[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spores of some species of the strictly anaerobic bacteria Clostridium naturally target and partially lyse the hypoxic cores of tumors, which tend to be refractory to conventional therapies. The anti-tumor effect can be augmented by engineering strains to convert a non-toxic prodrug into a cytotoxic drug specifically at the tumor site by expressing a prodrug-converting enzyme (PCE). Safe doses of the favored prodrug CB1954 lead to peak concentrations of 6.3 µM in patient sera, but at these concentration(s) known nitroreductase (NTR) PCEs for this prodrug show low activity. Furthermore, efficacious and safe Clostridium strains that stably express a PCE have not been reported. Here we identify a novel nitroreductase from Neisseria meningitidis, NmeNTR, which is able to activate CB1954 at clinically-achievable serum concentrations. An NmeNTR expression cassette, which does not contain an antibiotic resistance marker, was stably localized to the chromosome of Clostridium sporogenes using a new integration method, and the strain was disabled for safety and containment by making it a uracil auxotroph. The efficacy of Clostridium-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (CDEPT) using this system was demonstrated in a mouse xenograft model of human colon carcinoma. Substantial tumor suppression was achieved, and several animals were cured. These encouraging data suggest that the novel enzyme and strain engineering approach represent a promising platform for the clinical development of CDEPT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is reliant on the simultaneous enzyme production, saccharification of biomass, and fermentation of released sugars into valuable products such as butanol. Clostridial species that produce butanol are, however, unable to grow on crystalline cellulose. In contrast, those saccharolytic species that produce predominantly ethanol, such as Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium cellulolyticum, degrade crystalline cellulose with high efficiency due to their possession of a multienzyme complex termed the cellulosome. This has led to studies directed at endowing butanol-producing species with the genetic potential to produce a cellulosome, albeit by localising the necessary transgenes to unstable autonomous plasmids. Here we have explored the potential of our previously described Allele-Coupled Exchange (ACE) technology for creating strains of the butanol producing species Clostridium acetobutylicum in which the genes encoding the various cellulosome components are stably integrated into the genome.
We used BioBrick2 (BB2) standardised parts to assemble a range of synthetic genes encoding C. thermocellum cellulosomal scaffoldin proteins (CipA variants) and glycoside hydrolases (GHs, Cel8A, Cel9B, Cel48S and Cel9K) as well as synthetic cellulosomal operons that direct the synthesis of Cel8A, Cel9B and a truncated form of CipA. All synthetic genes and operons were integrated into the C. acetobutylicum genome using the recently developed ACE technology. Heterologous protein expression levels and mini-cellulosome self-assembly were assayed by western blot and native PAGE analysis.
We demonstrate the successful expression, secretion and self-assembly of cellulosomal subunits by the recombinant C. acetobutylicum strains, providing a platform for the construction of novel cellulosomes.
Biotechnology for Biofuels 08/2013; 6(1):117. · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum produces acids as an energy-yielding process during exponential growth. An acidic environment, however, is toxic to the cells and two survival mechanisms are in place to prevent them from dying. Firstly, during a solventogenesis phase, the cells take up these acids and convert them to solvents, thus raising the environmental pH. Secondly, the cells undergo sporulation to form highly resistant spores capable of surviving extreme conditions. One possible regulatory mechanism for these processes is the accessory gene regulatory (agr) quorum-sensing system, which is thought to coordinate cell population density with cell phenotype. We model this system to monitor its putative effect upon solventogenesis and the sporulation-initiation network responsible for triggering spore formation. We demonstrate that a high population density should be able to induce both solventogenesis and sporulation, with variations to the parameter set allowing sporulation alone to be triggered; additional distinct signals are capable of restoring the solventogenic response. We compare the agr system of C. acetobutylicum with that of Staphylococcus aureus in order to investigate why the differences in feedback between the two systems may have evolved. Our findings indicate that, depending upon the mechanism of interaction between the agr system and the sporulation-initiation network, the clostridial agr circuitry may be in place either to moderate the number of spores that are formed (in order for this number to reflect the urgency of the situation), or simply as an energy-saving strategy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blocking neurotransmission, botulinum neurotoxin is the most poisonous biological substance known to mankind. Despite its infamy as the scourge of the food industry, the neurotoxin is increasingly used as a pharmaceutical to treat an expanding range of muscle disorders. Whilst neurotoxin expression by the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum appears tightly regulated, to date only positive regulatory elements, such as the alternative sigma factor BotR, have been implicated in this control. The identification of negative regulators has proven to be elusive. Here, we show that the two-component signal transduction system CBO0787/CBO0786 negatively regulates botulinum neurotoxin expression. Single insertional inactivation of cbo0787 encoding a sensor histidine kinase, or of cbo0786 encoding a response regulator, resulted in significantly elevated neurotoxin gene expression levels and increased neurotoxin production. Recombinant CBO0786 regulator was shown to bind to the conserved -10 site of the core promoters of the ha and ntnh-botA operons, which encode the toxin structural and accessory proteins. Increasing concentration of CBO0786 inhibited BotR-directed transcription from the ha and ntnh-botA promoters, demonstrating direct transcriptional repression of the ha and ntnh-botA operons by CBO0786. Thus, we propose that CBO0786 represses neurotoxin gene expression by blocking BotR-directed transcription from the neurotoxin promoters. This is the first evidence of a negative regulator controlling botulinum neurotoxin production. Understanding the neurotoxin regulatory mechanisms is a major target of the food and pharmaceutical industries alike.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of the two-component system (TCS) CBO0366/CBO0365 in the cold shock response and growth of the mesophilic Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 at 15°C was demonstrated by induced expression of the TCS genes upon cold shock and impaired growth of the TCS mutants at 15°C.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 06/2012; 78(15):5466-70. · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile causes a potentially fatal diarrheal disease through the production of its principal virulence factors, toxin A and toxin B. The tcdC gene is thought to encode a negative regulator of toxin production. Therefore, increased toxin production, and hence increased virulence, is often inferred in strains with an aberrant tcdC genotype. This report describes the first allele exchange system for precise genetic manipulation of C. difficile, using the codA gene of Escherichia coli as a heterologous counterselection marker. It was used to systematically restore the Δ117 frameshift mutation and the 18-nucleotide deletion that occur naturally in the tcdC gene of C. difficile R20291 (PCR ribotype 027). In addition, the naturally intact tcdC gene of C. difficile 630 (PCR ribotype 012) was deleted and then subsequently restored with a silent nucleotide substitution, or "watermark," so the resulting strain was distinguishable from the wild type. Intriguingly, there was no association between the tcdC genotype and toxin production in either C. difficile R20291 or C. difficile 630. Therefore, an aberrant tcdC genotype does not provide a broadly applicable rationale for the perceived notion that PCR ribotype 027 strains are "high-level" toxin producers. This may well explain why several studies have reported that an aberrant tcdC gene does not predict increased toxin production or, indeed, increased virulence.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 04/2012; 78(13):4683-90. · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analysis of the Gram-positive Clostridium acetobutylicum genome reveals an inexplicable level of redundancy for the genes putatively involved in asparagine (Asn) and Asn-tRNA(Asn) synthesis. Besides a duplicated set of gatCAB tRNA-dependent amidotransferase genes, there is a triplication of aspartyl-tRNA synthetase genes and a duplication of asparagine synthetase B genes. This genomic landscape leads to the suspicion of the incoherent simultaneous use of the direct and indirect pathways of Asn and Asn-tRNA(Asn) formation. Through a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches, we show that C. acetobutylicum forms Asn and Asn-tRNA(Asn) by tRNA-dependent amidation. We demonstrate that an entire transamidation pathway composed of aspartyl-tRNA synthetase and one set of GatCAB genes is organized as an operon under the control of a tRNA(Asn)-dependent T-box riboswitch. Finally, our results suggest that this exceptional gene redundancy might be interconnected to control tRNA-dependent Asn synthesis, which in turn might be involved in controlling the metabolic switch from acidogenesis to solventogenesis in C. acetobutylicum.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2012; 287(24):20382-94. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most bacteria can only be transformed with circular plasmids, so robust DNA integration methods for these rely upon selection of single-crossover clones followed by counter-selection of double-crossover clones. To overcome the limited availability of heterologous counter-selection markers, here we explore novel DNA integration strategies that do not employ them, and instead exploit (i) activation or inactivation of genes leading to a selectable phenotype, and (ii) asymmetrical regions of homology to control the order of recombination events. We focus here on the industrial biofuel-producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum, which previously lacked robust integration tools, but the approach we have developed is broadly applicable. Large sequences can be delivered in a series of steps, as we demonstrate by inserting the chromosome of phage lambda (minus a region apparently unstable in Escherichia coli in our cloning context) into the chromosome of C. acetobutylicum in three steps. This work should open the way to reliable integration of DNA including large synthetic constructs in diverse microorganisms.
Nucleic Acids Research 01/2012; 40(8):e59. · 8.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Class I heat shock genes (HSGs) code for molecular chaperones which play a major role in the bacterial response to sudden increases of environmental temperature by assisting protein folding. Quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR gene expression analysis of the food-borne pathogen Clostridium botulinum grown at 37°C showed that the class I HSGs grpE, dnaK, dnaJ, groEL, and groES and their repressor, hrcA, were expressed at constant levels in the exponential and transitional growth phases, whereas strong downregulation of all six genes was observed during stationary phase. After heat shock from 37 to 45°C, all HSGs were transiently upregulated. A mutant with insertionally inactivated hrcA expressed higher levels of class I HSGs during exponential growth than the wild type, followed by upregulation of only groES and groES after heat shock. Inactivation of hrcA or of dnaK encoding a major chaperone resulted in lower maximum growth temperatures than for the wild type and reduced growth rates under optimal conditions compared to the wild type. The dnaK mutant showed growth inhibition under all tested temperature, pH, and NaCl stress conditions. In contrast, the growth of an hrcA mutant was unaffected by mild temperature or acid stress compared to the wild-type strain, indicating that induced class I HSGs support growth under moderately nonoptimal conditions. We show that the expression of class I HSGs plays a major role for survival and growth of C. botulinum under the stressful environmental conditions that may be encountered during food processing or growth in food products, in the mammalian intestine, or in wounds.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 03/2011; 77(9):2823-30. · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phosphorylated Spo0A transcription factor controls the initiation of endospore formation in Clostridium acetobutylicum, but genes encoding key phosphorelay components, Spo0F and Spo0B, are missing in the genome. We hypothesized that the five orphan histidine kinases of C. acetobutylicum interact directly with Spo0A to control its phosphorylation state. Sequential targeted gene disruption and gene expression profiling provided evidence for two pathways for Spo0A activation, one dependent on a histidine kinase encoded by cac0323, the other on both histidine kinases encoded by cac0903 and cac3319. Purified Cac0903 and Cac3319 kinases autophosphorylated and transferred phosphoryl groups to Spo0A in vitro, confirming their role in Spo0A activation in vivo. A cac0437 mutant hyper-sporulated, suggesting that Cac0437 is a modulator that prevents sporulation and maintains cellular Spo0A∼P homeostasis during growth. Accordingly, Cac0437 has apparently lost the ability to autophosphorylate in vitro; instead it catalyses the ATP-dependent dephosphorylation of Spo0A∼P releasing inorganic phosphate. Direct phosphorylation of Spo0A by histidine kinases and dephosphorylation by kinase-like proteins may be a common feature of the clostridia that may represent the ancestral state before the great oxygen event some 2.4 billion years ago, after which additional phosphorelay proteins were recruited in the evolutionary lineage that led to the bacilli.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genus Clostridium is a diverse assemblage of Gram positive, anaerobic, endospore-forming bacteria. Whilst certain species have achieved notoriety as important animal and human pathogens (e.g. Clostridium difficile, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani, and Clostridium perfringens), the vast majority of the genus are entirely benign, and are able to undertake all manner of useful biotransformations. Prominent amongst them are those species able to produce the biofuels, butanol and ethanol from biomass-derived residues, such as Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium beijerinkii, Clostridium thermocellum, and Clostridium phytofermentans. The prominence of the genus in disease and biotechnology has led to the need for more effective means of genetic modification. The historical absence of methods based on conventional strategies for "knock-in" and "knock-out" in Clostridium has led to the adoption of recombination-independent procedures, typified by ClosTron technology. The ClosTron uses a retargeted group II intron and a retro-transposition-activated marker to selectively insert DNA into defined sites within the genome, to bring about gene inactivation and/or cargo DNA delivery. The procedure is extremely efficient, rapid, and requires minimal effort by the operator.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endospore production is vital for the spread of Clostridium difficile infection. However, in order to cause disease, these spores must germinate and return to vegetative cell growth. Knowledge of germination is therefore important, with potential practical implications for routine cleaning, outbreak management and potentially in the design of new therapeutics. Germination has been well studied in Bacillus, but until recently there had been few studies reported in C. difficile. The role of bile salts as germinants for C. difficile spores has now been described in some detail, which improves our understanding of how C. difficile spores interact with their environment following ingestion by susceptible individuals. Furthermore, with the aid of novel genetic tools, it has now become possible to study the germination of C. difficile spores using both a forward and reverse genetics approach. Significant progress is beginning to be made in the study of this important aspect of C. difficile disease.
Research in Microbiology 11/2010; 161(9):730-4. · 2.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of healthcare-associated diarrhoea in Europe and North America. During infection, C. difficile produces two key virulence determinants, toxin A and toxin B. Experiments with purified toxins have indicated that toxin A alone is able to evoke the symptoms of C. difficile infection, but toxin B is unable to do so unless it is mixed with toxin A or there is prior damage to the gut mucosa. However, a recent study indicated that toxin B is essential for C. difficile virulence and that a strain producing toxin A alone was avirulent. This creates a paradox over the individual importance of toxin A and toxin B. Here we show that isogenic mutants of C. difficile producing either toxin A or toxin B alone can cause fulminant disease in the hamster model of infection. By using a gene knockout system to inactivate the toxin genes permanently, we found that C. difficile producing either one or both toxins showed cytotoxic activity in vitro that translated directly into virulence in vivo. Furthermore, by constructing the first ever double-mutant strain of C. difficile, in which both toxin genes were inactivated, we were able to completely attenuate virulence. Our findings re-establish the importance of both toxin A and toxin B and highlight the need to continue to consider both toxins in the development of diagnostic tests and effective countermeasures against C. difficile.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile causes diarrhoeal diseases ranging from asymptomatic carriage to a fulminant, relapsing, and potentially fatal colitis. Endospore production plays a vital role in transmission of infection, and in order to cause disease these spores must then germinate and return to vegetative cell growth. Type BI/NAP1/027 strains of C. difficile have recently become highly represented among clinical isolates and are associated with increased disease severity. It has also been suggested that these 'epidemic' types generally sporulate more prolifically than 'non-epidemic' strains, although the few existing reports are inconclusive and encompass only a small number of isolates. In order to better understand any differences in sporulation rates between epidemic and non-epidemic C. difficile types, we analysed these characteristics using 14 C. difficile clinical isolates of a variety of types. Sporulation rates varied greatly between individual BI/NAP1/027 isolates, but this variation did not appear to be type-associated. Furthermore, a number of BI/NAP1/027 spores appeared to form colonies with a lower frequency than specific non-BI/NAP1/027 strains. The data suggest that (i) careful experimental design is required in order to accurately quantify sporulation; and (ii) current evidence cannot link differences in sporulation rates with the disease severity of the BI/NAP1/027 type.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in healthcare settings throughout the developed world is considerable in terms of mortality, morbidity, and disease management. The incidence of CDAD has risen dramatically since the turn of this century, concomitant with the emergence of so-called hypervirulent strains which are thought to cause a more severe disease, higher relapse rates, and increased mortality. Pre-eminent amongst hypervirulent strains are those belonging to ribotype 027, which were first reported in Canada in 2003 and shortly thereafter in the UK. Since its arrival in Europe, it has spread rapidly and has now been reported in 16 member states and Switzerland. The physiological factors responsible for the rapid emergence of hypervirulent C. difficile strains remain unclear. It is known that they produce a binary toxin (CDT) in addition to toxins A and B, that they are resistant to fluoroquinolones due to mutations in gyrA, and that they are resistant to erythromycin. Representative strains have been suggested to produce more toxin A and B in the 'laboratory flask' (most likely due to a frameshift mutation in the repressor gene tcdC), to be more prolific in terms of spore formation, and also exhibit increased adherence to human intestinal epithelial cells due to altered surface proteins. However, the contribution of these and other as yet unidentified factors to the rapid spread of certain C. difficile variants (e.g., ribotypes 027 and 078) remains unclear at present. The advent of ClosTron technology means that it is now possible to construct genetically stable isogenic mutants of C. difficile and carry out reverse genetic studies to elucidate the role of specific gene loci in causing disease. The identification of virulence factors using this approach should help lead to the rational development of therapeutic countermeasures against CDAD.
International journal of medical microbiology: IJMM 08/2010; 300(6):387-95. · 4.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacillus subtilis cells may opt to forgo normal cell division and instead form spores if subjected to certain environmental stimuli, for example nutrient deficiency or extreme temperature. The resulting spores are extremely resilient and can survive for extensive periods of time, importantly under particularly harsh conditions such as those mentioned above. The sporulation process is highly time and energy consuming and essentially irreversible. The bacteria must therefore ensure that this route is only undertaken under appropriate circumstances. The gene regulation network governing sporulation initiation accordingly incorporates a variety of signals and is of significant complexity. We present a model of this network that includes four of these signals: nutrient levels, DNA damage, the products of the competence genes, and cell population size. Our results can be summarised as follows: (i) the model displays the correct phenotypic behaviour in response to these signals; (ii) a basal level of sda expression may prevent sporulation in the presence of nutrients; (iii) sporulation is more likely to occur in a large population of cells than in a small one; (iv) finally, and of most interest, PhrA can act simultaneously as a quorum-sensing signal and as a timing mechanism, delaying sporulation when the cell has damaged DNA, possibly thereby allowing the cell time to repair its DNA before forming a spore.
Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 03/2010; 73(1):181-211. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the genus Clostridium have long been recognised as important to humankind and its animals, both in terms of the diseases they cause and the useful biological processes they undertake. This has led to increasing efforts directed at deriving greater information on their basic biology, most notably through genome sequence. Accordingly, annotated sequences of all of the most important species are now available. However, full exploitation of the data generated has been hindered by the lack of mutational tools that may be used in functional genomic studies. Thus, the number of clostridial mutants generated has until recently been disappointingly small. In particular, the construction of directed mutants using classical homologous recombination-based methods has met with only limited success. Moreover, most of these few mutants were constructed by the unstable integration of a plasmid into the chromosome via a single crossover event. As an alternative, recombination-independent strategies have been devised that are reliant upon a re-targeted group II intron. One element in particular, the ClosTron, provides the facility for the positive selection of insertional mutants. The generation of mutants using the ClosTron is extremely rapid (as little as 10 days) and is highly efficient and reproducible. Furthermore, the insertions made are extremely stable. Its deployment has considerably expanded available options for clostridial functional genomic studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent development of the ClosTron Group II intron directed mutagenesis tool for Clostridium has advanced genetics in this genus, and here we present several significant improvements. We have shown how marker re-cycling can be used to construct strains with multiple mutations, demonstrated using FLP/FRT in Clostridium acetobutylicum; tested the capacity of the system for the delivery of transgenes to the chromosome of Clostridium sporogenes, which proved feasible for 1.0kbp transgenes in addition to a marker; and extended the host range of the system, constructing mutants in Clostridium beijerinckii and, for the first time, in a B1/NAP1/027 'epidemic' strain of Clostridium difficile. Automated intron design bioinformatics are now available free-of-charge at our website http://clostron.com; the out-sourced construction of re-targeted intron plasmids has become cost-effective as well as rapid; and the combination of constitutive intron expression with direct selection for intron insertions has made mutant isolation trivial. These developments mean mutants can now be constructed with very little time and effort for the researcher. Those who prefer to construct plasmids in-house are no longer reliant on a commercial kit, as a mixture of two new plasmids provides unlimited template for intron re-targeting by Splicing by Overlap Extension (SOE) PCR. The new ClosTron plasmids also offer blue-white screening and other options for identification of recombinant plasmids. The improved ClosTron system supersedes the prototype plasmid pMTL007 and the original method, and exploits the potential of Group II introns more fully.
Journal of microbiological methods 11/2009; 80(1):49-55. · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile is the major cause of infectious diarrhea and a major burden to health care services. The ability of this organism to form endospores plays a pivotal role in infection and disease transmission. Spores are highly resistant to many forms of disinfection and thus are able to persist on hospital surfaces and disseminate infection. In order to cause disease, the spores must germinate and the organism must grow vegetatively. Spore germination in Bacillus is well understood, and genes important for this process have recently been identified in Clostridium perfringens; however, little is known about C. difficile. Apparent homologues of the spore cortex lytic enzyme genes cwlJ and sleB (Bacillus subtilis) and sleC (C. perfringens) are present in the C. difficile genome, and we describe inactivation of these homologues in C. difficile 630Delta erm and a B1/NAP1/027 clinical isolate. Spores of a sleC mutant were unable to form colonies when germination was induced with taurocholate, although decoated sleC spores formed the same number of heat-resistant colonies as the parental control, even in the absence of germinants. This suggests that sleC is absolutely required for conversion of spores to vegetative cells, in contrast to CD3563 (a cwlJ/sleB homologue), inactivation of which had no effect on germination and outgrowth of C. difficile spores under the same conditions. The B1/NAP1/027 strain R20291 was found to sporulate more slowly and produce fewer spores than 630Delta erm. Furthermore, fewer R20291 spores germinated, indicating that there are differences in both sporulation and germination between these epidemic and nonepidemic C. difficile isolates.
Journal of bacteriology 11/2009; 192(3):657-64. · 3.94 Impact Factor