David V Graham

University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, SCT, United Kingdom

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Publications (26)128.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The first solid-state structures of ortho-sulfonated monoazo dyestuffs are reported and compared to those of their para- and meta-sulfonated analogues. The structures of the 16 Na, K, Cs, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba ortho-sulfonated salts are found to have fewer M-O(3)S bonds than their isomeric equivalents and this in turn means that the metal type is no longer the prime indicator of which structural type will be adopted. M-O(3)S bonds are replaced by M-OH(2), M-HOR and M-pi interactions, apparently for steric reasons. As well as new bonding motifs, the changed dye shape also leads to new packing motifs. The simple organic/inorganic layering ubiquitous to the para- and meta-sulfonated dye salt structures is replaced by variations (organic bilayers, inorganic channels), each of which correlates with a different degree of molecular planarity in the sulfonated azo dye anion.
    Chemistry 09/2009; 15(37):9494-504. · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two potassium-dialkyl-TMP-zincate bases [(pmdeta)K(mu-Et)(mu-tmp)Zn(Et)] (1) (PMDETA = N,N,N',N'',N''-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine, TMP = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide), and [(pmdeta)K(mu-nBu)(mu-tmp)Zn(nBu)] (2), have been synthesized by a simple co-complexation procedure. Treatment of 1 with a series of substituted 4-R-pyridines (R = Me(2)N, H, Et, iPr, tBu, and Ph) gave 2-zincated products of the general formula [{2-Zn(Et)(2)-mu-4-R-C(5)H(3)N}(2)2{K(pmdeta)}] (3-8, respectively) in isolated crystalline yields of 53, 16, 7, 23, 67, and 51%, respectively; the treatment of 2 with 4-tBu-pyridine gave [{2-Zn(nBu)(2)-mu-4-tBu-C(5)H(3)N}(2)2{K(pmdeta)}] (9) in an isolated crystalline yield of 58%. Single-crystal X-ray crystallographic and NMR spectroscopic characterization of 3-9 revealed a novel structural motif consisting of a dianionic dihydroanthracene-like tricyclic ring system with a central diazadicarbadizinca (ZnCN)(2) ring, face-capped on either side by PMDETA-wrapped K(+) cations. All the new metalated pyridine complexes share this dimeric arrangement. As determined by NMR spectroscopic investigations of the reaction filtrates, those solutions producing 3, 7, 8, and 9 appear to be essentially clean reactions, in contrast to those producing 4, 5, and 6, which also contain laterally zincated coproducts. In all of these metalation reactions, the potassium-zincate base acts as an amido transfer agent with a subsequent ligand-exchange mechanism (amido replacing alkyl) inhibited by the coordinative saturation, and thus, low Lewis acidity of the 4-coordinate Zn centers in these dimeric molecules. Studies on analogous trialkyl-zincate reagents in the absence and presence of stoichiometric or substoichiometric amounts of TMP(H) established the importance of Zn-N bonds for efficient zincation.
    Chemistry 07/2009; 15(29):7074-82. · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A systematic study of the interlocking co-complexation reactions between the primary lithium amide LiNHDipp (Dipp = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl) and dimethylzinc in the presence of different donor ligands is presented which concludes that the final outcome of these reactions is largely dictated by the type of structure that is formed when the donor is coordinated to the lithium amide. When chelating diamine TMEDA (N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) is employed [{Li(2)(NHDipp)(2)(TMEDA)}(infinity)] (1) is obtained, where Li(2)N(2) rings are connected by TMEDA bridges generating a polymeric chain arrangement which does not form a co-complex with Me(2)Zn even in the presence of an excess of TMEDA. The tridentate ligand PMDETA (N,N,N',N'',N''-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine) when reacted with LiNHDipp forms monomeric [(PMDETA)Li(NHDipp)](4) which successfully forms a mixed-metal co-complex with Me(2)Zn affording dialkyl(amido)zincate [(PMDETA)LiZn(NHDipp)(Me)(2)] (2). When the co-complexation reaction is carried out in the presence of monodentate tetrahydrofuran (THF), zincate [(THF)(3)LiZn(NHDipp)(Me)(2)] (3) is obtained which was found to partially decompose in hexane solution after long periods of time at room temperature (2 weeks) to afford the unprecedented "zinc-rich" zincate [(THF)(3)LiZn(2)(Me)(3)(NHDipp)(2)] (5). This compound presents a unique structure in the solid state previously unknown in organozincate chemistry with a trinuclear Li...Zn...Zn chain arrangement where the metals are connected by only two amido bridges and therefore both zinc centers exhibit trigonal planar geometries. 5 can be prepared in good yields by the rational reaction of LiNHDipp with a 2:1:3 mixture of Me(2)Zn, NH(2)Dipp and THF. The different solid-state structural motifs of compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 have been revealed by X-ray crystallographic studies. Multinuclear NMR ((1)H, (13)C and (7)Li) spectroscopic data recorded in C(6)D(6) solution are also reported for compounds 1-6. Mixed-metal compounds 2 and 5 constitute the first examples of crystallographically characterized alkyl(amido)zincates containing a primary amide.
    Inorganic Chemistry 06/2009; 48(12):5320-7. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) with a group 1 metal (Li, Na, K, Rb, or Cs), resulted in the reduction of this important radical to the TEMPO(-) anion--the first examples of elemental-metal single electron reduction of the radical to its anionic form. The synthesis and characterization of seven alkali metal TEMPO(-) complexes are reported. A variety of structural motifs are encountered depending on the choice of metal and/or solvent. (THF)(2) x [Li(+)(TEMPO(-))](4) 1 crystallized from THF as a cyclic (Li(4)O(4)) molecule. Two Li centers are stabilized by coordination to a THF molecule; the others by intramolecular coordination to N(TEMPO) atoms. [(THF) x Na(+)(TEMPO(-))](4) 2 exists as a distorted cubane where each Na center is coordinated to a THF molecule. No appreciable Na-N(TEMPO) coordination is observed. [(THF)(2) x Na(+)(3)(TEMPO(-))(2)(OH)](2) 3 was serendipitously prepared and exists as a distorted bis(cubane). It is envisaged that 3 is formed from 2 by insertion of a (Na-OH)(2) double bridge into its framework. [Na(+)(4)(mu(3)-TEMPO(-))(2)(mu(2)-TEMPO(-))(2)(TMEDA)(2)] 4, adopts a four-runged ladder structure, whereby the two outer Na centers are coordinated to TMEDA, in addition to two mu(2)-O and a N atom. The inner metal atoms are bound to three mu(3)-O atoms and a N atom. [(THF) x K(+)(TEMPO(-))](4) 5 resembles the motif found for 2; however, presumably because of the larger size of the metal, K-N(TEMPO) interactions are present in 5. The asymmetric unit of [(TMEDA) x Rb(+)(2)(TEMPO(-))(2)](2) 6 comprises a Rb(4)O(4) cubane with half a molecule of TMEDA coordinated to each metal. From a supramolecular perspective, 6 exists as a polymeric array of cubane units connected by TMEDA bridges. Completing the series, [Cs(+)(TEMPO)](infinity) 7 crystallizes from hexane to form a donor-free polymeric complex. Complexes 1, 2, and 4-7 are soluble in D(8)-THF solution, and their NMR spectra are reported. The solution structures in donor solvent appear virtually identical.
    Inorganic Chemistry 06/2009; 48(14):6934-44. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toluene has been directly zincated by reaction with the heteroleptic sodium zincate [(tmeda)Na(tBu)(tmp)Zn(tBu)] (1) to afford a statistical mixture of the meta and para regioisomers of [(tmeda)Na(C(6)H(4)Me)(tmp)Zn(tBu)] (2) (TMEDA = N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine, TMP = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide). Interestingly, the methyl group of toluene has been left untouched by the mixed-metal base. The crystal structures of both regioisomers have been elucidated by using X-ray crystallography, which revealed a common motif, in which zinc lies in the same plane as the tolyl ring and binds strongly to the carbon that has experienced the deprotonation, leading to a covalent sigma bond; whereas sodium adopts a perpendicular disposition, pi-engaging with the aromatic ring. DFT studies of the reaction of 1 with toluene showed that of the four possible regioisomers, the experimentally observed meta and para ones are the most thermodynamically preferred products due to a large extent to the combined (synergic) effect of the zinc and sodium and the different way in which each metal binds to the tolyl anion. In contrast, the more straightforward benzyl-based zincate [(tmeda)(2)Na(CH(2)Ph)Zn(tBu)(2)] (3) is obtained through an indirect route, in which toluene is first laterally metallated by monometallic butylsodium to afford benzylsodium, which then forms a mixed-metal compound by co-complexation with tBu(2)Zn. Zincate 3 has been characterised by X-ray crystallography in the solid state and by NMR spectroscopy in deuterated THF solution.
    Chemistry 03/2009; 15(15):3800-7. · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The solution and solid-state characterization of the tetraorganozincates [(TMEDA)2Li2ZnMe(NMe2)3] (2) and [(TMEDA)2Li2ZnMe4] (4) and the all-amido triorganozincate [{(TMEDA)LiZn(NMe2)3}2] (3) are reported. X-ray crystallographic studies reveal that 2 and 4 exhibit similar structural motifs, namely trinuclear Li···Zn···Li chain arrangements held together by a methyl and three amido ligands in the former and exclusively by methyl groups in the latter, whereas 3 adopts a longer tetranuclear Li···Zn···Zn···Li chain arrangement with all NMe2 ligands. The zinc coordination in all these structures is distorted tetrahedral. DFT calculations revealed that the formation of tetraorganozincate 4 by cocomplexation of 2 equiv of MeLi and Me2Zn is thermodynamically preferred over the parent triorganozincate [(TMEDA)LiZnMe3]. Preliminary studies show that the tris(amido)alkyl zincate 2 is a poor Brønsted base for metalation (zincation) of functionalized aromatic substrates such as anisole, N,N-diisopropylbenzamide, and benzonitrile.
    11/2008;
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition 11/2008; 47(42):7968. · 11.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The new mixed lithium−zinc enolate compounds [(TMEDA)2Li2Zn{OC(CH2)Mes}4] (2) and [{TMP(H)}2Li2Zn{OC(CH2)Mes}4] (3) were prepared by reaction of the sterically demanding ketone 2,4,6-trimethylacetophenone (1) with the all-amido homoleptic zincate [LiZn(TMP)3] (TMP = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide). X-ray crystallographic studies revealed that these compounds adopt a trinuclear Li···Zn···Li chain arrangement with enolate O bridges. In contrast, the metalation of 1 with heteroleptic [(TMEDA)LiZn(TMP)Me2] afforded the dimeric lithium enolate [(TMEDA)2Li2{OC(CH2)Mes}2] (4) as a crystalline solid, which has been characterized in the solid state by X-ray crystallography, and Me2Zn·TMEDA and TMP(H) as coproducts, showing that the dimethylamido zincate behaves as an amide base. The homoleptic zinc enolate [(TMEDA)Zn{OC(CH2)Mes}2] (5) was obtained by reaction of 1 with the zinc amide Zn(TMP)2, and its structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. 5 adopts a rarely observed monomeric arrangement where the two enolate groups bind terminally to the zinc. New enolates 2−5 have also been characterized by 1H, 13C, and 7Li NMR spectroscopy in C6D6 solution. DFT studies of the metalation of 1 by Zn(TMP)2 and Et2Zn revealed that the former amide has a much greater kinetic basicity than the latter alkyl reagent.
    Organometallics. 10/2008; 27(22).
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    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 09/2008; 47(42):8079-81. · 11.34 Impact Factor
  • Angewandte Chemie 07/2008; 120(42):8199 - 8201.
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    ABSTRACT: The new synergic base [PMDETA.K(TMP)(Et)Zn(Et)] selectively zincates 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine at the 2-position and 4-methoxypyridine at the 3-position, to afford bimetallic potassium pyridylzinc complexes each displaying a novel, but remarkably different, structure.
