[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epigenetics is emerging as an important field in cancer epidemiology that promises to provide insights into gene regulation and facilitate cancer control throughout the cancer care continuum. Increasingly, investigators are incorporating epigenetic analysis into the studies of etiology and outcomes. To understand current progress and trends in the inclusion of epigenetics in cancer epidemiology, we evaluated the published literature and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) supported research grant awards in this field to identify trends in epigenetics research. We present a summary of the epidemiological studies in NCI's grant portfolio (from January 2005 through December 2012) and in the scientific literature published during the same period, irrespective of support from NCI. Blood cells and tumor tissue were the most commonly used biospecimens in these studies, although buccal cells, cervical cells, sputum, and stool samples also were used. DNA methylation profiling was the focus of the majority of studies, but several studies also measured microRNA profiles. We illustrate here the current status of epidemiologic studies that are evaluating epigenetic changes in large populations. The incorporation of epigenomic assessments in cancer epidemiology studies has and is likely to continue to provide important insights into the field of cancer research.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 12/2013; · 4.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Erythrocebus patas (patas) monkeys were used to model use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in HIV-1 infected pregnant women.Methods. Pregnant patas dams were given human-equivalent daily ARV dosing for 50% of gestation. Mesenchymal cells, cultured from bone marrow of patas offspring obtained at birth, 1 and 3 yr of age, were examined for genotoxicity including: centrosomal amplification (CA); micronuclei (MN); and MN containing whole chromosomes (MN+C).Results. Compared to controls, significant increases (p<0.05) in CA, MN and MN+C were found in most groups of offspring examined at birth, 1 and 3 yr.Conclusions. Transplacental NRTI exposures induced fetal genotoxicity persistent for 3 yr.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2013; · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This unit describes procedures for measuring CYP1B1 gene expression by reverse transcription real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), CYP1B1 protein levels by western blotting, and CYP1B1 enzyme activity through conversion of 7-ethoxyresorufin substrate. To achieve specific measurement of CYP1B1 activity in the presence of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, CYP1B1 inhibition and a subtractive approach have been adopted. 2,4,3',5'-Tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) is a potent and selective competitive inhibitor of CYP1B1 with an IC₅₀ of 3 nM for EROD and ~90 nM for E2 4-hydroxylation. Binding studies with purified CYP1B1 suggests that TMS interferes in the proximity of the heme region of CYP1B1 with high affinity. Compared to other potent inhibitors such as α-naphthoflavone, which is a known CYP1 family inhibitor with no selectivity between CYP1B1 and CYP1A2, TMS is ~50- and 520-fold selective for inhibition of CYP1B1 when compared to CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, respectively. Thus, TMS can serve as a helpful chemical scalpel for dissecting CYP1B1 activity from the overall activity of CYP1 family members against ethoxyresorufin.
Current protocols in toxicology 02/2012; Chapter 4:Unit 4.38.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the past several years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have succeeded in identifying hundreds of genetic markers associated with common diseases. However, most of these markers confer relatively small increments of risk and explain only a small proportion of familial clustering. To identify obstacles to future progress in genetic epidemiology research and provide recommendations to NIH for overcoming these barriers, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a workshop entitled "Next Generation Analytic Tools for Large-Scale Genetic Epidemiology Studies of Complex Diseases" on September 15-16, 2010. The goal of the workshop was to facilitate discussions on (1) statistical strategies and methods to efficiently identify genetic and environmental factors contributing to the risk of complex disease; and (2) how to develop, apply, and evaluate these strategies for the design, analysis, and interpretation of large-scale complex disease association studies in order to guide NIH in setting the future agenda in this area of research. The workshop was organized as a series of short presentations covering scientific (gene-gene and gene-environment interaction, complex phenotypes, and rare variants and next generation sequencing) and methodological (simulation modeling and computational resources and data management) topic areas. Specific needs to advance the field were identified during each session and are summarized.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) induces cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1B1 enzymes, which biotransform PAHs resulting in the formation of DNA adducts. We hypothesised that 2,3',4,5'-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS), an analogue of resveratrol and a potent CYP1B1 inhibitor, may inhibit r7, t8, t9-trihydroxy-c-10-(N(2)deoxyguanosyl)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (BPdG) adduct formation in cells exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BP). To address this, MCF-7 cells were cultured for 96 h in the presence of 1 μM BP, 1 μM BP + 1 μM TMS or 1 μM BP + 4 μM TMS. Cells were assayed at 2-12 h intervals for: BPdG adducts by r7, t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE)-DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay; CYP1A1 and 1B1 gene expression changes by relative real-time polymerase chain reaction; and CYP1A1/1B1 enzyme activity by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay. Whereas maximal BPdG levels were similar for all exposure groups, the times at which the maxima were reached increased by 16 and 24 h with the addition of 1 and 4 μM TMS, respectively. The maximal expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 occurred at 16, 24 and 48 h, but the maximal level for EROD-specific activity was reached at 24, 48 and 60 h, in cells exposed to 1 μM BP, 1 μM BP + 1 μM TMS or 1 μM BP + 4 μM TMS, respectively. The area under the curve from 4 to 96 h of exposure (AUC(4-)(96 h)) for BPdG adduct formation was not increased in the presence of TMS, but for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression fold increase AUC(4-)(96 h) and EROD-specific activity AUC(4-)(96 h), there were significant (P < 0.05) increases in the presence of 4 μM TMS. Therefore, during 96 h of exposure in MCF-7 cells, the combination of BP plus TMS caused a slowing of BP biotransformation, with an increase in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression and EROD activity, and a slowing, but no change in magnitude of BPdG formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial compromise has been documented in infants born to women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) who received nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) therapy during pregnancy. To model these human exposures, we examined mitochondrial integrity at birth and 1 year in brain cortex and liver from offspring of retroviral-free Erythrocebus patas dams-administered human-equivalent NRTI doses for the last half (10 weeks) of gestation. Additional infants, followed for 1 year, were given the same drugs as their mothers for the first 6 weeks of life. Exposures included: no drug, Zidovudine (AZT), Lamivudine (3TC), AZT/3TC, AZT/Didanosine (ddI), and Stavudine (d4T)/3TC. In brain and liver, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzyme activities (complexes I, II, and IV) showed minimal differences between unexposed and NRTI-exposed offspring at both times. Brain and liver mitochondria from most NRTI-exposed patas, both at birth and 1 year of age, contained significant (p < 0.05) morphological damage observed by electron microscopy (EM), based on scoring of coded photomicrographs. Brain and liver mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels in NRTI-exposed patas were depleted significantly in the 3TC and d4T/3TC groups at birth and were depleted significantly (p < 0.05) at 1 year in all NRTI-exposed groups. In 1-year-old infants exposed in utero to NRTIs, mtDNA depletion was 28.8-51.8% in brain and 37.4-56.5% in liver. These investigations suggest that some NRTI-exposed human infants may sustain similar mitochondrial compromise in brain and liver and should be followed long term for cognitive integrity and liver function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to analyze the effect of environmental oxidative stress on human placental monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts in human term placentas from radioactivity-contaminated and chemically-polluted areas of the Ukraine and Belarus, and to compare these biomarkers to the newborn's general health status. Placental PAH-DNA adduct formation, GST activity, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) activity, and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), an index of lipid peroxidation, were measured in groups of women exposed to different levels of radioactivity and PAH pollution. The in vitro metabolism data, obtained from 143 human placental samples at term, were compared to indices of maternal and newborn health. The highest ECOD activity was recorded in placentas obtained from chemically-polluted areas and a radioactivity-contaminated area; the ECOD activity was 7-fold and 2-fold higher compared to the region considered to be "clean". Newborns with the most compromised health status displayed the greatest down-regulation of GST activity (144-162mUmgprotein(-1) vs. 258-395mUmgprotein(-1)), enhanced ECOD activity and the highest level of PAH-DNA adduct formation. The highest level of TBARS was observed in women exposed to the highest levels of radiation. The efficiency of placental detoxification negatively correlated with maternal age and the health status of the newborn. Environmental oxidative stress was related to an increase in anemia, threatened abortions, toxemia, fetal hypoxia, spontaneous abortions and fetal hypotrophy. Our data suggest that chemically- or radioactivity-induced oxidative stress enhance cytochrome P450-mediated enzymatic activities potentially resulting in increased formation of reactive metabolites. The activity of GSH-transferase is not enhanced. This imbalance in detoxification capacity can be measured as increased production of PAH-DNA adducts, decreased lipid peroxidation and compromised fetal health.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is a potent pro-carcinogen and ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Here, we examined the induction and modulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and 10-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPdG) adduct formation in DNA from 20 primary normal human mammary epithelial cell (NHMEC) strains exposed to BP (4muM) in the absence or presence of chlorophyllin (5muM). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed strong induction of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 by BP, with high levels of inter-individual variability. Variable BPdG formation was found in all strains by r7, t8-dihydroxy-t-9, 10 epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE)-DNA chemiluminescence assay (CIA). Chlorophyllin mitigated BP-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene expression in all 20 strains when administered with BP. Chlorophyllin, administered prior to BP-exposure, mitigated CYP1A1 expression in 18/20 NHMEC strains (p<0.005) and CYP1B1 expression in 17/20 NHMEC strains (p<0.005). Maximum percent reductions of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene expression and BPdG adduct formation were observed when cells were pre-dosed with chlorophyllin followed by administration of the carcinogen with chlorophyllin (p<0.005 for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression and p<0.0005 for BPdG adducts). Therefore, chlorophyllin is likely to be a good chemoprotective agent for a large proportion of the human population.
Cancer letters 02/2010; 292(2):254-60. · 4.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To delineate temporal changes in the integrity and function of mitochondria/cardiomyocytes in hearts from mice exposed in utero to commonly used nucleoside analogs (NRTIs), CD-1 mice were exposed in utero to 80 mg AZT/kg, 40 mg 3TC/kg, 80 mg AZT/kg plus 40 mg 3TC/kg, or vehicle alone during days 12-18 of gestation and hearts from female mouse offspring were examined at 13 and 26 weeks postpartum. Alterations in cardiac mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzyme activities, mtDNA mutations, and echocardiography of NRTI-exposed mice were assessed and compared with findings in vehicle-exposed control mice. A hybrid capture-chemiluminescence assay showed significant twofold increases in mtDNA levels in hearts from AZT- and AZT/3TC-exposed mice at 13 and 26 weeks postpartum, consistent with near doubling in mitochondrial numbers over time compared with vehicle-exposed mice. Echocardiographic measurements at 13 and 26 weeks postpartum indicated progressive thinning of the left ventricular posterior wall in NRTI-exposed mice, relative to controls, with differences becoming statistically significant by 26 weeks. Overall, progressive functional changes occurred in mouse mitochondria and cardiac tissue several months after in utero NRTI exposures; AZT and 3TC acted in concert to cause additive cardiotoxic effects of AZT/3TC compared with either drug alone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that chlorophyllin (CHLN) would reduce benzo[a]pyrene-DNA (BP-DNA) adduct levels. Using normal human mammary epithelial cells (NHMECs) exposed to 4 microM BP for 24 hr in the presence or absence of 5 microM CHLN, we measured BP-DNA adducts by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA). The protocol included the following experimental groups: BP alone, BP given simultaneously with CHLN (BP+CHLN) for 24 hr, CHLN given for 24 hr followed by BP for 24 hr (preCHLN, postBP), and CHLN given for 48 hr with BP added for the last 24 hr (preCHLN, postBP+CHLN). Incubation with CHLN decreased BPdG levels in all groups, with 87% inhibition in the preCHLN, postBP+CHLN group. To examine metabolic mechanisms, we monitored expression by Affymetrix microarray (U133A), and found BP-induced up-regulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, as well as up-regulation of groups of interferon-inducible, inflammation and signal transduction genes. Incubation of cells with CHLN and BP in any combination decreased expression of many of these genes. Using reverse transcription real time PCR (RT-PCR) the maximal inhibition of BP-induced gene expression, >85% for CYP1A1 and >70% for CYP1B1, was observed in the preCHLN, postBP+CHLN group. To explore the relationship between transcription and enzyme activity, the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay was used to measure the combined CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 activities. BP exposure caused the EROD levels to double, when compared with the unexposed controls. The CHLN-exposed groups all showed EROD levels similar to the unexposed controls. Therefore, the addition of CHLN to BP-exposed cells reduced BPdG formation and CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, but EROD activity was not significantly reduced.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 01/2009; 50(2):134-44. · 3.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Use of tamoxifen is associated with a 50% reduction in breast cancer incidence and an increase in endometrial cancer incidence. Here, we documented tamoxifen-induced gene expression changes in cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells (strains 5, 16, and 40), established from tissue taken at reduction mammoplasty from three individuals. Cells exposed to 0, 10, or 50 micromol/L of tamoxifen for 48 hours were evaluated for (E)-alpha-(deoxyguanosine-N(2)-yl)-tamoxifen (dG-N(2)-TAM) adduct formation using TAM-DNA (DNA modified with dG-N(2)-TAM) chemiluminescence immunoassay, gene expression changes using National Cancer Institute DNA-oligonucleotide microarray, and real-time PCR. At 48 hours, cells exposed to 10 and 50 micromol/L of tamoxifen were 85.6% and 48.4% viable, respectively, and there were no measurable dG-N(2)-TAM adducts. For microarrays, cells were exposed to 10 micromol/L of tamoxifen and genes with expression changes of >3-fold were as follows: 13 genes up-regulated and 1 down-regulated for strain 16; 17 genes up-regulated for strain 5, and 11 genes up-regulated for strain 40. Interferon-inducible genes (IFITM1, IFIT1, MXI, and GIP3), and a potassium ion channel (KCNJ1) were up-regulated in all three strains. No significant expression changes were found for genes related to estrogen or xenobiotic metabolism. Real-time PCR revealed the up-regulation of IFNA1 and confirmed the tamoxifen-induced up-regulation of the five other genes identified by microarray, with the exception of GIP3 and MX1, which were not up-regulated in strain 40. Induction of IFN-related genes in the three normal human mammary epithelial cell strains suggests that, in addition to hormonal effects, tamoxifen exposure may enhance immune response in normal breast tissue.
Cancer Research 01/2009; 69(3):1150-5. · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of their similarity to humans, non-human primates constitute useful preclinical models in which to examine potential human drug toxicities. Antiretroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) toxicity is currently under investigation in Erythrocebus patas monkeys, and whereas NRTI pharmacokinetics have been studied in other monkey species, pharmacokinetics for Zidovudine plus Lamivudine (AZT/3TC) dosing have not been reported in the patas. Here we present 24 h serum pharmacokinetic parameters after a single oral exposure to the combination of AZT (40 mg) and 3TC (24 mg), doses equivalent to a human daily dose of Combivir. The patas (n=3) AZT/3TC pharmacokinetic profiles were similar to those seen in other primate species. Average maximum serum concentrations (Cmax) for AZT and 3TC were 2.35 and 2.65 microg/ml, respectively, and were observed at 0.83 h (Tmax). Cmax was 13.34 microg/ml for the AZT-glucuronide (AZT-G) and was 0.023 microg/ml for the potentially toxic minor metabolite 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine (AMT), both occurring at about 1 h after dosing. Similar elimination half-times, 0.70 and 0.68 h(-1), were found for AZT and AZT-G, respectively, while 3TC was eliminated about half as fast (0.33 h(-1)) resulting in AUC(0-infinity) values of 6.97 microg/ml h for 3TC, 2.99 microg/ml h for AZT, 20.5 microg/ml h for AZT-G and 0.002 for AMT 6.97 microg/ml h. This study shows similar metabolism and pharmacokinetics for oral administration of AZT/3TC in the adult patas monkey, other primate species and humans. The data validate the use of the patas monkey for studies of NRTI toxicity.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 02/2008; 226(2):206-11. · 3.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), given to human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected pregnant women to prevent vertical viral transmission, have caused mitochondrial dysfunction in some human infants. Here, we examined mitochondrial integrity in skeletal muscle from offspring of pregnant retroviral-free Erythrocebus patas dams administered human-equivalent NRTI doses for the last 10 weeks of gestation or for 10 weeks of gestation and 6 weeks after birth. Exposures included no drug, Zidovudine (AZT), Lamivudine (3TC), AZT/3TC, AZT/Didanosine (ddI), and Stavudine (d4T)/3TC. Offspring were examined at birth (n=3 per group) and 1 year (n=4 per group, not including 3TC alone). Circulating levels of creatine kinase were elevated at 1 year in the d4T/3TC-exposed group. Measurement of oxidative phosphorylation enzyme activities (complexes I, II, and IV) revealed minimal NRTI-induced changes at birth and at 1 year. Histochemistry for complex IV activity showed abnormal staining with activity depletion at birth and 1 year in groups exposed to AZT alone and to the 2-NRTI combinations. Electron microscopy of skeletal muscle at birth and 1 year of age showed mild to severe mitochondrial damage in all the NRTI-exposed groups, with 3TC inducing mild damage and the 2-NRTI combinations inducing extensive damage. At birth, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was depleted by approximately 50% in groups exposed to AZT alone and the 2-NRTI combinations. At 1 year, the mtDNA levels had increased but remained significantly below normal. Therefore, skeletal muscle mitochondrial compromise occurs at birth and persists at 1 year of age (46 weeks after the last NRTI exposure) in perinatally exposed young monkeys, suggesting that similar events may occur in NRTI-exposed human infants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Consumption of charbroiled red meat and meat-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with risk of colorectal adenoma, a precursor of colorectal cancer. Furthermore, leukocyte PAH-DNA adduct levels have been demonstrated to increase in response to charbroiled red meat intake but to date there have been no studies that have investigated the relationship between leukocyte PAH-DNA adduct levels and risk of colorectal adenoma. We investigated the relation of leukocyte PAH-DNA adduct formation and colorectal adenoma in a clinic-based case-control study of colorectal adenomas. The study comprised 82 cases of colorectal adenoma and 111 polyp-free controls, none of whom were current smokers. Leukocyte PAH-DNA adducts were measured by a sensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay using an antiserum elicited against DNA modified with (+/-)-7beta,8alpha-dihydroxy-9alpha,10alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene that recognizes several PAHs bound to human DNA. Leukocyte PAH-DNA adduct levels were higher among colorectal adenoma cases (median, 1.4 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides) than polyp-free controls (median, 1.2 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides) (P = 0.02). There was a positive association between PAH-DNA adduct level and adenoma prevalence: each unit increase in PAH-DNA adduct level (per 10(8) nucleotides) was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.2]. In addition, a comparison of the lowest quartile for PAH-DNA adduct level with the highest quartile yielded an OR of 2.8 (95% CI, 1.2-6.5; P(trend) = 0.048) for risk of colorectal adenoma. These data support a link between PAH exposure and colorectal adenoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In response to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and DNA repair are mediated by a TP53 pathway that induces p21(WAF1/Cip1). The chemotherapeutic drug cis-diamminedichloroplatinum-II (cisplatin) damages cellular DNA by forming cis-diammineplatinum-N(7)-d[GpG] and cis-diammine-platinum-N(7)-d[ApG] adducts. To investigate the role of p21, skin keratinocytes from p21(WAF1/Cip1) wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), and null (-/-) mice, cultured in calcium levels designed to maintain a proliferating state, were exposed to 5 microM cisplatin continuously for 0, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h. At all time points the (+/-) cells had the fewest Pt-DNA adducts, and at 24 h mean Pt-DNA adduct levels were 541, 153 and 779 fmol adduct/mug DNA for p21(WAF1/Cip1) (+/+), (+/-) and (-/-) cells, respectively [P < 0.05 for (+/+) versus (+/-) and (-/-) versus (+/-)]. In order to understand underlying events, we examined p21(WAF1/Cip1) messenger RNA (mRNA), cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in these cells. At 48 h of cisplatin exposure p21(WAF1/Cip1) mRNA expression was 2-fold higher in the (+/+) cells, compared to the (+/-) cells. At 24 h, the % of cells in S-phase in cisplatin-exposed cultures, compared to unexposed cultures, was decreased by 51, 40 and 11% in p21(WAF1/Cip1) (+/+), (+/-) and (-/-) cells, respectively (P = 0.04, ANOVA). At 24, 48 and 72 h the % of cisplatin-exposed (+/+) cells in apoptosis was 9.4-10.5%, while the cisplatin-exposed (+/-) and (-/-) cells had 1.2-3.7% of cells in apoptosis. The data support the interpretation that DNA replication arrest and apoptosis do not completely explain the low levels of Pt-DNA adducts in the (+/-) cells, and suggest that p21(WAF1/Cip1) controls activity resulting in either low Pt-DNA adduct formation or enhanced Pt-DNA adduct removal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effective reduction in maternal-fetal human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) transmission has been achieved by administration of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) during pregnancy, and although most exposed children are clinically normal at birth, mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported. To examine mitochondrial integrity on a molecular level, we evaluated mitochondrial morphology by electron microscopy (EM) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) quantity in umbilical cords and cord blood from NRTI-exposed and unexposed human and monkey newborns. Human subjects included infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers who received Combivir (Zidovudine [AZT] plus Lamivudine [3TC]) (n = 9) or AZT plus Didanosine [ddI] (n = 2) during pregnancy, and infants born to HIV-1-uninfected mothers (n = 7). NRTI-exposed Erythrocebus patas monkey dams (n = 3 per treatment group) were given human-equivalent dosing regimens containing 3TC, AZT/3TC, AZT/ddI, or Stavudine (d4T)/3TC during gestation. Four infants born to unexposed patas dams served as controls. Mitochondria in umbilical cord endothelial cells from NRTI-exposed monkey and human infants showed substantial abnormal pathology by EM, the extent of which was quantified from coded photomicrographs and shown to be different (P < 0.05) from the unexposed monkey and human newborns. Significant (P < 0.05) mtDNA depletion was found in umbilical cords from both human and monkey NRTI-exposed infants and in human, but not in monkey, cord blood leukocytes. For umbilical cords, an increase in mitochondrial morphological damage correlated with reduction in mtDNA quantity in fetal monkeys (r = 0.94). The treatment-induced mitochondrial compromise in infant monkeys ranked as follows: d4T/3TC > AZT/ddI > AZT/3TC > 3TC. The study demonstrates that transplacental NRTI exposures induce similar mitochondrial damage in cord blood and umbilical cords taken from retroviral-uninfected monkey infants and from human infants born to HIV-1-infected women.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 01/2007; 48(3-4):201-9. · 3.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term use of antiretroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) as therapy for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection is limited by mitochondrial toxicity. Here we document mitochondrial pathology during the long-term culture of human HeLa cells in the presence or absence of the NRTI Zidovudine(R) (AZT, 800 muM) for up to 77-passages (p), with samples taken at early (p5-p11), middle (p36 and p37), and late (p70-p77) passages. Samples were analyzed for changes in mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial (mt)DNA quantity, nuclear and mitochondrial gene expression, and mitochondrial membrane potential. Mitochondria showed abnormal proliferation at p5 and abnormal morphology >/=p36. mtDNA quantity was increased at p5 and p11, and 65% depleted at p71. Hierarchical clustering of nuclear gene expression, examined at p37 by the NCI cDNA microarray in AZT-exposed cells, showed down-regulation of 13 out of 16 lipid-metabolizing genes, and up-regulation of most oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes. OXPHOS genes encoded by mtDNA, examined at p5, p36, and p75 using the Mitochondrial Gene Mini Array, revealed up-regulation of genes coding for polypeptides of NADH dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, and cytochrome c oxidase. Mitochondrial membrane potential, monitored by JC1 staining, was elevated at p10 and p32, and essentially completely absent at p71. The data show that during chronic exposure of HeLa cells to AZT, a compensatory response was induced at the earlier passages (p5-p37), and by p71 there was widespread mitochondrial morphological damage, severe mtDNA depletion, and a substantial loss of mitochondrial membrane potential.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 08/2006; 48(3-4):179-89. · 3.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inter-individual variation in formation of carcinogen-DNA adducts and induction of cytochrome P450 genes was measured in 23 cultured normal human mammary epithelial cell (NHMEC) strains established from reduction mammoplasty tissue. Semi-confluent cells were exposed to 4 microM benzo[a]pyrene (BP) for 12 h and BP-DNA adduct levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay using antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7, t8-dihydroxy-t-9, 10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE). BP-DNA adduct levels for 22 of 23 different cell strains ranged from non-detectable (three samples) to about 15 adducts/10(8) nucleotides. Increases in levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 were detected using both oligonucleotide arrays and reverse transcription/quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs). For CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, the oligonucleotide array data and RT-PCR data were highly correlated (r=0.73 and 0.70, respectively), suggesting that oligonucleotide arrays are a suitable gene discovery tool, and demonstrating that the complementary and efficient RT-PCR may be used to confirm microarray data for a specific gene in a large number of samples. As measured by RT-PCR, inter-individual variation in CYP1A1 induction was 100-fold, while the variation in CYP1B1 induction was almost 40-fold. On a per-person basis, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 induction were well-correlated (r=0.88, P<0.001), which is to be expected as they are under the control of a common transcriptional regulation mechanism in response to BP exposure. Inter-individual variation in carcinogen-DNA adduct formation could not be explained only by variation in levels of CYP1A1 or CYP1B1 induction, as neither was well-correlated with BPDE-DNA adduct level (r=0.40 and 0.50 for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, respectively). Evaluation of glutathione-S-transferase M1 genotype (GSTM1 positive or null) revealed an apparent correlation between positive GSTM1 genotype and BPDE-DNA adduct levels (r=0.84 and 0.77 for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, respectively); however, after removal of the single outlier this relationship was not significant. Overall the data suggest that BPDE-DNA adduct levels in normal human breast tissue may be modulated by multiple factors that include, but are not exclusive to, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 inducibility and the presence or absence of GSTM1.
Cancer Letters 04/2005; 221(2):213-24. · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral therapy for the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) typically includes two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT, Zidovudine) plus 2'-deoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC, Lamivudine) is a combination that is used frequently. The NRTIs are mutagenic nucleoside analogs that become incorporated into DNA and terminate replication. We therefore hypothesized that exposure to this class of drug may alter cell cycle parameters. We used flow cytometry to examine the cell cycle in human epithelioid carcinoma (HeLa) cells exposed to AZT and 3TC alone, as well as a series of AZT/3TC dose combinations: (A) 125.0 microM AZT/12.5 microM 3TC; (B) 250.0 microM AZT/25.0 microM 3TC; and (C) 500 microM AZT/50 microM 3TC. At 24 h, at all doses, there was a good cell viability (>/=68%), and incorporation of AZT into nuclear DNA. Using flow cytometry, a dose-related increase in the percentage of cells in S phase, from 9.5% with no drug, to 36.0% with dose C, was observed in cells exposed for 24 h (P = 0.001, ANOVA). A concomitant decrease in the percentage of cells in G(1) phase, from 82.6% with no drug to 58.5% with dose C, was observed in cells exposed for 24 h (P = 0.017, ANOVA). A similar S phase arrest was seen in cells exposed to 125, 250 and 500 microM AZT alone, but there was no S phase alteration with 50 microM 3TC alone, suggesting that AZT is responsible for the accumulation of cells in S phase. To elucidate the accumulation of cells in S phase and explore the cell cycle gene expression changes induced by AZT and 3TC, we used c-DNA microarray, Cell Cycle Super Array and real-time PCR. There was a strong upregulation of the DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3 or GADD153) in NRTI-exposed cells. In addition, AZT induced an upregulation of cyclin D1 accompanied by a downregulation of the cyclin D1-associated inhibitors P18 and P57, and the G(1)-S check point gene P21, the net effect of which would be to foster a cell progression into S phase. Cyclin A2 was down-regulated in cells exposed to AZT, suggesting a block in S-G(2)-M progression that would also be consistent with the accumulation of cells in S phase. Overall, the study demonstrates that AZT, but not 3TC, causes an arrest of cells in S phase with a consistent alteration in the expression of several cell cycle genes.