[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anti-infectious activity of lactobacilli against multi-drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (DT104) was examined in a murine model of an opportunistic antibiotic-induced infection.
Explosive intestinal growth and subsequent lethal extra-intestinal translocation after oral infection with DT104 during fosfomycin (FOM) administration was significantly inhibited by continuous oral administration of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS), which is naturally resistant to FOM, at a dose of 10(8) colony-forming units per mouse daily to mice. Comparison of the anti-Salmonella activity of several Lactobacillus type strains with natural resistance to FOM revealed that Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 14869(T) , Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917(T) , Lactobacillus reuteri JCM 1112(T) , Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469(T) and Lactobacillus salivarius ATCC 11741(T) conferred no activity even when they obtained the high population levels almost similar to those of the effective strains such as LcS, Lact. casei ATCC 334(T) and Lactobacillus zeae ATCC 15820(T) . The increase in concentration of organic acids and maintenance of the lower pH in the intestine because of Lactobacillus colonization were correlated with the anti-infectious activity. Moreover, heat-killed LcS was not protective against the infection, suggesting that the metabolic activity of lactobacilli is important for the anti-infectious activity.
These results suggest that certain lactobacilli in combination with antibiotics may be useful for prophylaxis against opportunistic intestinal infections by multi-drug resistant pathogens, such as DT104.
Antibiotics such as FOM disrupt the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota that produce organic acids, and that only probiotic strains that are metabolically active in vivo should be selected to prevent intestinal infection when used clinically in combination with certain antibiotics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed a novel selective medium, modified-rhamnose-2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride-LBS-vancomycin agar (M-RTLV agar), that utilizes the fermentability of L-rhamnose to distinguish Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei from Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Whereas L. casei and L. paracasei formed red colonies on the M-RTLV agar, L. rhamnosus formed either pink-toned colonies or white colonies with a red spot. An intervention study was conducted to confirm the capability of M-RTLV agar to detect ingested L. casei when recovered from human feces. Subjects consumed one bottle daily of a fermented milk product (Yakult or Yakult Light, which contains L. casei strain Shirota; LcS) for 7 days. Diluents of the fecal samples were cultivated on M-RTLV agar. We were able to enumerate circular medium-sized red colonies, which were morphologically similar to L. casei/L. paracasei but clearly distinguishable from the remaining colonies owing to the color difference. These colonies were then subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in order to identify the LcS. The viable counts of LcS were 6.6+/-0.7 log(10) CFU/g feces after intake of Yakult and 6.5+/-0.6 log(10) CFU/g feces after intake of Yakult Light (mean+/-SD).
International journal of food microbiology 03/2010; 139(3):154-60. DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.03.019 · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infants with severe congenital anomaly often need to undergo operation followed by antibiotic therapy. As a result they inevitably acquire abnormal intestinal microbiota, which cause severe infections such as necrotizing enterocolitis. Also, intestinal function deteriorates and their nutritional state is very poor. In order to prevent these situations probiotic therapy is proposed as an effective supporting treatment. Probiotic therapy were therefore applied to infants with severe congenital anomaly as early as possible to ascertain its efficacy.
As probiotics, two bacteria were used: Bifidobacterium breve Yakult and Lactobacillus casei Shirota. Probiotic therapy was used in four infants with severe congenital anomaly as early as possible after surgery. Their intestinal microbiota and physical growth were followed through the treatment course.
Two patients suffered from meconium peritonitis with ileal atresia. One patient was born with complex anomalies (omphalocele, bladder exstrophy, myelomeningocele). The fourth patient suffered from complete urorectal septum malformation. The intestinal microbiota of these four patients was first induced to be probiotic dominant and finally changed to commensal anaerobe dominant that was similar to normal intestinal microbiota. Pathogenic bacteria were seldom detected. The patients' physical growth was excellent despite short bowel and pulmonary hypoplasia.
Probiotic therapy was effective in inducing probiotic dominant intestinal microbiota and normal intestinal microbiota in infants with severe congenital anomalies. As a result their intestinal absorptive functions were activated and severe infections were completely prevented. All of the infants grew well despite their physical disadvantages.
Pediatrics International 09/2009; 52(3):362-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1442-200X.2009.02963.x · 0.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Probiotic and prebiotic therapies are potent new strategies to treat various intestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and viral and bacterial infections. Synbiotics is defined as the combined use of probiotics and prebiotics and is expected to have a stronger effect on intestinal diseases than probiotics or prebiotics alone, but there has been no report of its clinical application. The authors designed a protocol for synbiotic therapy composed of Bifidobacterium breve, Lactobacillus casei, and galactooligosaccharides and preliminarily ascertained its clinical effects in humans.
This protocol of synbiotic therapy was applied for more than 1 year to 7 malnourished patients with short bowels who suffered from refractory enterocolitis.
The therapeutic protocol improved the intestinal bacterial flora (inducing the domination by anaerobic bacteria and suppressing the residence of pathogenic bacteria) and increased short chain fatty acids in the feces (from 27.8 to 65.09 micromol/g wet feces). All patients but 1 accelerated their body weight gain, and 5 patients showed increased serum rapid turnover proteins.
This protocol for synbiotic therapy might be a potent modulator of intestinal flora and a promising strategy to treat short bowel patients with refractory enterocolitis.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 12/2004; 39(11):1686-92. DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2004.07.013 · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effects of Bifidobacterium breve-fermented soymilk on probiotic function. An administered strain of B. breve strain Yakult was capable of growing in soymilk with no additives as high as 10(9) CFU/ml. During storage of the fermented soymilk at 10 degrees C for 20 days, viable counts of the strain did not change. The growth inhibition of the strain in a bile-containing medium was lessened by the addition of soy protein. In human feeding experiments, the administered B. breve was recovered at a level of over 10(9) CFU/g faeces, accompanied by an increase in the total number of bifidobacteria. These results indicate that fermented soymilk with B. breve strain Yakult could be a novel type of probiotic food.
International Journal of Food Microbiology 04/2003; 81(2):131-6. DOI:10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00224-6 · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the beneficial effects of synbiotic therapy (combined use of probiotics and prebiotics) in critically ill patients, we designed a new protocol for such therapy. Three agents were used as synbiotics: Bifidobacterium breve, Lactobacillus casei, and galactooligosaccharides. More than 1 x 10(9) of probiotic bacteria were contained in each 1.0 g pack. We administered 3.0 g per day of each agent to the patient.A critically ill 9-month-old girl with laryngotracho-esophageal cleft (type IV) was treated by our new synbiotic therapy. Abundant amounts of synbiotic bacteria were detected in the feces which suggests that these administered bacteria affected intestinal function in situ. Bowel movements resumed soon after the commencement of synbiotic therapy and considerable amounts of short chain fatty acids were detected in the feces. Growth of the patient was satisfactory under this treatment. Our new synbiotic therapy had a beneficial effect to improve intestinal function. We recommend synbiotic therapy for critically ill patients in intensive care units as an important immunonutritional therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus equi sp. nov. is described on the basis of 18 strains isolated as one of the predominant intestinal lactobacilli from horse faecal specimens. These 18 strains were isolated from 10 horses of 6 different farms out of 20 horses of 10 farms examined. They were gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, catalase-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile, lactic-acid-homofermentative rods. The DNA G+C content was 38.9+/-0.8 mol %. DNA-DNA hybridization failed to associate these strains closely with any of the validly described type strains used. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of representative strain YIT 0455T revealed that the new isolates represent a new Lactobacillus species, for which the name Lactobacillus equi is proposed. The type strain is YIT 0455T (= ATCC BAA-261T = JCM 10991T).
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 02/2002; 52(Pt 1):211-4. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selective adhesion to only certain epithelia is particularly common among the bacterial members of the indigenous microflora of mammals. We have found that the stratified squamous epithelium of the nonsecreting area of horse stomach is colonized by gram-positive rods. The microscopic features of a dense layer of these bacteria on the epithelium were found to be similar to those reported in mice, rats, and swine. Adhering microorganisms were isolated and identified as Lactobacillus salivarius, L. crispatus, L. reuteri, and L. agilis by DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques. These lactobacilli associated with the horse, except for L. reuteri, were found to adhere to horse epithelial cells in vitro but not to those of rats. A symbiotic relationship of these lactobacilli with the horse is suggested.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LCS) is a probiotic bacterium used in the production of fermented milk products and lactic acid bacteria preparations. To investigate the survival of LCS in the gastrointestinal tract, we have developed a selective medium and specific monoclonal antibodies to isolate and identify this strain. Selective LLV agar medium was prepared by modifying LBS medium, a selective medium for lactobacilli, through the replacement of glucose with lactitol as a carbon source and vancomycin as a selective antibiotic. Culture in LLV agar medium followed by ELISA using monoclonal antibodies specific for LCS was able to detect the organism in faeces. Using this method, we studied the faecal recovery of LCS in individuals who drank 125 ml of fermented milk which contained 10(10) live LCS for 3 days. The mean recovery was about 10(7) live bacteria per gram of faeces, indicating that LCS survived transit through the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion of the fermented milk.
International Journal of Food Microbiology 05/1999; 48(1):51-7. DOI:10.1016/S0168-1605(99)00029-X · 3.16 Impact Factor