Eva Feredoes

University College London, London, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (19)100.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence suggests that items held in working memory (WM) might not all be in the same representational state. One item might be privileged over others, making it more accessible and thereby recalled with greater precision. Here, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we provide causal evidence in human participants that items in WM are differentially susceptible to disruptive TMS, depending on their state, determined either by task relevance or serial position. Across two experiments, we applied TMS to area MT+ during the WM retention of two motion directions. In Experiment 1, we used an "incidental cue" to bring one of the two targets into a privileged state. In Experiment 2, we presented the targets sequentially so that the last item was in a privileged state by virtue of recency. In both experiments, recall precision of motion direction was differentially affected by TMS, depending on the state of the memory target at the time of disruption. Privileged items were recalled with less precision, whereas nonprivileged items were recalled with higher precision. Thus, only the privileged item was susceptible to disruptive TMS over MT+. By contrast, precision of the nonprivileged item improved either directly because of facilitation by TMS or indirectly through reduced interference from the privileged item. Our results provide a unique line of evidence, as revealed by TMS over a posterior sensory brain region, for at least two different states of item representation in WM.
    Journal of Neuroscience 01/2014; 34(1):158-62. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Voluntary selective attention can prioritize different features in a visual scene. The frontal eye-fields (FEF) are one potential source of such feature-specific top-down signals, but causal evidence for influences on visual cortex (as was shown for "spatial" attention) has remained elusive. Here, we show that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied to right FEF increased the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in visual areas processing "target feature" but not in "distracter feature"-processing regions. TMS-induced BOLD signals increase in motion-responsive visual cortex (MT+) when motion was attended in a display with moving dots superimposed on face stimuli, but in face-responsive fusiform area (FFA) when faces were attended to. These TMS effects on BOLD signal in both regions were negatively related to performance (on the motion task), supporting the behavioral relevance of this pathway. Our findings provide new causal evidence for the human FEF in the control of nonspatial "feature"-based attention, mediated by dynamic influences on feature-specific visual cortex that vary with the currently attended property.
    Cerebral Cortex 06/2013; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    Sven Bestmann, Eva Feredoes
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    ABSTRACT: Modern neurostimulation approaches in humans provide controlled inputs into the operations of cortical regions, with highly specific behavioral consequences. This enables causal structure-function inferences, and in combination with neuroimaging, has provided novel insights into the basic mechanisms of action of neurostimulation on distributed networks. For example, more recent work has established the capacity of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to probe causal interregional influences, and their interaction with cognitive state changes. Combinations of neurostimulation and neuroimaging now face the challenge of integrating the known physiological effects of neurostimulation with theoretical and biological models of cognition, for example, when theoretical stalemates between opposing cognitive theories need to be resolved. This will be driven by novel developments, including biologically informed computational network analyses for predicting the impact of neurostimulation on brain networks, as well as novel neuroimaging and neurostimulation techniques. Such future developments may offer an expanded set of tools with which to investigate structure-function relationships, and to formulate and reconceptualize testable hypotheses about complex neural network interactions and their causal roles in cognition.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 04/2013; · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Working memory (WM) is not a unitary construct. There are distinct processes involved in encoding information, maintaining it on-line, and using it to guide responses. The anatomical configurations of these processes are more accurately analyzed as functionally connected networks than collections of individual regions. In the current study we analyzed event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from a Sternberg Item Recognition Paradigm WM task using a multivariate analysis method that allowed the linking of functional networks to temporally-separated WM epochs. The length of the delay epochs was varied to optimize isolation of the hemodynamic response (HDR) for each task epoch. All extracted functional networks displayed statistically significant sensitivity to delay length. Novel information extracted from these networks that was not apparent in the univariate analysis of these data included involvement of the hippocampus in encoding/probe, and decreases in BOLD signal in the superior temporal gyrus (STG), along with default-mode regions, during encoding/delay. The bilateral hippocampal activity during encoding/delay fits with theoretical models of WM in which memoranda held across the short term are activated long-term memory representations. The BOLD signal decreases in the STG were unexpected, and may reflect repetition suppression effects invoked by internal repetition of letter stimuli. Thus, analysis methods focusing on how network dynamics relate to experimental conditions allowed extraction of novel information not apparent in univariate analyses, and are particularly recommended for WM experiments for which task epochs cannot be randomized.
    NeuroImage 10/2012; · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is recruited during visual working memory (WM) when relevant information must be maintained in the presence of distracting information. The mechanism by which DLPFC might ensure successful maintenance of the contents of WM is, however, unclear; it might enhance neural maintenance of memory targets or suppress processing of distracters. To adjudicate between these possibilities, we applied time-locked transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during functional MRI, an approach that permits causal assessment of a stimulated brain region's influence on connected brain regions, and evaluated how this influence may change under different task conditions. Participants performed a visual WM task requiring retention of visual stimuli (faces or houses) across a delay during which visual distracters could be present or absent. When distracters were present, they were always from the opposite stimulus category, so that targets and distracters were represented in distinct posterior cortical areas. We then measured whether DLPFC-TMS, administered in the delay at the time point when distracters could appear, would modulate posterior regions representing memory targets or distracters. We found that DLPFC-TMS influenced posterior areas only when distracters were present and, critically, that this influence consisted of increased activity in regions representing the current memory targets. DLPFC-TMS did not affect regions representing current distracters. These results provide a new line of causal evidence for a top-down DLPFC-based control mechanism that promotes successful maintenance of relevant information in WM in the presence of distraction.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2011; 108(42):17510-5. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Constrained principal component analysis (CPCA) with a finite impulse response (FIR) basis set was used to reveal functionally connected networks and their temporal progression over a multistage verbal working memory trial in which memory load was varied. Four components were extracted, and all showed statistically significant sensitivity to the memory load manipulation. Additionally, two of the four components sustained this peak activity, both for approximately 3 s (Components 1 and 4). The functional networks that showed sustained activity were characterized by increased activations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left supramarginal gyrus, and decreased activations in the primary auditory cortex and "default network" regions. The functional networks that did not show sustained activity were instead dominated by increased activation in occipital cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, sensori-motor cortical regions, and superior parietal cortex. The response shapes suggest that although all four components appear to be invoked at encoding, the two sustained-peak components are likely to be additionally involved in the delay period. Our investigation provides a unique view of the contributions made by a network of brain regions over the course of a multiple-stage working memory trial.
    Human Brain Mapping 06/2011; 32(6):856-71. · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A common procedure for studying the effects on cognition of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is to deliver rTMS concurrent with task performance, and to compare task performance on these trials versus on trials without rTMS. Recent evidence that TMS can have effects on neural activity that persist longer than the experimental session itself, however, raise questions about the assumption of the transient nature of rTMS that underlies many concurrent (or "online") rTMS designs. To our knowledge, there have been no studies in the cognitive domain examining whether the application of brief trains of rTMS during specific epochs of a complex task may have effects that spill over into subsequent task epochs, and perhaps into subsequent trials. We looked for possible immediate spill-over and longer-term cumulative effects of rTMS in data from two studies of visual short-term delayed recognition. In 54 subjects, 10-Hz rTMS trains were applied to five different brain regions during the 3-s delay period of a spatial task, and in a second group of 15 subjects, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded while 10-Hz rTMS was applied to two brain areas during the 3-s delay period of both spatial and object tasks. No evidence for immediate effects was found in the comparison of the memory probe-evoked response on trials that were vs. were not preceded by delay-period rTMS. No evidence for cumulative effects was found in analyses of behavioral performance, and of EEG signal, as a function of task block. The implications of these findings, and their relation to the broader literature on acute vs. long-lasting effects of rTMS, are considered.
    Brain Topography 01/2011; 23(4):355-67. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    Eva Feredoes, Bradley R Postle
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    ABSTRACT: Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is a critical neural substrate for the resolution of proactive interference (PI) in working memory. We hypothesized that left IFG achieves this by controlling the influence of familiarity- versus recollection-based information about memory probes. Consistent with this idea, we observed evidence for an early (200 msec)-peaking signal corresponding to memory probe familiarity and a late (500 msec)-resolving signal corresponding to full accrual of trial-related contextual ("recollection-based") information. Next, we applied brief trains of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) time locked to these mnemonic signals, to left IFG and to a control region. Only early rTMS of left IFG produced a modulation of the false alarm rate for high-PI probes. Additionally, the magnitude of this effect was predicted by individual differences in susceptibility to PI. These results suggest that left IFG-based control may bias the influence of familiarity- and recollection-based signals on recognition decisions.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 05/2009; 22(2):323-30. · 4.49 Impact Factor
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    Bradley R Postle, Eva Feredoes
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    ABSTRACT: At an early stage in our educations we have all learned that statistical significance need not imply functional significance, and, relatedly, that correlation does not imply causation. Despite these caveats, it is indisputable that cognitive neuroscience has learned a great deal about the neural bases of behaviour via the fundamentally correlative methods of functional neuroimaging. This is particularly true in cases when a carefully controlled neuroimaging study can illustrate functional properties of a brain region whose necessity for a particular aspect of behaviour has been established with lesion data. There can arise, however, situations in which two different neuroimaging studies (and indeed, as we will review here, two different analyses of the same data set) produce mutually incompatible results, thereby leaving ambiguous the nature of the structure-function mapping that the experiments were designed to address. This is a situation in which the ability to locally alter brain function in a prospective manner can be particularly useful.
    Cortex 03/2009; 46(1):121-3. · 6.16 Impact Factor
  • Brain Stimulation - BRAIN STIMUL. 01/2008; 1(3):266-267.
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    ABSTRACT: What are the precise brain regions supporting the short-term retention of verbal information? A previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study suggested that they may be topographically variable across individuals, occurring, in most, in regions posterior to prefrontal cortex (PFC), and that detection of these regions may be best suited to a single-subject (SS) approach to fMRI analysis (Feredoes and Postle, 2007). In contrast, other studies using spatially normalized group-averaged (SNGA) analyses have localized storage-related activity to PFC. To evaluate the necessity of the regions identified by these two methods, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to SS- and SNGA-identified regions throughout the retention period of a delayed letter-recognition task. Results indicated that rTMS targeting SS analysis-identified regions of left perisylvian and sensorimotor cortex impaired performance, whereas rTMS targeting the SNGA-identified region of left caudal PFC had no effect on performance. Our results support the view that the short-term retention of verbal information can be supported by regions associated with acoustic, lexical, phonological, and speech-based representation of information. They also suggest that the brain bases of some cognitive functions may be better detected by SS than by SNGA approaches to fMRI data analysis.
    Journal of Neuroscience 11/2007; 27(41):11003-8. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    Eva Feredoes, Bradley R Postle
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    ABSTRACT: The impetus for the present report is the evaluation of competing claims of two classes of working memory models: Memory systems models hold working memory to be supported by a network of prefrontal cortex (PFC)-based domain-specific buffers that act as workspaces for the storage and manipulation of information; emergent processes models, in contrast, hold that the contributions of PFC to working memory do not include the temporary storage of information. Empirically, each of these perspectives is supported by seemingly mutually incompatible results from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that either do or do not find evidence for delay-period sensitivity to memory load, an index of storage, in PFC. We hypothesized that these empirical discrepancies may be due, at least in part, to methodological factors, because studies reporting delay-period load sensitivity in PFC typically employ spatially normalized group averaged analyses, whereas studies that do not find PFC load sensitivity typically use a single-subject "case-study" approach. Experiment 1 performed these two approaches to analysis on the same data set, and the results were consistent with our hypothesis. Experiment 2 evaluated one characteristic of the single-subject results from Experiment 1 - considerable topographical variability across subjects - by evaluating its test-retest reliability with a new group of subjects. Each subject was scanned twice, and the results indicated that, for each of several contrasts, test-retest reliability was significantly greater than chance. Together, these results raise the possibility that the brain bases of delay-period load sensitivity may be characterized by considerable intersubject topographical variability. Our results highlight how the selection of fMRI analysis methods can produce discrepant results, each of which is consistent with different, incompatible theoretical interpretations.
    NeuroImage 05/2007; 35(2):881-903. · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Controlling the effects of proactive interference (PI), the deleterious effect of prior mental activity on current memory representations, is believed to be a key function of the prefrontal cortex. This view is supported by neuroimaging evidence for a correlation between the longer reaction times caused by high PI conditions of a working memory task and increased activity in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of the prefrontal cortex. An alternative that has never been ruled out, however, is that this left IFG effect may merely reflect sensitivity to such nonspecific factors as difficulty and/or time on task. To resolve this confound, we applied the interference methodology of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left IFG and two control regions while subjects performed delayed letter recognition. rTMS was guided with high-resolution magnetic resonance images and was time-locked to the onset of the memory probe. The effect of rTMS, a disruption of accuracy restricted to high-PI probes, was specific to the left IFG. These results demonstrate that unpredictable, phasic disruption of the left IFG selectively disrupts control of responses to high-conflict verbal working memory probes, and they conclusively reject nonspecific alternative accounts.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2007; 103(51):19530-4. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    Eva Feredoes, Bradley R. Postle
    NeuroImage 01/2007; 36(3):1056-1056. · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the contributions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to working memory is central to understanding the neural bases of high-level cognition. One question that remains controversial is whether the same areas of the dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC) that participate in the manipulation of information in working memory also contribute to its short-term retention (STR). We evaluated this question by first identifying, with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), brain areas involved in manipulation. Next, these areas were targeted with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) while subjects performed tasks requiring only the STR or the STR plus manipulation of information in working memory. fMRI indicated that manipulation-related activity was independent of retention-related activity in both the PFC and superior parietal lobule (SPL). rTMS, however, yielded a different pattern of results. Although rTMS of the dlPFC selectively disrupted manipulation, rTMS of the SPL disrupted manipulation and STR to the same extent. rTMS of the postcentral gyrus (a control region) had no effect on performance. The implications of these results are twofold. In the PFC, they are consistent with the view that this region contributes more importantly to the control of information in working memory than to its STR. In the SPL, they illustrate the importance of supplementing the fundamentally correlational data from neuroimaging with a disruptive method, which affords stronger inference about structure-function relations.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 11/2006; 18(10):1712-22. · 4.49 Impact Factor
  • Eva A Feredoes, Perminder S Sachdev
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    ABSTRACT: A recently published study used the interference strategy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to demonstrate the role of the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in the mental rotation of alphanumeric stimuli. We used similar stimulation parameters over the same left and right PPC regions, and examined the ability to rotate more complex 3D Shepard and Metzler (1971) images. There was reduced accuracy of performance with both right and left PPC stimulation for different angles of rotation of the visual stimuli. Right PPC stimulation led to reduced accuracy to rotate stimuli by 1200, whereas left PPC stimulation affected 180 degrees C rotation. We hypothesise that the two hemispheres make different contributions to the processing underlying visuospatial mental imagery: the right PPC is important for spatial rotations through smaller angles; the left hemisphere has a unique role when the stimuli to be compared are rotated through 180 degrees C, a task that engages verbal strategies due to the well-documented special nature of enantiomorphs.
    Cortex 08/2006; 42(5):750-4. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have claimed that weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) induces persisting excitability changes in the human motor cortex that can be more pronounced than cortical modulation induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation, but there are no studies that have evaluated the effects of tDCS on working memory. Our aim was to determine whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation, which enhances brain cortical excitability and activity, would modify performance in a sequential-letter working memory task when administered to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Fifteen subjects underwent a three-back working memory task based on letters. This task was performed during sham and anodal stimulation applied over the left DLPFC. Moreover seven of these subjects performed the same task, but with inverse polarity (cathodal stimulation of the left DLPFC) and anodal stimulation of the primary motor cortex (M1). Our results indicate that only anodal stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex, but not cathodal stimulation of left DLPFC or anodal stimulation of M1, increases the accuracy of the task performance when compared to sham stimulation of the same area. This accuracy enhancement during active stimulation cannot be accounted for by slowed responses, as response times were not changed by stimulation. Our results indicate that left prefrontal anodal stimulation leads to an enhancement of working memory performance. Furthermore, this effect depends on the stimulation polarity and is specific to the site of stimulation. This result may be helpful to develop future interventions aiming at clinical benefits.
    Experimental Brain Research 10/2005; 166(1):23-30. · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • Eva A Feredoes, Perminder S Sachdev, Wei Wen
    Supplements to Clinical neurophysiology 02/2003; 56:187-97.
  • Feredoes EA, Sachdev P
    Australian Journal of Psychology 01/2003; 55(S1):17. · 1.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

492 Citations
100.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2013
    • University College London
      • • Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders
      • • Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • University of Reading
      • School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences
      Reading, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007–2011
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Psychology
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 2008
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2003–2006
    • University of New South Wales
      • School of Psychiatry
      Kensington, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2005
    • Universitätsmedizin Göttingen
      • Department of Clinical Neurophysiology
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany