[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: -The nitroxyl (HNO) donor, Angeli's salt (AS), exerts positive inotropic, lusitropic, and vasodilator effects in vivo that are cyclic AMP-independent. Its clinical utility is limited by chemical instability and co-generation of nitrite that itself has vascular effects. Here we report on effects of a novel, stable, pure HNO donor (CXl-1020) in isolated myoctyes, and intact hearts in experimental models and in patients with heart failure (HF).
-CXL-1020 converts solely to HNO and inactive CXL-1051 with a t1/2 of 2 minutes. In adult mouse ventricular-myocytes, it dose-dependently increased sarcomere shortening by 75-210% (50-500 μM), with a ~30% rise in the peak Ca(2+) transient only at higher doses. Neither protein-kinase-A or soluble guanylate-cyclase inhibition altered this contractile response. Unlike isoproterenol, CXL-1020 was equally effective in myocytes from normal or failing hearts. In anesthetized dogs with coronary microembolization-induced HF, CXL-1020 reduced LV end-diastolic pressure and myocardial oxygen-consumption while increasing ejection fraction from 27 to 40% and maximal ventricular power index by 42% (both p<0.05). In conscious dogs with tachypacing-induced HF, CXL-1020 increased contractility assessed by end-systolic elastance, and provided veno-arterial dilation. Heart rate was minimally altered. In patients with systolic HF, CXL-1020 reduced both left and right heart filling pressures and systemic vascular resistance, while increasing cardiac and stroke volume index. Heart rate was unchanged, and arterial pressure declined modestly.
-These data show the functional efficacy of a novel pure HNO donor to enhance myocardial function, and show first-in-man evidence for potential utility in heart failure. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01096043, NCT01092325.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are mitochondrial flavoenzymes responsible for neurotransmitter and biogenic amines catabolism. MAO-A contributes to heart failure progression via enhanced norepinephrine catabolism and oxidative stress. The potential pathogenetic role of the isoenzyme MAO-B in cardiac diseases is currently unknown. Moreover, it is has not been determined yet whether MAO activation can directly affect mitochondrial function. Results: In WT mice, pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) resulted in enhanced dopamine catabolism, left ventricular (LV) remodeling and dysfunction. Conversely, mice lacking MAO-B (MAO-B-/-) subjected to TAC maintained concentric hypertrophy accompanied by ERK1/2 activation, and preserved LV function, both at early (3 weeks) and late stages (9 weeks). Enhanced MAO activation triggered oxidative stress, and dropped mitochondrial membrane potential in the presence of ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin both in neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes. The MAO-B inhibitor pargyline completely offset this change, suggesting that MAO activation induces a latent mitochondrial dysfunction, causing these organelles to hydrolyze ATP. Moreover, MAO-dependent aldehyde formation due to inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity also contributed to alter mitochondrial bioenergetics. Innovation: Our study unravels a novel role for MAO-B in the pathogenesis of heart failure, showing that both MAO-driven ROS production and impaired aldehyde metabolism affect mitochondrial function. Conclusion: Under conditions of chronic hemodynamic stress, enhanced MAO-B activity is a major determinant of cardiac structural and functional disarrangement. Both increased oxidative stress and the accumulation of aldehyde intermediates are likely liable for these adverse morphological and mechanical changes by directly targeting mitochondria.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the normal heart, phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) hydrolyzes cGMP coupled to nitric oxide- (specifically from nitric oxide synthase 3) but not natriuretic peptide (NP)-stimulated guanylyl cyclase. PDE5 is upregulated in hypertrophied and failing hearts and is thought to contribute to their pathophysiology. Because nitric oxide signaling declines whereas NP-derived cGMP rises in such diseases, we hypothesized that PDE5 substrate selectivity is retargeted to blunt NP-derived signaling.
Mice with cardiac myocyte inducible PDE5 overexpression (P5(+)) were crossed to those lacking nitric oxide synthase 3 (N3(-)), and each model, the double cross, and controls were subjected to transaortic constriction. P5(+) mice developed worse dysfunction and hypertrophy and enhanced NP stimulation, whereas N3(-) mice were protected. However, P5(+)/N3(-) mice behaved similarly to P5(+) mice despite the lack of nitric oxide synthase 3-coupled cGMP generation, with protein kinase G activity suppressed in both models. PDE5 inhibition did not alter atrial natriuretic peptide-stimulated cGMP in the resting heart but augmented it in the transaortic constriction heart. This functional retargeting was associated with PDE5 translocation from sarcomeres to a dispersed distribution. P5(+) hearts exhibited higher oxidative stress, whereas P5(+)/N3(-) hearts had low levels (likely owing to the absence of nitric oxide synthase 3 uncoupling). This highlights the importance of myocyte protein kinase G activity as a protection for pathological remodeling.
These data provide the first evidence for functional retargeting of PDE5 from one compartment to another, revealing a role for natriuretic peptide-derived cGMP hydrolysis by this esterase in diseased heart myocardium. Retargeting likely affects the pathophysiological consequence and the therapeutic impact of PDE5 modulation in heart disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) generates cyclic guanosine monophophate (cGMP) upon activation by nitric oxide (NO). Cardiac NO-sGC-cGMP signaling blunts cardiac stress responses, including pressure-overload-induced hypertrophy. The latter itself depresses signaling through this pathway by reducing NO generation and enhancing cGMP hydrolysis.
We tested the hypothesis that the sGC response to NO also declines with pressure-overload stress and assessed the role of heme-oxidation and altered intracellular compartmentation of sGC as potential mechanisms.
C57BL/6 mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) developed cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. NO-stimulated sGC activity was markedly depressed, whereas NO- and heme-independent sGC activation by BAY 60-2770 was preserved. Total sGCα(1) and β(1) expression were unchanged by TAC; however, sGCβ(1) subunits shifted out of caveolin-enriched microdomains. NO-stimulated sGC activity was 2- to 3-fold greater in Cav3-containing lipid raft versus nonlipid raft domains in control and 6-fold greater after TAC. In contrast, BAY 60-2770 responses were >10 fold higher in non-Cav3 domains with and without TAC, declining about 60% after TAC within each compartment. Mice genetically lacking Cav3 had reduced NO- and BAY-stimulated sGC activity in microdomains containing Cav3 for controls but no change within non-Cav3-enriched domains.
Pressure overload depresses NO/heme-dependent sGC activation in the heart, consistent with enhanced oxidation. The data reveal a novel additional mechanism for reduced NO-coupled sGC activity related to dynamic shifts in membrane microdomain localization, with Cav3-microdomains protecting sGC from heme-oxidation and facilitating NO responsiveness. Translocation of sGC out of this domain favors sGC oxidation and contributes to depressed NO-stimulated sGC activity.
Circulation Research 11/2011; 110(2):295-303. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), in which both ventricles are paced to recoordinate contraction in hearts that are dyssynchronous from conduction delay, is the only heart failure (HF) therapy to date to clinically improve acute and chronic function while also lowering mortality. CRT acutely enhances chamber mechanical efficiency but chronically alters myocyte signaling, including improving β-adrenergic receptor reserve. We speculated that the latter would identify unique CRT effects that might themselves be effective for HF more generally. HF was induced in dogs by 6 weeks of atrial rapid pacing with (HFdys, left bundle ablated) or without (HFsyn) dyssynchrony. We used dyssynchronous followed by resynchronized tachypacing (each 3 weeks) for CRT. Both HFdys and HFsyn myocytes had similarly depressed rest and β-adrenergic receptor sarcomere and calcium responses, particularly the β2-adrenergic response, whereas cells subjected to CRT behaved similarly to those from healthy controls. CRT myocytes exhibited suppressed Gαi signaling linked to increased regulator of G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein) signaling (RGS2, RGS3), yielding Gαs-biased β2-adrenergic responses. This included increased adenosine cyclic AMP responsiveness and activation of sarcoplasmic reticulum-localized protein kinase A. Human CRT responders also showed up-regulated myocardial RGS2 and RGS3. Inhibition of Gαi (with pertussis toxin, RGS3, or RGS2 transfection), stimulation with a Gαs-biased β2 agonist (fenoterol), or transient (2-week) exposure to dyssynchrony restored β-adrenergic receptor responses in HFsyn to the values obtained after CRT. These results identify a key pathway that is triggered by restoring contractile synchrony and that may represent a new therapeutic approach for a broad population of HF patients.
Science translational medicine 09/2011; 3(100):100ra88. · 10.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cardiac pathological response to sustained pressure overload involves myocyte hypertrophy and dysfunction along with interstitial changes such as fibrosis and reduced capillary density. These changes are orchestrated by mechanical forces and factors secreted between cells. One such secreted factor is TGF-β, which is generated by and interacts with multiple cell types. Here we have shown that TGF-β suppression in cardiomyocytes was required to protect against maladaptive remodeling and involved noncanonical (non-Smad-related) signaling. Mouse hearts subjected to pressure overload and treated with a TGF-β-neutralizing Ab had suppressed Smad activation in the interstitium but not in myocytes, and noncanonical (TGF-β-activated kinase 1 [TAK1]) activation remained. Although fibrosis was greatly reduced, chamber dysfunction and dilation persisted. Induced myocyte knockdown of TGF-β type 2 receptor (TβR2) blocked all maladaptive responses, inhibiting myocyte and interstitial Smad and TAK1. Myocyte knockdown of TβR1 suppressed myocyte but not interstitial Smad, nor TAK1, modestly reducing fibrosis without improving chamber function or hypertrophy. Only TβR2 knockdown preserved capillary density after pressure overload, enhancing BMP7, a regulator of the endothelial-mesenchymal transition. BMP7 enhancement also was coupled to TAK1 suppression. Thus, myocyte targeting is required to modulate TGF-β in hearts subjected to pressure overload, with noncanonical pathways predominantly affecting the maladaptive hypertrophy/dysfunction.
The Journal of clinical investigation 06/2011; 121(6):2301-12. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The exogenous administration of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), has been shown to reduce left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and cardiac dysfunction in mice with pre-established heart disease induced by pressure-overload. In this setting, BH4 re-coupled endothelial NOS (eNOS), with subsequent reduction of NOS-dependent oxidative stress and reversal of maladaptive remodeling. However, recent studies suggest the effective BH4 dosing may be narrower than previously thought, potentially due to its oxidation upon oral consumption. Accordingly, we assessed the dose response of daily oral synthetic sapropterin dihydrochloride (6-R-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin, 6R-BH4) on pre-established pressure-overload cardiac disease. Mice (n=64) were administered 0-400mg/kg/d BH4 by ingesting small pre-made pellets (consumed over 15-30 min). In a dose range of 36-200mg/kg/d, 6R-BH4 suppressed cardiac chamber remodeling, hypertrophy, fibrosis, and oxidative stress with pressure-overload. However, at both lower and higher doses, BH4 had less or no ameliorative effects. The effective doses correlated with a higher myocardial BH4/BH2 ratio. However, BH2 rose linearly with dose, and at the 400mg/kg/d, this lowered the BH4/BH2 ratio back toward control. These results expose a potential limitation for the clinical use of BH4, as variability of cellular redox and perhaps heart disease could produce a variable therapeutic window among individuals. This article is part of a special issue entitled ''Key Signaling Molecules in Hypertrophy and Heart Failure.''
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 05/2011; 51(4):564-9. · 5.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two major β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) subtypes, β(1)AR and β(2)AR, are expressed in mammalian heart with β(1)AR coupling to G(s) and β(2)AR dually coupling to G(s) and G(i) proteins. In many types of chronic heart failure, myocardial contractile response to both β(1)AR and β(2)AR stimulation is severely impaired. The dysfunction of βAR signaling in failing hearts is largely attributable to an increase in G(i) signaling, because disruption of the G(i) signaling restores myocardial contractile response to β(1)AR as well as β(2)AR stimulation. However, the mechanism terminating the β(2)AR-G(i) signaling remains elusive, while it has been shown activation of the G(i) signaling is dependent on agonist stimulation and subsequent PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the receptor. Here we demonstrate that regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2) is a primary terminator of the β(2)AR-G(i) signaling. Specifically, prolonged absence of agonist stimulation for 24h impairs the β(2)AR-G(i) signaling, resulting in enhanced β(2)AR- but not β(1)AR-mediated contractile response in cultured adult mouse cardiomyocytes. Increased β(2)AR contractile response is accompanied by a selective upregulation of RGS2 in the absence of alterations in other major cardiac RGS proteins (RGS3-5) or G(s), G(i) or βAR subtypes. Administration of a βAR agonist, isoproterenol (ISO, 1.0 nM), prevents RGS2 upregulation and restores the β(2)AR-G(i) signaling in cultured cells. Furthermore, RGS2 ablation, similar to βAR agonist stimulation, sustains the β(2)AR-G(i) signaling in cultured cells, whereas adenoviral overexpression of RGS2 suppresses agonist-activated β(2)AR-G(i) signaling in cardiomyocytes and HEK293 cells. These findings not only define RGS2 as a novel negative regulator of the β(2)AR-G(i) signaling but also provide a potential novel target for the treatment of chronic heart failure.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 02/2011; 50(6):1000-7. · 5.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: we tested the hypothesis that bi-directional, gene-targeted regulation of cardiomyocyte cyclic guanosine monophosphate-selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) influences maladaptive remodeling in hearts subjected to sustained pressure overload.
PDE5 expression is up-regulated in human hypertrophied and failing hearts, and its inhibition (e.g., by sildenafil) stimulates protein kinase G activity, suppressing and reversing maladaptive hypertrophy, fibrosis, and contractile dysfunction. Sildenafil is currently being clinically tested for the treatment of heart failure. However, researchers of new studies have questioned the role of myocyte PDE5 and protein kinase G (PKG) to this process, proposing alternative targets and mechanisms.
mice with doxycycline-controllable myocyte-specific PDE5 gene expression were generated (medium transgenic [TG] and high TG expression lines) and subjected to sustained pressure overload.
Rest myocyte and heart function, histology, and molecular profiling were normal in both TG lines versus controls at 2 months of age. However, upon exposure to pressure overload (aortic banding), TG hearts developed more eccentric remodeling, maladaptive molecular signaling, depressed function, and amplified fibrosis with up-regulation of tissue growth factor signaling pathways. PKG activation was inhibited in TG myocytes versus controls. After establishing a severe cardiomyopathic state, high-TG mice received doxycycline to suppress PDE5 expression/activity only in myocytes. This in turn enhanced PKG activity and reversed all previously amplified maladaptive responses, despite sustained pressure overload. Sildenafil was also effective in this regard.
these data strongly support a primary role of myocyte PDE5 regulation to myocardial pathobiology and PDE5 targeting therapy in vivo and reveal a novel mechanism of myocyte-orchestrated extracellular matrix remodeling via PDE5/cyclic guanosine monophosphate-PKG regulatory pathways.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2010; 56(24):2021-30. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphodiesterase type 5A (PDE5A) inhibitors acutely suppress beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) stimulation in left ventricular myocytes and hearts. This modulation requires cyclic GMP synthesis via nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-NO stimulation, but upstream and downstream mechanisms remain un-defined. To determine this, adult cardiac myocytes from genetically engineered mice and controls were studied by video microscopy to assess sarcomere shortening (SS) and fura2-AM fluorescence to measure calcium transients (CaT). Enhanced SS from isoproterenol (ISO, 10 nM) was suppressed >or=50% by the PDE5A inhibitor sildenafil (SIL, 1 microM), without altering CaT. This regulation was unaltered despite co-inhibition of either the cGMP-stimulated cAMP-esterase PDE2 (Bay 60-7550), or cGMP-inhibited cAMP-esterase PDE3 (cilostamide). Thus, the SIL response could not be ascribed to cGMP interaction with alternative PDEs. However, genetic deletion (or pharmacologic blockade) of beta3-ARs, which couple to NOS signaling, fully prevented SIL modulation of ISO-stimulated SS. Importantly, both PDE5A protein expression and activity were similar in beta3-AR knockout (beta3-AR(-/-)) myocytes as in controls. Downstream, cGMP stimulates protein kinase G (PKG), and we found contractile modulation by SIL required PKG activation and enhanced TnI phosphorylation at S23, S24. Myocytes expressing the slow skeletal TnI isoform which lacks these sites displayed no modulation of ISO responses by SIL. Non-equilibrium isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis showed SIL increased TnI phosphorylation above that from concomitant ISO in control but not beta3-AR(-/-) myocytes. These data support a cascade involving beta3-AR stimulation, and subsequent PKG-dependent TnI S23, S24 phosphorylation as primary factors underlying the capacity of acute PDE5A inhibition to blunt myocardial beta-adrenergic stimulation.
Archiv für Kreislaufforschung 05/2010; 105(3):337-47. · 7.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased cyclic GMP from enhanced synthesis or suppressed catabolism (e.g. PDE5 inhibition by sildenafil, SIL) activates protein kinase G (PKG) and blunts cardiac pathological hypertrophy. Suppressed calcineurin (Cn)-NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) signaling appears to be involved, though it remains unclear how this is achieved. One potential mechanism involves activation of Cn/NFAT by calcium entering via transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels (notably TRPC6). Here, we tested the hypothesis that PKG blocks Cn/NFAT activation by modifying and thus inhibiting TRPC6 current to break the positive feedback loop involving NFAT and NFAT-dependent TRPC6 upregulation. TRPC6 expression rose with pressure-overload in vivo, and angiotensin (ATII) or endothelin (ET1) stimulation in neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes in vitro. 8Br-cGMP and SIL reduced ET1-stimulated TRPC6 expression and NFAT dephosphorylation (activity). TRPC6 upregulation was absent if its promoter was mutated with non-functional NFAT binding sites, whereas constitutively active NFAT triggered TRPC6 expression that was not inhibited by SIL. PKG phosphorylated TRPC6, and both T70 and S322 were targeted. Both sites were functionally relevant, as 8Br-cGMP strongly suppressed current in wild-type TRPC6 channels, but not in those with phospho-silencing mutations (T70A, S322A or S322Q). NFAT activation and increased protein synthesis stimulated by ATII or ET1 was blocked by 8Br-cGMP or SIL. However, transfection with T70A or S322Q TRPC6 mutants blocked this inhibitory effect, whereas phospho-mimetic mutants (T70E, S322E, and both combined) suppressed NFAT activation. Thus PDE5-inhibition blocks TRPC6 channel activation and associated Cn/NFAT activation signaling by PKG-dependent channel phosphorylation.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 12/2009; 48(4):713-24. · 5.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are mitochondrial enzymes that catabolize prohypertrophic neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, generating hydrogen peroxide. Because excess reactive oxygen species and catecholamines are major contributors to the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure, MAOs could play an important role in this process.
Here, we investigated the role of MAO-A in maladaptive hypertrophy and heart failure.
We report that MAO-A activity is triggered in isolated neonatal and adult myocytes on stimulation with norepinephrine, followed by increase in cell size, reactive oxygen species production, and signs of maladaptive hypertrophy. All of these in vitro changes occur, in part, independently from alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor-operated signaling and are inhibited by the specific MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline. In mice with left ventricular dilation and pump failure attributable to pressure overload, norepinephrine catabolism by MAO-A is increased accompanied by exacerbated oxidative stress. MAO-A inhibition prevents these changes, and also reverses fetal gene reprogramming, metalloproteinase and caspase-3 activation, as well as myocardial apoptosis. The specific role of MAO-A was further tested in mice expressing a dominant-negative MAO-A (MAO-A(neo)), which were more protected against pressure overload than their wild-type littermates.
In addition to adrenergic receptor-dependent mechanisms, enhanced MAO-A activity coupled with increased intramyocardial norepinephrine availability results in augmented reactive oxygen species generation, contributing to maladaptive remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction in hearts subjected to chronic stress.
Circulation Research 11/2009; 106(1):193-202. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac myocyte targeted MerCreMer transgenic mice expressing tamoxifen-inducible Cre driven by the alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter are increasingly used to control gene expression in the adult heart. Here, we show tamoxifen-mediated MerCreMer (MCM) nuclear translocation can induce severe transient dilated cardiomyopathy in mice with or without loxP transgenes. The cardiomyopathy is accompanied by marked reduction of energy/metabolism and calcium-handling gene expression (eg, PGC1-alpha, peroxisome proliferator-activated alpha, SERCA2A), all fully normalized with recovery. MCM-negative/flox-positive controls display no dysfunction with tamoxifen. Nuclear Cre translocation and equally effective gene knockdown without cardiomyopathy is achievable with raloxifene, suggesting toxicity is not simply from Cre. Careful attention to controls, reduced tamoxifen dosing and/or use of raloxifene is advised with this model.
Circulation Research 07/2009; 105(1):12-5. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The heart initially compensates for hypertension-mediated pressure overload by enhancing its contractile force and developing hypertrophy without dilation. Gq protein-coupled receptor pathways become activated and can depress function, leading to cardiac failure. Initial adaptation mechanisms to reduce cardiac damage during such stimulation remain largely unknown. Here we have shown that this initial adaptation requires regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2). Mice lacking RGS2 had a normal basal cardiac phenotype, yet responded rapidly to pressure overload, with increased myocardial Gq signaling, marked cardiac hypertrophy and failure, and early mortality. Swimming exercise, which is not accompanied by Gq activation, induced a normal cardiac response, while Rgs2 deletion in Galphaq-overexpressing hearts exacerbated hypertrophy and dilation. In vascular smooth muscle, RGS2 is activated by cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), suppressing Gq-stimulated vascular contraction. In normal mice, but not Rgs2-/- mice, PKG activation by the chronic inhibition of cGMP-selective phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) suppressed maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy, inhibiting Gq-coupled stimuli. Importantly, PKG was similarly activated by PDE5 inhibition in myocardium from both genotypes, but PKG plasma membrane translocation was more transient in Rgs2-/- myocytes than in controls and was unaffected by PDE5 inhibition. Thus, RGS2 is required for early myocardial compensation to pressure overload and mediates the initial antihypertrophic and cardioprotective effects of PDE5 inhibitors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 02/2009; 119(2):408-20. · 12.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sought to test the efficacy of phosphodiesterase type 5A (PDE5A) inhibition for treating advanced hypertrophy/remodeling caused by pressure overload, and to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms for this response.
Sildenafil (SIL) inhibits cyclic guanosine monophosphate-specific PDE5A and can blunt the evolution of cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in mice subjected to pressure overload. Whether and how it ameliorates more established advanced disease and dysfunction is unknown.
Mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 3 weeks to establish hypertrophy/dilation, and subsequently treated with SIL (100 mg/kg/day) or placebo for 6 weeks of additional TAC.
The SIL arrested further progressive chamber dilation, dysfunction, fibrosis, and molecular remodeling, increasing myocardial protein kinase G activity. Isolated myocytes from TAC-SIL hearts showed greater sarcomere shortening and relaxation, and enhanced Ca(2+) transients and decay compared with nontreated TAC hearts. The SIL treatment restored gene and protein expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) uptake adenosine triphosphatase (SERCA2a), phospholamban (PLB), and increased PLB phosphorylation (S16), consistent with improved calcium handling. The phosphatase calcineurin (Cn) and/or protein kinase C-alpha (PKCalpha) can both lower phosphorylated phospholamban and depress myocyte calcium cycling. The Cn expression and PKCalpha activation (outer membrane translocation) were enhanced by chronic TAC and reduced by SIL treatment. Expression of PKCdelta and PKCepsilon also increased with TAC but were unaltered by SIL treatment.
SIL treatment applied to well-established hypertrophic cardiac disease can prevent further cardiac and myocyte dysfunction and progressive remodeling. This is associated with improved calcium cycling, and reduction of Cn and PKCalpha activation may be important to this improvement.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 02/2009; 53(2):207-15. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased myocardial cGMP, achieved by enhancing cyclase activity or impeding cGMP hydrolysis by phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE5A), suppresses cellular and whole organ hypertrophy. The efficacy of the latter also requires cyclase stimulation and may depend upon co-activation of maladaptive signaling suppressible by cGMP-stimulated kinase (cGK-1). Thus, PDE5A inhibitors could paradoxically be more effective against higher than lower magnitudes of pressure-overload stress. To test this, mice were subjected to severe or moderate trans-aortic constriction (sTAC, mTAC) for 6 wks +/-co-treatment with oral sildenafil (SIL 200 mg/kg/d). LV mass (LVM) rose 130% after 3-wks sTAC and SIL blunted this by 50%. With mTAC, LVM rose 56% at 3 wks but was unaffected by SIL, whereas a 90% increase in LVM after 6 wks was suppressed by SIL. SIL minimally altered LV function and remodeling with mTAC until later stages that stimulated more hypertrophy and remodeling. SIL stimulated cGK-1 activity similarly at 3 and 6 wks of mTAC. However, pathologic stress signaling (e.g. calcineurin, ERK-MAPkinase) was little activated after 3-wk mTAC, unlike sTAC or later stage mTAC when activity increased and SIL suppressed it. With modest hypertrophy (3-wk mTAC), GSK3beta and Akt phosphorylation were unaltered but SIL enhanced it. However, with more severe hypertrophy (6-wk mTAC and 3-wk sTAC), both kinases were highly phosphorylated and SIL treatment reduced it. Thus, PDE5A-inhibition counters cardiac pressure-overload stress remodeling more effectively at higher than lower magnitude stress, coupled to pathologic signaling activation targetable by cGK-1 stimulation. Such regulation could impact responses of varying disease models to PDE5A inhibitors.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 01/2009; 46(4):560-7. · 5.15 Impact Factor