M S Favero

University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, Texas, United States

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Publications (123)602.86 Total impact

  • Martin S Favero, Walter W Bond
    Viral Hepatitis, Third Edition, 10/2007: pages 804 - 814; , ISBN: 9780470987131
  • Linda A. Moyer, Miriam J. Alter, Martin S. Favero
    Seminars in Dialysis 09/2007; 3(4):201 - 204. · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • Martin S. Favero, Miriam J. Alter
    Seminars in Dialysis 09/2007; 9(5):373 - 374. · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • M S Favero
    Seminars in Dialysis 01/2000; 13(2):64-7. · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • Article: CJD update.
    L M Sehulster, M S Favero, W W Bond
    Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 02/1998; 19(2):142-3. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the susceptibilities of vancomycin-resistant and -sensitive enterococci (VRE and VSE) to various concentrations of commonly used, commercial, hospital-grade disinfectants. A microbial suspension test using inocula of 10(8) cells per mL in a disinfectant test dilution was used to determine inactivation kinetics of the test strains. In each test, 1-mL aliquots were removed from the cell-disinfectant mixtures at 15 and 30 seconds and then at 1-minute intervals for 5 minutes and neutralized. Appropriate serial dilutions were plated on agar medium for enumeration of survivors. VRE and VSE challenge inocula (in the absence of any additional protein or serum challenge) were below the limit of detection (5 colony-forming units/mL) after 15 seconds' exposure to the manufacturers' suggested use-dilutions of quaternary ammonium, phenolic, or iodophor germicidal detergents. In subsequent tests, when the disinfectants were diluted far beyond-the recommended use-dilutions (extended dilution), no differences were demonstrated between the susceptibilities of VRE and VSE. VRE and VSE are sensitive to a spectrum of commonly used environmental disinfectants and have parallel inactivation rates when challenged with extended dilutions of these products. Our findings did not demonstrate a relationship between antibiotic and germicide resistance. Routine disinfection and housekeeping protocols presently used in hospitals need not be altered due to concerns about the potential for environmentally mediated transmission of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms.
    Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 04/1997; 18(3):195-9. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dialysis centers in the United States were surveyed in 1994 regarding a number of hemodialysis associated diseases and practices. A total of 2,449 centers, representing 206,884 patients and 50,314 staff members, responded. In 1994, 99% of centers used bicarbonate dialysate as the primary method of dialysis, 45% used high flux dialysis, and 75% reused dialyzers. Hepatitis B vaccine had been administered to 31% of patients and to 80% of staff members. Acute infection with hepatitis B virus occurred in 0.1% of patients and was more likely to be reported by centers with lower proportions of patients vaccinated against hepatitis B virus and those not using a separate room and dialysis machine to treat hepatitis B surface antigen positive patients. The prevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus was 10.5% among patients and 1.9% among staff members and varied according to geographic region. Pyrogenic reactions in the absence of septicemia were reported by 22% of centers and were most highly associated with dialyzer reuse. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was reported to be present in 1.5% of patients; 37% of centers provided hemodialysis to one or more patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
    ASAIO Journal 01/1997; 43(1):108-19. · 1.49 Impact Factor
  • J H Carr, R L Anderson, M S Favero
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, fixation of attached glycocalyx on the interior surfaces of polyvinyl chloride distribution pipe remnants was compared with and without ruthenium red/osmium tetroxide and, in the final preparatory phase, with chemical dehydration and critical point drying. SEM examination of interior surface of the polyvinyl chloride pipe showed varying concentrations of adherent bacteria, depending on the preparatory technique used. It was concluded that using a combination of ruthenium red/osmium tetroxide and critical point drying is the optimum method for visually demonstrating aging biofilm on the interior surface of contaminated polyvinyl chloride pipe.
    The Journal of applied bacteriology 03/1996; 80(2):225-32.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine trends in a number of hemodialysis associated diseases and practices, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in collaboration with the Health Care Financing Administration, performed a mail survey of 2,304 chronic hemodialysis centers in the United States in 1993. By the end of 1993, at least three doses of hepatitis B vaccine were administered to 29% of patients and 76% of staff at responding centers. Hepatitis B surface antigen was present at low frequency in patients (incidence = 0.1%, prevalence = 1.2%) and staff members (incidence = 0.2%, prevalence = 0.3%). The 1993 incidence of hepatitis B virus infection among patients was higher at centers that accepted hepatitis B surface antigen positive patients but did not use a separate room and dialysis machine for treatment of these patients, government and profit (versus nonprofit) centers, and centers in four End Stage Renal Disease Networks. The prevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus was 9.7% among patients and 1.6% among staff members. Pyrogenic reactions in the absence of septicemia were reported by 21% of centers and associated with use of high flux dialysis. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was known to be present in 1.5% of patients; 34% of centers reported providing hemodialysis to one or more human immunodeficiency virus infected patients.
    ASAIO Journal 01/1996; 42(3):219-29. · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Simulated dialysis of whole blood was used to determine whether membrane factors (biocompatibility), endotoxin (ET) membrane diffusion, or transmembrane monocyte-ET interactions would stimulate tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha) release. Whole blood containing EDTA and aprotinin was recirculated in the blood compartment of hollow fiber dialyzers containing either regenerated cellulose or polysulfone membranes. ET-free and ET-spiked dialysate were recirculated consecutively in the dialysate compartment for 30 min each. Blood and dialysate samples were collected at to and after each 30 min of simulated dialysis for determination of TNF alpha and ET concentrations. TNF alpha was not detected in any blood samples collected after simulated dialysis with regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes and ET-free or ET-spiked dialysate. However, blood ET concentrations, as determined by the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, increased in RC dialyzers after each 30 min of simulated dialysis even with ET-free dialysate. Since TNF alpha was not detected in these blood samples, the material detected by the LAL assay probably was not ET but an LAL-reactive material. After simulated dialysis with polysulfone dialyzers and ET-free dialysate, TNF alpha and ET were not detected in blood samples. ET also was not detected in blood samples after dialysis with ET-spiked dialysate. However, TNF alpha was detected in 7 of 13 (54%) of the blood samples following the 500 ng/ml of ET dialysate spike. TNF alpha release during simulated dialysis with polysulfone membranes and ET-contaminated dialysate may be due to transmembrane stimulation of circulating mononuclear cells and not diffusion of ET across the membrane.
    Artificial Organs 10/1995; 19(9):880-6. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Simulated dialysis of whole blood was used to determine whether membrane factors (biocompatibility), endotoxin (ET) membrane diffusion, or transmembrane monocyte–ET interactions would stimulate tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) release. Whole blood containing EDTA and aprotinin was recirculated in the blood compartment of hollow fiber dialyzers containing either regenerated cellulose or polysulfone membranes. ET–free and ET–spiked dialysate were recirculated consecutively in the dialysate compartment for 30 min each. Blood and dialysate samples were collected at to and after each 30 min of simulated dialysis for determination of TNFa and ET concentrations. TNFa was not detected in any blood samples collected after simulated dialysis with regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes and ET–free or ET–spiked dialysate. However, blood ET concentrations, as determined by the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, increased in RC dialyzers after each 30 min of simulated dialysis even with ET–free dialysate. Since TNFa was not detected in these blood samples, the material detected by the LAL assay probably was not ET but an LAL–reactive material. After simulated dialysis with polysulfone dialyzers and ET–free dialysate, TNFa and ET were not detected in blood samples. ET also was not detected in blood samples after dialysis with ET–spiked dialysate. However, TNFa was detected in 7 of 13 (54%) of the blood samples following the 500 ng/ml of ET dialysate spike. TNFα release during simulated dialysis with polysulfone membranes and ET–contaminated dialysate may be due to transmembrane stimulation of circulating mononuclear cells and not diffusion of ET across the membrane.
    Artificial Organs 08/1995; 19(9):880 - 886. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endotoxin is a potent activator of the complement system and other host immunoregulators, including the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6. In this study, the potency of an endotoxin from bicarbonate dialysate was compared with endotoxins from two enteric microorganisms, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Endotoxin concentrations were standardized for the three endotoxins by use of the Limulus amebocyte lysate turbidimetric assay. Endotoxin potency was assessed by the comparative plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6 after an in vitro whole-blood challenge by each type of endotoxin. Blood collected from 10 hemodialysis patients was spiked with 0.1, 1, and 10 ng/mL of E. coli and Shigella endotoxin and with 1 and 10 ng/mL of bicarbonate dialysate endotoxin. After incubation, plasma was separated and frozen at -70 degrees C until assayed for cytokine concentrations. Dialysate endotoxin was found to be 10 to 100 times less potent than E. coli and Shigella endotoxins. It was concluded that there are significant differences in the potency of endotoxins from different strains of bacteria and that these differences should be noted when designing or evaluating studies on the clinical effects of endotoxins in hemodialysis settings.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 03/1995; 5(8):1634-7. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Publicity about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in athletes has focused attention on the potential for transmission of blood-borne pathogens during sports and athletic competitions. Existing information suggests that the potential risk for such transmission is extremely low and that the principal risks athletes have for acquiring HIV and hepatitis B virus are related to off-the-field activities. Therefore, efforts to prevent transmission of blood-borne pathogens among athletes should emphasize prevention in off-the-field settings. We summarize technical and other information about this issue, and provide recommendations for the education of sports participants, for infection control in athletic settings, and for training of coaches and officials.
    Annals of internal medicine 03/1995; 122(4):283-5. · 13.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Uremia has been associated with immunologic aberrations, including anergy, increased susceptibility to infections, and reduced phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In this study, cytokine release in uremic and nonuremic blood after in vitro endotoxin stimulation was studied. Blood from nonuremic controls, chronic renal failure patients not on dialysis, and chronic hemodialysis patients predialysis and postdialysis was spiked with 10 ng/mL of Escherichia coli endotoxin and incubated for 2 and 26 h. Plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) concentrations were determined by ELISA after each incubation period. To further study which uremic blood component may be responsible for enhanced release of TNF alpha, plasma and cellular components of chronic renal failure patients and controls were switched and then given an in vitro endotoxin stimulation (1 ng/mL). It was found that (1) TNF alpha release is enhanced by uremia and is exacerbated with progressive declines in renal function, (2) enhanced TNF alpha release is related to a blood cellular phenomenon induced by uremia, and (3) enhanced TNF alpha release in hemodialysis patients is associated with a prolonged stimulation and/or reduced plasma elimination of TNF alpha.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 06/1994; 4(11):1890-5. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine trends in a number of hemodialysis associated diseases and practices, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in collaboration with the Health Care Financing Administration, completed a mail survey of chronic hemodialysis centers in the United States in 1992. Of 2,321 centers surveyed, 2,170 (93%) representing 170,028 patients and 43,535 staff members responded. In 1992, 2,049 (94%) centers used bicarbonate dialysate as the primary method of dialysis, 765 (35)% used high flux dialysis, and 1,569 (72%) reused dialyzers, continuing the trends toward increased use of these methods. Central (subclavian or jugular) venous catheters were used in > or = 1 patient as permanent vascular access for hemodialysis at 69% of dialysis centers. Hepatitis B surface antigen was present at low frequency in patients (incidence = 0.1%, prevalence = 1.2%) and staff members (incidence - 0.03%, prevalence = 0.3%). Among centers that had > or = 1 hepatitis B surface antigen positive patient, the incidence of hepatitis B virus infection was lower in those centers that used a separate room for dialysis of patients positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. From 1991 to 1992, reported hepatitis B vaccine coverage increased from 17% to 24% among patients and from 56% to 69% among staff members; in absolute terms, these were the largest single year increases since introduction of hepatitis B vaccine. The prevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus was 8.1% among patients and 1.6% among staff members. Pyrogenic reactions in the absence of septicemia were reported by 19% of centers and associated with use of high flux dialysis. New dialyzer syndrome was reported by 24% of centers, most frequently by centers using regenerated cellulose or cuprophan membranes. Human immunodeficiency virus was known to be present in 1.5% of patients; 34% of centers reported providing hemodialysis to one or more patients infected with HIV.
    ASAIO Journal 01/1994; 40(4):1020-31. · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture models have been used to study cytokine stimulation and release in vitro. In this study, we characterize the kinetics of the interleukins (IL-1 beta), (IL-6), (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) following an endotoxin (ET) challenge using our in vitro whole blood model. Whole blood samples from 10 healthy volunteers were studied. All cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Peak concentrations of TNF-alpha occurred 2 h after ET challenge followed by a rapid decline in free plasma TNF-alpha concentration (half-life 18.2 min). IL-1 beta was not significantly elevated until 4 h after ET challenge. IL-8 was elevated 1 h after ET challenge. IL-6 concentration exhibited a biphasic peak occurring at 6 and 74 h after ET challenge. We conclude that (1) our whole blood in vitro model produces cytokine release kinetics similar to those reported in vivo, and (2) the presence of either binding proteins or cellular metabolism of TNF-alpha in whole blood produces a similar plasma half-life to that observed in vivo.
    Lymphokine and cytokine research 05/1993; 12(2):115-20. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Six common water bacteria were examined for their ability to colonize polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces, survive various germicidal treatment, and re-establish themselves in sterile distilled water (SDW). For each test, two 30.4 cm PVC pipes attached to a 90 degrees PVC elbow were filled with 600 ml of distilled water inoculated with either Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ps. cepacia, Ps. mesophilica, Acinetobacter anitratus, Mycobacterium chelonae or M. chelonae var. abscessus. After 8 weeks contaminated water was removed and the pipes were exposed to 600 ml of 1:213 iodophor disinfectant (ID), 1:128 phenolic detergent (P), 1:256 quaternary ammonium compound (QA), stock iodophor antiseptic (IA), 2% formaldehyde (F), 10-15 ppm free chlorine (C), 2% glutaraldehyde (G) and 70% ethanol (E). These germicides were periodically sampled, neutralized and examined for surviving organisms. After exposure for 7 d the germicides were removed and each pipe was refilled with SDW. This was assayed at 7 d intervals to determine microbial re-establishment. Samples were removed during microbial conditioning and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Pseudomonads were isolated directly from ID, QA, C, P and F, and mycobacteria from QA, IA, ID, P, G, C and F. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Ps. cepacia survived in PVC pipes after 7 d of exposure to P, ID and C; Ps. mesophilica, after C and ID; and both mycobacteria, after C. SEM examination of PVC remnants revealed bacterial attachment and formation of extracellular material with embedded cells. These studies show that common water bacteria can attach and colonize the interior surface of PVC pipes and develop significant resistance to the action of certain germicides.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    The Journal of applied bacteriology 03/1993; 74(2):215-21.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine trends in several hemodialysis associated diseases and practices, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), in collaboration with the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), performed a mail survey of chronic hemodialysis centers in the United States in 1990. Of 1,995 centers surveyed, 1,882 (94%) representing 140,608 patients and 36,907 staff members responded. As in recent years, the 1990 survey found that certain hemodialysis practices are increasing in frequency, including treatment of water with reverse osmosis and deionizer units; use of bicarbonate dialysate and high-flux dialysis; and reuse of disposable dialyzers (in 1990, 70% of centers reused dialyzers). Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was present at low frequency in patients (incidence, 0.2%; prevalence, 1.2%) and staff (incidence, 0.04%; prevalence, 0.3%). Antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen was present in 20% of patients and 58% of staff, and was significantly related to levels of hepatitis B vaccine coverage. Pyrogenic reactions in the absence of septicemia were reported by 20% of centers and were associated with use of high-flux dialyzer membranes and reuse of dialyzers (particularly in centers where the maximum number of reuses was 40 or more). Septicemia among hemodialysis patients was reported by 49% of centers. Twenty-six percent of centers reported providing hemodialysis for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and 1.1% of dialyzed patients had known HIV infection.
    ASAIO Journal 01/1993; 39(1):71-80. · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine trends in a number of hemodialysis associated diseases and practices, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in collaboration with the Health Care Financing Administration performed a mail survey of chronic hemodialysis centers in the United States in 1991. Of 2,123 centers surveyed, 2,046 (96%), representing 155,877 patients and 40,298 staff members, responded. The 1991 survey found that certain hemodialysis practices are increasing in frequency, including use of bicarbonate dialysate and high-flux dialysis and reuse of disposable dialyzers (in 1991, 71% of centers reused dialyzers). Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was present at low frequency in patients (incidence = 0.2%, prevalence = 1.3%) and staff (incidence = 0.04%, prevalence = 0.3%). Among centers that had > or = HBsAg positive patient, the incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was lower in those centers that used a separate room for dialysis of HBsAg positive patients. Reuse of dialyzers, blood lines, transducer filters, or dialyzer caps was not associated with an increased risk of acquiring HBV infection among either patients or staff. Antibody to HBsAg was present in 21% of patients and 53% of staff, and was significantly related to levels of hepatitis B vaccine coverage. Pyrogenic reactions in the absence of septicemia were reported by 20% of centers and associated with the reuse of dialyzers. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was known to be present in 1.2% of patients; 29% of centers reported providing hemodialysis to one or more HIV infected patients.
    ASAIO Journal 01/1993; 39(4):966-75. · 1.49 Impact Factor
  • Lee A. Bland, Martin S. Favero, Matthew J. Arduino
    Seminars in Dialysis 01/1993; 6(1). · 2.25 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
602.86 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007
    • University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
      Galveston, Texas, United States
  • 1981–2007
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
      Druid Hills, GA, United States
  • 2000
    • University of California, Irvine
      Irvine, California, United States
  • 1991–1994
    • Emory University
      • School of Medicine
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 1992
    • Dialysis Clinic, Inc.
      Nashville, Tennessee, United States
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1975
    • United States Bureau of Reclamation
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States