistic actions when combined with CE.
    Obesity 05/2013; · 3.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective:To investigate if phentermine treatment induces phentermine abuse, psychological dependence (addiction), or phentermine drug cravings in overweight, obese and weight loss maintenance patients. To investigate whether amphetamine-like withdrawal occurs after abrupt cessation of long-term phentermine treatment.Design:Clinical intervention trial with interruption of phentermine treatment in long-term patients.Subjects:269 obese, overweight or formerly obese subjects (age: 20-88y, BMI: 21-74) treated with phentermine long-term (LTP, N=117), 1.1 - 21.1 years, or short-term (ATP, N=152), 4-22 days, with phentermine doses of 18.75-112.5 (LTP) and 15-93.75 (ATP) milligrams/day.Measurements:Module K of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview modified for phentermine (MINI-SUD), Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), 45-item Cocaine Craving Questionnaire-NOW (CCQ-NOW) modified for phentermine (PCQ-NOW), and Amphetamine Withdrawal Questionnaire (AWQ) modified for phentermine (PWQ).Results:MINI-SUD interviews were negative for phentermine abuse or psychological dependence in all LTP patients. SDS examination scores were low for all LTP and ATP patients indicating they were not psychologically dependent upon phentermine. PCQ-NOW scores were low for all LTP and ATP patients indicating neither short-term nor long-term phentermine treatment had induced phentermine cravings. Other than an increase in hunger or eating, amphetamine-like withdrawal symptoms did not occur upon abrupt phentermine cessation as measured by sequential PWQ scores.Conclusions:Phentermine abuse or psychological dependence (addiction) does not occur in patients treated with phentermine for obesity. Phentermine treatment does not induce phentermine drug cravings, a hallmark sign of addiction. Amphetamine-like withdrawal does not occur upon abrupt treatment cessation even at doses much higher than commonly recommended and after treatment durations of up to 21 years.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 17 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.74.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 05/2013; · 5.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the association between anthropometric measures of obesity and all-cause mortality in white and African American men and women. The sample included 14,343 adults 18-89 years of age. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were measured, and the BMI (kg m(-2) ), body adiposity index (BAI = ([hip circumference in centimeters]/[height in meters])(1.5) - 18), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were computed. Vital status of the participants was determined from linkage with the National Death Index through 2009. Cox regression was used to assess the association between anthropometry and all-cause mortality, adjusting for age, sex, year of baseline examination, study code, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity. Hazard ratios (HR) are expressed per standard deviation of each variable. A total of 438 deaths occurred during 120,637 person-years of follow-up. All anthropometric markers demonstrated significant associations with all-cause mortality in white subjects. In multivariable-adjusted models, BMI (HR 1.34; 95% CI: 1.19-1.50), waist circumference (1.41; 1.25-1.60), BAI (1.34; 1.17-1.53), WHtR (1.46; 1.28-1.65), and WHR (1.40; 1.23-1.61) all demonstrated significant relationships with mortality in white participants, but not in African Americans. In categorical analyses, there was a significant association between BMI status and mortality in whites but not African Americans. However, the risk associated with elevated waist circumference was similar in whites (1.49; 1.15-1.94) and African Americans (1.60; 1.06-2.40). In summary, this study has demonstrated race differences in the association between anthropometry and all-cause mortality.
    Obesity 05/2013; 21(5):1070-5. · 3.92 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
884.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2014
    • Louisiana State University
      • • Department of Food Science
      • • School of Human Ecology
      • • Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences
      • • School of Renewable Natural Resources
      • • School of Kinesiology
      • • Pennington Biomedical Research Center
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
  • 1995–2014
    • Pennington Biomedical Research Center
      • Nutrient Sensing and Adipocyte Signaling Laboratory
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Torrance, California, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Medicine
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
    • University of California, Irvine
      Irvine, California, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • St. Elizabeth's Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 2005–2011
    • Louisiana State University Agricultural Center
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
  • 2009
    • Wake Forest University
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Division of Nutrition
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2008
    • Utah State University
      Logan, Ohio, United States
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      New Orleans, LA, United States
    • Mills-Peninsula Health Services
      Burlingame, California, United States
  • 2001
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1977–2000
    • Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States