    Chemical Communications 07/2008; · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a study aimed at developing the diisopropylamido (DA) chemistry of zincates, the new lithium DA-zincate [(TMEDA)·Li(tBu)(DA)Zn(tBu)] (4) has been synthesized by an interlocking cocomplexation approach comprising mixing of its three component chemicals, LDA, tBu2Zn, and TMEDA, in a 1:1:1 ratio in hexane solution. Previously made by transamination from the corresponding TMP-zincate, the known sodium congener [(TMEDA)·Na(tBu)(DA)Zn(tBu)] (2) was also synthesized by this approach, substituting NaDA for LDA. Closely resembling each other, their molecular structures determined by X-ray crystallography can be categorized as contact ion-pair ates of TMEDA-chelated alkali metal cations linked to trigonal-planar dialkyl-Zn anions via bridging DA ligands. Reaction of 4 and 2 with phenylacetylene affords the bimetallic acetylides [{(TMEDA)·Li(CCPh)2Zn(tBu)}2·(TMEDA)] (5) and [{(TMEDA)·Na(CCPh)2Zn(tBu)}2 ] (6), respectively. X-ray crystallographic studies reveal 5 is a pseudodimer (tetranuclear) with two (LiCZnC) rings linked at the Zn atoms by a bridging, nonchelating TMEDA ligand; in contrast 6 adopts a distorted cubane of alternating PhCC and metal (2 Na, 2 Zn) corners. For comparison, the synthesis and crystal structures of the neutral zinc complexes [(TMEDA)·Zn(CCPh)2] (7) and [(TMEDA)·Zn(tBu)(CCPh)] (8), formally components of the ate complexes 5 and 6, are also reported. In addition, the 1H and 13C NMR spectra of 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 recorded from solutions in C6D6 are disclosed.
    Organometallics. 05/2008; 27(11).
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    ABSTRACT: Two lithium and one sodium diamine bis(phenolate) complexes have been prepared and characterised by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. Two parent diamine bis(phenol) ligands were utilised in the study (1-H2 and 2-H2). Dimeric (1-Li2)(2) was prepared by treating 1-H2 with two molar equivalents of n-butyllithium in hydrocarbon solvent. It adopts a ladder-like structure in the solid state, which appears to deaggregate in C6D6 solution. The monomeric (hence, dinuclear) TMEDA-solvated species [2-Li(2).(TMEDA)] has two chemically unique Li atoms in the solid state and is prepared by reacting 2-H2 with two molar equivalents of n-butyllithium in hydrocarbon solvent, in the presence of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA). Finally, the dimeric sodium-based [2-Na(2) x (OEt2](2) was prepared by reacting 1-H2 with two molar equivalents of freshly prepared n-butylsodium in a hydrocarbon-diethyl ether medium. The complex adopts a Na4O4) cuboidal structure in the solid state, which appears to remain intact in C6D6 solution.
    Dalton Transactions 04/2008; · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using a co-complexation methodology the unsolvated lithium zincate [LiZn(HMDS)Me2] ( 4, HMDS = 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazide) was prepared by reaction of an equimolar amount of LiHMDS with Me2Zn in a non-polar toluene-hexane solvent mixture. X-Ray crystallographic studies reveal that the asymmetric unit of 4 has a dinuclear arrangement, based on a planar LiNZnC four-membered ring. As a result of intermolecular interactions between the lithium centre of one asymmetric unit and a terminal methyl group of another, 4 presents a polymeric chain array in the solid state. DFT calculations revealed that the formation of the polymer is the driving force for the success of co-complexation of LiHMDS and Me2Zn to yield the unsolvated zincate 4. The reaction of 4 with PMDETA (N,N,N,N,N-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine) afforded the new solvated zincate [(PMDETA)Li(mu-Me)Zn(HMDS)Me] ( 5). X-Ray crystallographic studies show that the asymmetric unit of 5 consists of an open, dinuclear LiCZnC arrangement rather than a closed cyclic one, in which the HMDS ligand unusually occupies a terminal position on Zn. DFT computational studies showed that the structure found for 5 was energetically preferred to the expected HMDS-bridging isomer due to the steric hindrance imposed by the tridentate PMDETA ligand. The reaction of 4 with the neutral nitrogen donors 4-tert-butylpyridine and tert-butylcyanide afforded the homometallic compounds [(tBu-pyr)Li(HMDS)] ( 6) and [(tBuCN)Li(HMDS)] ( 7) respectively as a result of disproportionation reactions. Compounds 6 and 7 were characterized by NMR (1H, 13C and 7Li) spectroscopy.
    Dalton Transactions 04/2008; · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reactivity of the Brønsted basic mixed-metal tris-amide compounds of empirical formula [MMg(N(i)Pr2)3] [where M = Li (1), Na (2)] towards phenylacetylene (HC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh) has been investigated and has led to the synthesis of a series of mixed-metal acetylido-amido-magnesiates. Thus, 1 and 2 molar equivalents of the alkyne with [MMg(N(i)Pr2)3] produce heteroanionic bis(amido)-mono(acetylido) [LiMg(N(i)Pr2)2(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)]2 (3) and mono(amido)-bis(acetylido) [(TMEDA) x Na(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)2Mg(N(i)Pr2)](2) (4) (TMEDA = N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) respectively. X-Ray crystallographic studies reveal that the new compounds adopt a different structural motif. Complex can be defined as an inverse crown structure, having a cationic eight-atom [(NaNMgN)2]2+ ring which hosts in its core two acetylido ligands. On the other hand, adopts a tetranuclear NaMgMgNa near-linear chain arrangement, held together by acetylido and amido bridges. The metal coordination geometries in both structures are distorted tetrahedral, and the sodium cations at the end of the mixed-metal chain carry terminal chelating TMEDA ligands. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data recorded in C6D6 solutions are also reported for and , and are consistent with the solid-state structures being retained in solution.
    Dalton Transactions 04/2008; · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lithium TMP-aluminate "(i)Bu(3)Al(TMP)Li" undergoes dismutation in THF solution to precipitate the tetraalkylaluminate [{Li.(THF)(4)}(+){Al((i)Bu)(4)}(-)], but reacts kinetically as a TMP base towards N,N-diisopropylbenzamide to afford the crystalline ortho-aluminated species [(THF)(3).Li{O([=C)N((i)Pr)(2)(C(6)H(4))}Al((i)Bu)(3)] and TMPH.
    Chemical Communications 01/2008; · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two heavy alkali-metal salts of the sterically demanding amine, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (TMPH), have been prepared using different methodologies. Complex 1, [((tmeda)Na(tmp))2] (TMEDA=N,N, N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine), can be synthesized by a deprotonative route. This is achieved by reacting butylsodium with TMPH in the presence of excess TMEDA in hexane. The potassium congener [((tmeda)K(tmp))2] (2), can be prepared by treating KTMP (made using a metathesis reaction between LiTMP and potassium tert-butoxide) with an excess of TMEDA in hexane. In the solid state, 1 and 2 are essentially isostructural. They are discretely dimeric and their framework consists of a four-membered M-N-M-N ring (M=Na or K, N=TMP). Due to the high steric demand of the TMP ligand, the TMEDA molecules bind to the metal centers in an asymmetric manner. In 2, each of the coordination spheres of the metals is completed by an agostic K...CH3(TMP) interaction. DFT calculations at the B3 LYP/6-311G** level give an insight into why 1 and 2 adopt dramatically different structures from their previously reported, "open-dimeric", lithium counterpart. The theoretical work also focuses on the TMEDA-free parent amide complexes and reveals that the energy difference for the formation of [(M(tmp))x] (in which, M=Li or Na, x=3 or 4; and M=K, x=2, 3 or 4) are small.
    Chemistry 01/2008; 14(26):8025-34. · 5.83 Impact Factor
  • Angewandte Chemie 05/2007; 119(25):4746 - 4750.
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    ABSTRACT: The first sodium-magnesium and sodium-zinc ketimido complexes display contrasting inverse crown ring and pseudo-cubane structures respectively, while a sodium-zinc heterotrianionic alkide-alkoxide-amide adopts a third type of structure with a stepped ladder motif.
    Chemical Communications 05/2007; · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Benzene can be easily 1,4-dideprotonated stoichiometrically on reaction with two equivalents of a synergic mixture of tBu2Zn, NaTMP and TMEDA to give a unique 1,4-dizincated benzene product which has been characterised by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy as well as modelled theoretically by DFT computational studies; a related synergic dimagnesiation of benzene is also reported.
    Chemical Communications 03/2007; · 6.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

135 Citations
128.60 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2009
    • University of Strathclyde
      • Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry
      Glasgow, SCT, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • Newcastle University
      • School of Chemistry
      Newcastle upon Tyne, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      • Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry
      Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany