R G E Haylock

Newcastle University, Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (24)67.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Incidence and mortality from cerebrovascular disease (CVD) [International Classification of Diseases 9th revision (ICD-9) codes: 430-438] was studied in a cohort of 22,377 workers first employed at the Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA) in 1948-1982 and followed up to the end of 2008. The cohort size was increased by 19% and follow-up extended by 3 years over the previous analysis. Radiation doses were estimated using an updated dosimetry system: Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008 (MWDS-2008). For the first time, in an analysis of this cohort, quantitative smoking data were used. Workers of the study cohort were exposed occupationally to prolonged external gamma rays and internal alpha particles. The mean (±standard deviation) total dose from external gamma rays was 0.54 ± 0.76 Gy (95% percentile 2.21 Gy) for males and 0.44 ± 0.65 Gy (95% percentile 1.87 Gy) for females. The mean plutonium body burden in the 31% of workers monitored for internal exposure was 1.32 ± 4.87 kBq (95% percentile 4.71 kBq) for males and 2.21 ± 13.24 kBq (95% percentile 4.56 kBq) for females. The mean total absorbed alpha-particles dose to the liver from incorporated plutonium was 0.23 ± 0.77 Gy (95% percentile 0.89 Gy) in males and 0.44 ± 2.11 Gy (95% percentile 1.25 Gy) in females. After adjusting for nonradiation factors (gender, age, calendar period, employment period, facility, smoking, alcohol consumption), there were significantly increasing trends in CVD incidence associated with total absorbed dose from external gamma rays and total absorbed dose to the liver from internal alpha-particle radiation exposure. Excess relative risks per Gy (ERR/Gy) were 0.46 (95% CI 0.37, 0.57) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.16, 0.42), respectively, based on a linear dose-response model. Adjustments for additional factors (hypertension, body mass index, duration of employment, smoking index and total absorbed dose to the liver from internal exposure during the analysis of external exposure and vice versa) had little effect on the results. The categorical analyses showed that CVD incidence was significantly higher among workers with total absorbed external gamma-ray doses greater than 0.1 Gy compared to those exposed to lower doses and that CVD incidence was also significantly higher among workers with total absorbed internal alpha-particle doses to the liver from incorporated plutonium greater than 0.01 Gy compared to those exposed to lower doses. The results of the categorical analyses of CVD incidence were in good agreement with a linear dose response for external gamma-ray doses but for internal alpha-particle doses the picture was less clear. For the first time an excess risk of CVD mortality was seen in workers whose livers were exposed to internal alpha-particle doses greater than 0.1 Gy compared to those workers who were exposed to doses of less than 0.01 Gy. A significant increasing trend for CVD mortality with internal alpha-particle dose was revealed in the subcohort of workers exposed at doses <1.0 Gy after having adjusted for nonradiation factors, ERR/Gy = 0.84 (95% CI, 0.09, 1.92). These updated results provide good evidence for a linear trend in risk of CVD incidence with external gamma-ray dose. The trend for CVD incidence with internal alpha-particle dose is less clear due to the impact of issues concerning the use of dose estimates based on below the limit of detection bioassay measurements.
    Radiation research. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This report from HPA Radiation Protection Division reflects understanding and evaluation of the current scientific evidence as presented and referenced in this document. ABSTRACT Mortality and cancer incidence have been studied in a cohort of about 175,000 persons on the National Registry for Radiation Workers (NRRW) who were followed until the end of 2001. This analysis is based on a larger cohort and nine years' further follow-up compared with the 2 nd NRRW analysis, and includes cancer registration data for the first time. As in previous NRRW analyses, total mortality and mortality from major causes were less than would be expected based on rates for England and Wales; the Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) for all causes was 81, whilst the SMR for all malignant neoplasms was 84. This "healthy worker effect" was still present after adjustment for social class. The only cause for which mortality was statistically significantly greater than expected from national rates was pleural cancer, probably reflecting exposure to asbestos. Within the cohort, there was borderline evidence of an increasing trend in total mortality with increasing external radiation dose. Much of the evidence for this trend related to cancer. Mortality and incidence from both leukaemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukaemia and the grouping of all malignant neoplasms other than leukaemia increased to a statistically significant extent with increasing dose. The corresponding central estimates of the trend in risk with dose were similar to those for the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, whilst the 90% confidence intervals for the NRRW trends excluded values more than about 2-3 times greater than the A-bomb risk estimates as well as values of zero or less. Whilst there was some evidence of an increasing trend with dose in mortality from all circulatory diseases combined, the irregular pattern in risk with dose and similarities with the corresponding pattern for lung cancer suggest that this finding may, at least in part, be due to confounding by smoking.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The new Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008 (MWDS-2008) was published in 2013 and supersedes the Doses-2005 dosimetry system for Mayak Production Association (PA) workers. It provides revised external and internal dose estimates based on the updated occupational history data. Using MWDS-2008, a cohort of 18,856 workers first employed at one of the main Mayak PA plants during 1948-1972 and followed up to 2005 was identified. Incidence and mortality risks from ischemic heart disease (IHD) (International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 codes 410-414) and from cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) (ICD-9 codes 430-438) were examined in this cohort and compared with previously published risk estimates in the same cohort based on the Doses-2005 dosimetry system. Significant associations were observed between doses from external gamma-rays and IHD and CVD incidence and also between internal doses from alpha-radiation and IHD mortality and CVD incidence. The estimates of excess relative risk (ERR)/Gy were consistent with those estimates from the previous studies based on Doses-2005 system apart from the relationship between CVD incidence and internal liver dose where the ERR/Gy based on MWDS-2008 was just over three times higher than the corresponding estimate based on Doses-2005 system. Adjustment for smoking status did not show any effect on the estimates of risk from internal alpha-particle exposure.
    Biophysik 01/2014; · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Incidence of chronic bronchitis has been studied in a cohort of 12,210 workers first employed at one of the main plants of the Mayak nuclear facility during 1948-1958 and followed up to 31 December 2005. Information on external gamma doses is available for virtually all of these workers; in contrast, plutonium body burden was measured only for 30% of workers. During the follow-up period in the study cohort 1,175 incident cases of chronic bronchitis were verified. The analyses of nonradiation factors revealed that the underlying risk of chronic bronchitis incidence increased with increasing attained age and was higher among smokers compared with never-smokers as would be expected. The most interesting finding in relationship to nonradiation factors was a sharp increase in the baseline chronic bronchitis risk before 1960. The cause of this is not clear but a number of factors may play a role. Based on the follow-up data after 1960, the analysis showed a statistically significant linear dose response relationship with cumulative external gamma-ray dose (ERR/Gy = 0.14, 95% CI 0.01, 0.32). Based on the same subset but with an additional restriction to members with cumulative internal lung dose below 1 Gy, a statistically significant linear dose response relationship with internal alpha-radiation lung dose from incorporated plutonium was found (ERR/Gy = 2.70, 95% CI 1.20, 4.87). In both cases, adjustment was made for nonradiation factors, including smoking and either internal or external dose as appropriate. At present there are no similar incidence studies with which to compare results. However, the most recent data from the atomic bomb survivor cohort (the Life Span Study) showed statistically significant excess mortality risk for respiratory diseases of 22% per Gy and this value is within the confidence bounds of the point estimate of the risk from this study in relation to external dose.
    Radiation Research 11/2013; · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • Colin R. Muirhead, Richard G. E. Haylock
    Biophysik 01/2013; 52(1):155-156. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    C R Muirhead, R Haylock
    British Journal of Cancer 10/2012; 107(9):1660-1. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Following an earlier study of incidence and mortality of ischemic heart disease (IHD) published in 2010, a second analysis has been conducted based on an extended cohort and five additional years of follow-up. The cohort includes 18,763 workers, of whom 25% were females, first employed at the Mayak PA in 1948-1972 and followed up to the end of 2005. Some of these workers were exposed to external gamma rays only, and others were exposed to a mixture of external gamma-rays and internal alpha-particle radiation. A total of 6,134 cases and 2,629 deaths from IHD were identified in the study cohort. A statistically significant increasing trend was found with total external gamma-ray dose in IHD incidence (ERR/Gy 0.099; 95% CI: 0.045-0.153) after adjusting for non-radiation factors. This value reduced slightly when adjusting for internal liver dose. There was no statistically significant increase trend for internal liver dose in IHD incidence. These findings were consistent with an earlier study. New findings in IHD incidence revealed a statistically significant decrease in IHD incidence among workers exposed to external gamma-rays doses of 0.2-0.5 Gy in relation to the external doses below 0.2 Gy. This decreased risk is heavily influenced by female workers. This finding has never been reported in other studies, and the results should be treated with caution. The findings for IHD mortality are similar to those results in the earlier analysis; there was no statistically significant trend with external gamma-ray dose or for internal liver dose after adjustment for external dose. The risk estimates obtained from these analyses of IHD incidence and mortality in relation to external gamma-rays in the cohort of Mayak workers are generally compatible with those from other large occupational radiation worker studies and the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.
    Health physics 07/2012; 103(1):3-14. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Incidence and mortality from cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) (430-438 ICD-9 codes) have been studied in a cohort of 18,763 workers first employed at the Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA) in 1948-1972 and followed up to the end of 2005. Some of the workers were exposed to external gamma-rays only while others were exposed to a mixture of external gamma-rays and internal alpha-particle radiation due to incorporated (239)Pu. After adjusting for non-radiation factors, there were significantly increasing trends in CVD incidence with total absorbed dose from external gamma-rays and total absorbed dose to liver from internal alpha radiation. The CVD incidence was statistically significantly higher among workers with total absorbed external gamma-ray doses greater than 0.20 Gy compared to those exposed to lower doses; the data were consistent with a linear trend in risk with external dose. The CVD incidence was statistically significantly higher among workers with total absorbed internal alpha-radiation doses to liver from incorporated (239)Pu greater than 0.025 Gy compared to those exposed to lower doses. There was no statistically significant trend in CVD mortality risk with either external gamma-ray dose or internal alpha-radiation dose to liver. The risk estimates obtained are generally compatible with those from other large occupational studies, although the incidence data point to higher risk estimates compared to those from the Japanese A-bomb survivors. Further studies of the unique cohort of Mayak workers chronically exposed to external and internal radiation will allow improving the reliability and validating the radiation safety standards for occupational and public exposure.
    Biophysik 08/2011; 50(4):539-52. · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of and mortality from cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) have been studied in a cohort of 12,210 workers first employed at one of the main plants of the Mayak nuclear facility during 1948-1958 and followed up to 31 December 2000. Information on external γ-ray doses is available for virtually all of these workers (99.9%); the mean total γ-ray dose (± SD) was 0.91 ± 0.95 Gy (99th percentile 3.9 Gy) for men and 0.65 ± 0.75 Gy (99th percentile 2.99 Gy) for women. In contrast, plutonium body burden was measured only for 30.0% of workers; among those monitored, the mean cumulative liver dose from plutonium α-particle exposure (± SD) was 0.40 ± 1.15 Gy (99th percentile 5.88 Gy) for men and 0.81 ± 4.60 Gy (99th percentile 15.95 Gy) for women. A total of 4418 cases of CVD, including 665 cases of stroke, and 753 deaths from CVD, including 404 deaths from stroke, were identified in the study cohort. Having adjusted for non-radiation factors, there were statistically significant increasing trends in CVD incidence but not mortality with both total external γ-ray dose and internal liver dose. Much of the evidence for increased incidence in relation to external dose arose for workers with cumulative doses above 1 Gy. Although the dose response is consistent with linearity, the statistical power to detect non-linearity at external doses below 1 Gy was low. CVD incidence was statistically significantly higher among workers with a plutonium liver dose above 0.1 Gy. There was a statistically significant increasing trend in incidence with increasing internal dose, even after adjusting for external dose, although the trend estimates differed between workers at different plants. The risk estimates for external radiation are generally compatible with those from other large occupational studies, although the incidence data point to higher risk estimates compared to those from the Japanese A-bomb survivors.
    Radiation Research 12/2010; 174(6):851-64. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular diseases have been studied in a cohort of 12,210 workers first employed at one of the main plants of the Mayak nuclear facility during 1948-1958 and followed up to 31 December 2000. Information on external gamma-ray doses is available for virtually all of these workers (99.9%); the mean total gamma-ray dose (+/-SD) was 0.91 +/- 0.95 Gy (99% percentile 3.9 Gy) for men and 0.65 +/- 0.75 Gy (99% percentile 2.99 Gy) for women. In contrast, plutonium body burden was measured for only 30.0% of workers; among those monitored, the mean cumulative liver dose from plutonium alpha exposure (+/- SD) was 0.40 +/- 1.15 Gy (99% percentile 5.88 Gy) for men and 0.81 +/- 4.60 Gy (99% percentile 15.95 Gy) for women. A total of 3751 cases of ischemic heart disease (IHD), including 683 cases of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and 1495 IHD deaths, including 338 AMI deaths, were identified in the study cohort during the follow-up period. Having adjusted for non-radiation factors, there were statistically significant increasing trends with both total external gamma-ray dose and internal liver dose in IHD incidence. The trend with internal dose was weaker and was not statistically significant after adjusting for external dose, whereas the external dose trend was little changed after adjusting for internal dose. The trend with external dose in IHD mortality was not statistically significantly greater than zero but was consistent with the corresponding trend in IHD incidence. The estimated trend in IHD mortality with internal dose was lower and was not statistically significant once adjustment was made for external dose. There was a statistically significantly increasing trend in AMI incidence but not AMI incidence with external dose. The risk estimates for IHD in relation to external radiation are generally compatible with those from other large occupational studies and the Japanese A-bomb survivors.
    Radiation Research 08/2010; 174(2):155-68. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mortality and cancer incidence were studied in the National Registry for Radiation Workers in, relative to earlier analyses, an enlarged cohort of 174 541 persons, with longer follow-up (to 2001) and, for the first time, cancer registration data. SMRs for all causes and all malignant neoplasms were 81 and 84 respectively, demonstrating a 'healthy worker effect'. Within the cohort, mortality and incidence from both leukaemia excluding CLL and the grouping of all malignant neoplasms excluding leukaemia increased to a statistically significant extent with increasing radiation dose. Estimates of the trend in risk with dose were similar to those for the Japanese A-bomb survivors, with 90% confidence intervals that excluded both risks more than 2-3 times greater than the A-bomb values and no raised risk. Some evidence of an increasing trend with dose in mortality from all circulatory diseases may, at least partly, be due to confounding by smoking. This analysis provides the most precise estimates to date of mortality and cancer risks following occupational radiation exposure and strengthens the evidence for raised risks from these exposures. The cancer risk estimates are consistent with values used to set radiation protection standards.
    British Journal of Cancer 02/2009; 100(1):206-12. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An epidemiological study was set up in the 1980s of UK participants in the UK atmospheric nuclear weapons testing programme. A large cohort of test participants was established along with a closely matched comparison or control group. Three analyses of mortality and cancer incidence have been carried out. This review describes the development of the evidence on possible effects on test participants with especial emphasis on the most recent analysis. Other sources of evidence, particularly from studies of other groups of test participants, are also considered. It was concluded that overall levels of mortality and cancer incidence in UK nuclear weapons test participants were similar to those in a matched control group, and overall mortality was lower than expected from national rates. There was no evidence of an increased raised risk of multiple myeloma among test participants in recent years, and the suggestion in the first analysis of this cohort of a raised myeloma risk relative to controls is likely to have been a chance finding. There was some evidence of a raised risk of leukaemia other than chronic lymphatic leukaemia among test participants relative to controls, particularly in the early years after the tests. Whilst this could be a chance finding, the possibility that test participation caused a small absolute risk of leukaemia other than chronic lymphatic leukaemia cannot be ruled out.
    Journal of Radiological Protection 10/2004; 24(3):219-41. · 1.39 Impact Factor
  • Richard G E Haylock, Colin R Muirhead
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    ABSTRACT: This paper investigates some problems with the Colorado Plateau uranium miners cohort when fitting the mechanistic model of carcinogenesis of Moolgavkar et al. (MVK model) to nested case-control data for lung cancers. The influence of data for hard rock mining and work histories on the model fitting is examined and found to be highly influential. The question of selecting the most appropriate number of controls per case is also considered. Analyses were carried out assuming that the hard rock mining exposure occurred prior to all other work histories and that miners received no exposure between work histories. The use of less than 15 controls per case was found to seriously restrict the quality of fit of the models. The best fitting, most reliable model contained linear effects of radon exposure on the first mutation rate, the rate of differentiation, and the rate of death of the intermediate cells. An effect of smoking on the growth of the intermediate cells was also included in the model. It is concluded that owing to the complexity of the MVK model and the limited amount of information in this dataset, the reliability of the Colorado Plateau dataset for fitting this type of model, particularly in a case-control format, is questionable.
    Biophysik 03/2004; 42(4):257-63. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An earlier case-control study found no evidence of paternal preconceptional irradiation (PPI) as a cause of childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (LNHL). Although fathers of children with LNHL were more likely to have been radiation workers, the risk was most marked in those with doses below the level of detection. The timing of paternal employment as a radiation worker has now been examined. The previously reported elevated risk of LNHL in the children of male radiation workers was limited to those whose fathers were still radiation workers at conception or whose employment also continued until diagnosis. Children whose fathers stopped radiation work prior to their conception were found to have no excess risk of LNHL. It was not possible to distinguish between the risks associated with paternal radiation work at conception and at the time of diagnosis. A reanalysis of the original study hypothesis incorporating updated dosimetric information gave similar results to those obtained previously. In particular, the risks of LNHL did not show an association with radiation doses received by the father before conception. It seems likely that the increased risk of LNHL among the children of male radiation workers is associated with an increased exposure to some infective agent consequent on high levels of population mixing.
    British Journal of Cancer 11/2003; 89(7):1215-20. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To extend and analyse follow up of mortality and cancer incidence among men who took part in the UK's atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes 40-50 years ago, with particular reference to multiple myeloma and leukaemia. A total of 21,357 servicemen and male civilians from the UK who participated in the tests and a control group of 22,333 male controls were followed over the period 1952-98. Analyses were conducted of mortality from various causes, and of mortality and incidence for 27 types of cancer. Rates of mortality from all causes continued to be similar among test participants and controls with the longer follow up, with standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) of 89 and 88 respectively over the full follow up period. For all cancers, the corresponding SMRs were 93 for participants and 92 for controls. Mortality from multiple myeloma was consistent with national rates both for participants and controls, and the relative risk (RR) of myeloma incidence among participants relative to controls was 1.14 (90% CI 0.74 to 1.74) over the full follow up period and 0.79 (90% CI 0.45 to 1.38) during the extended period of follow up (1991-98). Over the full follow up period, leukaemia mortality among participants was consistent with national rates, while rates among controls were significantly lower, and there was a suggestion of a raised risk among test participants relative to controls (RR 1.45, 90% CI 0.96 to 2.17); the corresponding RR for leukaemia incidence was 1.33 (90% CI 0.97 to 1.84). After excluding chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL), which is not thought to be radiation inducible, the RR of leukaemia mortality increased to 1.83 (90% CI 1.15 to 2.93), while that for incidence was little changed. Analysis of subgroups of participants with greater potential for exposure provided little evidence of increased risks, although the numbers of men involved were smaller and the statistical power was therefore less. Among other types of cancer, only for liver cancer incidence was there evidence of differences in rates between participants and controls in both the earlier and in the additional period of follow up. Mortality rates among test participants from causes other than cancer were generally similar to those among the controls. Overall levels of mortality and cancer incidence in UK nuclear weapons test participants have continued to be similar to those in a matched control group, and overall mortality has remained lower than expected from national rates. There was no evidence of an increased raised risk of multiple myeloma among test participants in recent years, and the suggestion in the first analysis of this study of a raised myeloma risk is likely to have been a chance finding. There was some evidence of a raised risk of leukaemia other than CLL among test participants relative to controls, particularly in the early years after the tests, although a small risk may have persisted more recently. This could be a chance finding, in view of low rates among the controls and the generally small radiation doses recorded for test participants. However, the possibility that test participation caused a small absolute risk of leukaemia other than CLL cannot be ruled out.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine 04/2003; 60(3):165-72. · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    Mark P Little, R G E Haylock, C R Muirhead
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    ABSTRACT: To model radon-induced lung cancer in uranium miners using a quasi-biological model of carcinogenesis. Fitting of generalizations of the stochastic two-mutation carcinogenesis model of Moolgavkar, Venzon and Knudson to a case-control dataset nested within the cohort and to the full cohort of lung cancer mortality in the Colorado Plateau uranium miners, taking account of exposure to cigarette smoke and to radon daughters. Models with three mutations gave adequate descriptions of the time and age patterns of radon-daughter-induced excess lung tumour mortality. The overall fit of the two-mutation model to the case-control data was somewhat worse than that of the three-mutation model. For both the optimal two- and three-mutation models radon daughters and cigarette smoke were assumed to act on the first mutation rate. In the optimal two-mutation model, radon daughters also modified the intermediate cell death or differentiation rate. In the optimal three-mutation model, radon daughters modified the second mutation rate. In all models, the action of radon daughters and cigarette smoke was markedly non-linear, particularly in their action on the mutation rates. The optimal two- and three-mutation models fitted to the cohort data were of slightly different form to those fitted to the case-control data. The model fits to the cohort data are preferred to those to the case-control data on grounds of plausibility. Quasi-biological carcinogenesis models with three mutations give adequate descriptions of the time and age patterns of radon-daughter-induced excess lung tumour mortality. The overall fit of the two-mutation model is somewhat worse than that of the three-mutation model.
    International Journal of Radiation Biology 02/2002; 78(1):49-68. · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper the radiation-associated relative risks of second primary cancer incidence in groups treated for first primary cancer by radiotherapy are compared with radiation-associated relative risk estimates in the Japanese atomic bomb survivor cancer incidence data. For four cancer sites, namely lung cancer, bone cancer, ovarian cancer and leukaemia, the relative risks in the comparable (age at exposure, time since exposure, sex matched) subsets of the Japanese data are significantly greater than those in the majority of second cancer studies. Even when the differences between the relative risks in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and the medical series do not approach conventional levels of statistical significance, relative risks tend to be higher in the Japanese data than in the second cancer studies. At least for leukaemia, the discrepancy between the Japanese and second cancer risks can be largely explained by cell-sterilisation effects. There are few indications of modification of radiation-associated second cancer relative risk among those treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, nor are there strong indications of modification of radiation-associated relative risk by heritable genetic factors. If anything, there is evidence that second cancer relative excess risks are lower among those patients with cancer-prone disorders than among non-susceptible patients. However, the higher underlying cancer risk in some of these medically exposed populations should also be considered, in particular for those with cancer-prone conditions, so that the absolute excess risk is sometimes higher than in the Japanese data.
    Biophysik 12/1999; 38(4):267-283. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Registry for Radiation Workers (NRRW) is the largest epidemiological study of UK radiation workers. Following the first analysis published in 1992, a second analysis has been conducted using an enlarged cohort of 124,743 workers, updated dosimetry and personal data for some workers, and a longer follow-up. Overall levels of mortality were found to be less than those expected from national rates; the standardised mortality ratio for all causes was 82, increasing to 89 after adjusting for social class. This 'healthy worker effect' was particularly strong for lung cancer and for some smoking-related non-malignant diseases. Analysis of potential radiation effects involved testing for any trend in mortality risk with external dose, after adjusting for likely confounding factors. For leukaemia, excluding chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL), the central estimate of excess relative risk (ERR) per Sv was similar to that estimated for the Japanese atomic bomb survivors at low doses (without the incorporation of a dose-rate correction factor); the corresponding 90% confidence limits for this trend were tighter than in the first analysis, ranging from just under four times the risk estimated at low doses from the Japanese atomic bomb survivors to about zero. For the grouping of all malignancies other than leukaemia, the central estimate of the trend in risk with dose was closer to zero than in the first analysis; also, the 90% confidence limits were tighter than before and included zero. Since results for lung cancer and non-malignant smoking-related diseases suggested the possibility of confounding by smoking, an examination was made, as in the first analysis, of all malignancies other than leukaemia and lung cancer. In this instance the central estimate of the ERR per Sv was similar to that from the A-bomb data (without the incorporation of a dose-rate correction factor), with a 90% confidence interval ranging from about four times the A-bomb value to less than zero. For multiple myeloma there was an indication of an increasing trend in risk with external dose (p = 0.06), although the evidence for this trend disappeared after omitting workers monitored for exposure to internal emitters. The second NRRW analysis provides stronger inferences than the first on occupational radiation exposure and cancer mortality; the 90% confidence intervals for the risk per unit dose are tighter than before, and now exclude values which are greater than four times those seen among the Japanese A-bomb survivors, although they are also generally consistent with an observation of no raised risk. Furthermore, there is evidence, of borderline statistical significance, of an increasing risk for leukaemia excluding CLL, and, as with solid cancers, the data are consistent with the A-bomb findings.
    Journal of Radiological Protection 04/1999; 19(1):3-26. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A cohort of 4,400 persons treated for various cancers of childhood in France and the UK was followed up over an extended period to assess risks of subsequent brain tumour in relation to the radiotherapy and chemotherapy that the children received for their first cancer. Elevated risks of subsequent brain tumours were associated with first central nervous system (CNS) tumour (two-sided p =0.0002) and neurofibromatosis (two-sided p =0.001). There was also elevated brain tumour risk (two-sided p =0.003) associated with ionising radiation exposure, the risk being concentrated among benign and unspecified brain tumours. The radiation-related risk of benign and unspecified brain tumours was significantly higher than that of malignant brain tumours (two-sided p≤ 0.05); there was no significant change of malignant brain tumour risk with ionising radiation dose (two-sided p > 0.2). In general, there were no strong associations between alkylating agent dose and brain tumour risk. The only significant association between brain tumour risk and alkylating agent dose was in relation to compounds used (bleomycin, chloraminophen) that are thought not to deliver substantial doses to the brain; the statistical significance of the trend with dose depended on a single case, and thus must be considered a weak result. Int. J. Cancer 78:269–275, 1998. Published 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/1998; 78(3):269 - 275. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A cohort of 4,400 persons treated for various cancers of childhood in France and the UK was followed up over an extended period to assess risks of subsequent brain tumour in relation to the radiotherapy and chemotherapy that the children received for their first cancer. Elevated risks of subsequent brain tumours were associated with first central nervous system (CNS) tumour (two-sided p = 0.0002) and neurofibromatosis (two-sided p = 0.001). There was also elevated brain tumour risk (two-sided p = 0.003) associated with ionising radiation exposure, the risk being concentrated among benign and unspecified brain tumours. The radiation-related risk of benign and unspecified brain tumours was significantly higher than that of malignant brain tumours (two-sided p< or =0.05); there was no significant change of malignant brain tumour risk with ionising radiation dose (two-sided p > 0.2). In general, there were no strong associations between alkylating agent dose and brain tumour risk. The only significant association between brain tumour risk and alkylating agent dose was in relation to compounds used (bleomycin, chloraminophen) that are thought not to deliver substantial doses to the brain; the statistical significance of the trend with dose depended on a single case, and thus must be considered a weak result.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/1998; 78(3):269-75. · 6.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

452 Citations
67.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2013
    • Newcastle University
      • Institute of Health and Society
      Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • Southern Ural Biophysics Institute
      Tscheljabinsk, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia
  • 1994
    • University of Oxford
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom