Hwan Mook Kim

Gachon University, Sŏngnam, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea

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Publications (155)438.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This study was performed to elucidate the effect of a lipid-soluble ginseng extract (LSGE) on cancer invasion and metastasis. The LSGE, even at noncytotoxic concentrations, potently inhibited invasion and migration of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of 3 μg/mL of LSGE, the invasion and migration of B16F10 cells were significantly inhibited by 98.1% and 71.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the LSGE decreased mRNA and protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in B16F10 cells, leading to a decrease in MMP-2 activity. After B16F10 cells were intravenously injected in the tail vein of C57BL/6 mice, 1000 mg/kg/day of LSGE was orally administered for 13 days, after which lung metastasis of cancer cells was inhibited by 59.3%. These findings indicate that LSGE inhibits cancer cell invasion and migration in vitro and lung metastasis of melanoma cells in vivo by inhibiting MMP-2 expression.
    Journal of medicinal food. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the promising anticancer potential of curcumin, its therapeutic application has been limited, owing to its poor solubility, bioavailability, and chemical fragility. Therefore, various formulation approaches have been attempted to address these problems. In this study, we entrapped curcumin into monoolein (MO)-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNs) and evaluated the physicochemical properties and anticancer activity of the LCN dispersion. The results revealed that particles in the curcumin-loaded LCN dispersion were discrete and monodispersed, and that the entrapment efficiency was almost 100%. The stability of curcumin in the dispersion was surprisingly enhanced (about 75% of the curcumin survived after 45 days of storage at 40°C), and the in vitro release of curcumin was sustained (10% or less over 15 days). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis using a human colon cancer cell line (HCT116) exhibited 99.1% fluorescence gating for 5 μM curcumin-loaded LCN dispersion compared to 1.36% for the same concentration of the drug in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), indicating markedly enhanced cellular uptake. Consistent with the enhanced cellular uptake of curcumin-loaded LCNs, anticancer activity and cell cycle studies demonstrated apoptosis induction when the cells were treated with the LCN dispersion; however, there was neither noticeable cell death nor significant changes in the cell cycle for the same concentration of the drug in DMSO. In conclusion, entrapping curcumin into MO-based LCNs may provide, in the future, a strategy for overcoming the hurdles associated with both the stability and cellular uptake issues of the drug in the treatment of various cancers.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2014; 9:3119-30. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression and stability of the tumor suppressor runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) are regulated by histone deacetylase (HDAC). HDAC inhibition alters epigenetic and posttranslational stability of RUNX3, leading to tumor suppression. However, HDAC inhibitors can nonselectively alter global gene expression through chromatin remodeling. Thus, lactam-based HDAC inhibitors were screened to identify potent protein stabilizers that maintain RUNX3 stability by acetylation. RUNX activity and HDAC inhibition were determined for 111 lactam-based analogues through a cell-based RUNX activation and HDAC inhibition assay. 3-[1-(4-Bromobenzyl)-2-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]-N-hydroxypropanamide (11-8) significantly increased RUNX3 acetylation and stability with relatively low RUNX3 mRNA expression and HDAC inhibitory activity. This compound showed significant antitumor effects, which were stronger than SAHA, in an MKN28 xenograft model. Thus, we propose a novel strategy, in which HDAC inhibitors serve as antitumor chemotherapeutic agents that selectively target epigenetic regulation and protein stability of RUNX3.
    ChemMedChem 12/2013; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RhoB is expressed during tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis. In malignant progression, the expression levels of RhoB are commonly attenuated. RhoB is known to be linked to the regulation of the PI3K/Akt survival pathways. Based on aliphatic amido-quaternary ammonium salts that induce apoptosis via up-regulation of RhoB, we synthesized novel aliphatic sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts. These new synthetic compounds were evaluated for their biological activities using an in vitro RhoB promoter assay in HeLa cells, and in a growth inhibition assay using human cancer cell lines including PC-3, NUGC-3, MDA-MB-231, ACHN, HCT-15, and NCI-H23. Compound 5b (ethyl-dimethyl-{3-[methyl-(tetradecane-1-sulfonyl)-amino]-propyl}-ammonium; iodide) was the most promising anticancer agent in the series, based upon the potency of growth inhibition and RhoB promotion. These new aliphatic sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts could be a valuable series for development of new anticancer chemotherapeutic agents.
    European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2013; 69C:670-677. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Midazolam is a widely used anesthetic of the benzodiazepine class that has shown cytotoxicity and apoptosisinducing activity in neuronal cells and lymphocytes. This study aims to evaluate the effect of midazolam on growth of K562 human leukemia cells and HT29 colon cancer cells. The in vivo effect of midazolam was investigated in BALB/c-nu mice bearing K562 and HT29 cells human tumor xenografts. The results show that midazolam decreased the viability of K562 and HT29 cells by inducing apoptosis and S phase cell-cycle arrest in a concentration-dependent manner. Midazolam activated caspase-9, capspase-3 and PARP indicating induction of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Midazolam lowered mitochondrial membrane potential and increased apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Midazolam showed reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity through inhibition of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) enzyme activity in K562 cells. Midazolam caused inhibition of pERK1/2 signaling which led to inhibition of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-XL and XIAP and phosphorylation activation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bid. Midazolam inhibited growth of HT29 tumors in xenograft mice. Collectively our results demonstrate that midazolam caused growth inhibition of cancer cells via activation of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and inhibited HT29 tumor growth in xenograft mice. The mechanism underlying these effects of midazolam might be suppression of ROS production leading to modulation of apoptosis and growth regulatory proteins. These findings present possible clinical implications of midazolam as an anesthetic to relieve pain during in vivo anticancer drug delivery and to enhance anticancer efficacy through its ROS-scavenging and pro-apoptotic properties.
    Molecules and Cells 09/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of 4-O-methylhonokiol in rats. The absorption and disposition of 4-O-methylhonokiol were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats following a single intravenous (2 mg/kg) or oral (10 mg/kg) dose. Its metabolism was studied in vitro using rat liver microsomes and cytosol. 4-O-Methylhonokiol exhibited a high systemic plasma clearance and a large volume of distribution. The oral dose gave a peak plasma concentration of 24.1±3.3 ng/mL at 2.9±1.9 h and a low estimated bioavailability. 4-O-Methylhonokiol was rapidly metabolized and converted at least in part to honokiol in a concentration-dependent manner by cytochrome P450 in rat liver microsomes, predicting a high systemic clearance consistent with the pharmacokinetic results. It was also shown to be metabolized by glucuronidation and sulfation in rat liver microsomes and cytosol, respectively. 4-O-Methylhonokiol showed a moderate permeability with no apparent vectorial transport across Caco-2 cells, suggesting that intestinal permeation process is not likely to limit its oral absorption. Taken together, these results suggest that the rapid hepatic metabolism of 4-O-methylhonokiol could be the major reason for its high systemic clearance and low oral bioavailability. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 07/2013; · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigated the effect of zaltoprofen enantiomers on inflammation and pain and compared their effect with racemic zaltoprofen. S(+)-zaltoprofen potently inhibited the inflammatory response in carrageenan-induced paw edema model, whereas R(-)-zaltoprofen did not. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect of S(+)-zaltoprofen was stronger than that of racemic zaltoprofen, suggesting that S(+)-zaltoprofen is an active component of racemic zaltoprofen in terms of anti-inflammatory activity. In contrast, the results of acetic acid-induced writhing model demonstrated that no significant analgesic effect was observed by racemic zaltoprofen and zaltoprofen enantiomers at doses used in carrageenan-induced paw edema model. However, racemic zaltoprofen and zaltoprofen enantiomers all exerted an analgesic effect at higher doses, which is inconsistent with the result of carrageenan-induced paw edema model. Gastric ulcers induced by racemic zaltoprofen and zaltoprofen enantiomers were minimal. Taken together, these results suggest that S(+)-zaltoprofen is a potent and active anti-inflammatory component of racemic zaltoprofen, but both S(+)-zaltoprofen and R(-)-zaltoprofen might seem to contribute to the analgesic effect of racemic zaltoprofen.
    International immunopharmacology 05/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are emerging as potent anticancer agents due to their ability to induce apoptosis in various cancer cells, including prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we synthesized a novel HDAC inhibitor, A248, and investigated its apoptotic activity and molecular target in the DU145 and PC3 human prostate cancer cell lines. A248 inhibited the growth of DU145 and PC3 cells and induced apoptosis, as demonstrated by nuclear fragmentation and the accumulation of cells at subG1 phase of cell cycle. The treatment of DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells with A248 resulted in the downregulation of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) expression. Since the expression levels of survivin and Mcl-1 depend on Sp1, we also investigated the effects of A248 on survivin and Mcl-1 expression using western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. The results showed that A248 markedly decreased the expression of survivin and Mcl-1. These data suggest that A248 has apoptotic activity in human prostate cancer cells and that Sp1 may be the molecular target of A248 treatment for inducing apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.
    Molecular Medicine Reports 05/2013; · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of novel aliphatic amido-quaternary ammonium salts were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer effects involving induction of RhoB. Most of these compounds, featuring open-ring forms of aliphatic amido-quaternary ammonium salts, exhibited potent anti-proliferative activities in human cancer cell lines, including PC-3, NUGC-3, MDA-MB-231, ACHN, HCT-15, and NCI-H23. In further evaluation, the representative compound N,N-diethyl-N-(2-(N-methyltetradecanamido)ethyl)prop-2-en-1-aminium bromide (3b) exhibited potent pro-apoptotic activity, through RhoB activation, in HeLa cells.
    European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2013; 63C:621-628. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Silymarin has been known to exert antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we examined the effect of silymarin on gastritis in rats. Oral administration of silymarin dose-dependently decreased gastric lesions in ethanol-induced gastritis model. Silymarin also significantly suppressed the development of gastric lesions in aspirin- or water immersionrestraint stress-induced gastritis models. Further study demonstrated that the gastroprotective effect of silymarin was blocked by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NAME, SH blocker Nethylmaleimide or TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine in ethanol-induced gastritis model. In addition, ex vivo analysis revealed that ethanol-induced decrease in gastric mucus and non-protein sulfhydryl (NPSH) groups was significantly reversed by silymarin treatment and lipid peroxidation was also suppressed by silymarin in ethanol-induced gastritis model. Taken together, these results suggest that silymarin exerts gastroprotective effects and the gastroprotective effects of silymarin might be related to the protection of gastric mucosal NO and NP-SH and the modulation of capsaicin-sensitive gastric sensory afferents.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 01/2013; · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important enzymes in epigenetic regulation and are therapeutic targets for cancer. Most zinc-dependent HDACs induce proliferation, dedifferentiation, and anti-apoptotic effects in cancer cells. We designed and synthesized a new series of pyridone-based HDAC inhibitors that have a pyridone ring in the core structure and a conjugated system with an olefin connecting the hydroxamic acid moiety. Consequently, most of the selected pyridone-based HDAC inhibitors showed similar or higher inhibition profiles in addition to remarkable metabolic stability against hydrolysis relative to the corresponding lactam-based HDAC inhibitors. Furthermore, the selectivity of the novel pyridine-based compounds was evaluated across all of the HDAC isoforms. One of these compounds, (E)-N-hydroxy-3-{1-[3-(naphthalen-2-yl)propyl]-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl}acrylamide, exhibited the highest level of HDAC inhibition (IC(50) =0.07 μM), highly selective inhibition of class I HDAC1 and class II HDAC6 enzymes, metabolic stability in mouse liver microsomal studies, and effective growth inhibition of various cancer cell lines. Docking studies indicated that a long alkyl linker and bulky hydrophobic cap groups affect in vitro activities. Overall, the findings reported herein regarding pyridone-based HDAC inhibitors can be used to guide future research efforts to develop new and effective anticancer therapeutics.
    ChemMedChem 01/2013; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RhoB, one of the upstream signaling proteins of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, is frequently mutated in human cancer. Based on a piperazine alkyl derivative that induced apoptosis via up-regulation of RhoB, we synthesized novel aliphatic amido/sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts and evaluated their biological activities using an in vitro growth inhibition assay and RhoB promoter assay in human cancer cells. Compound 3a was the most promising anticancer agent in the series, based upon its potent growth inhibition via RhoB-mediated signaling. These novel aliphatic amido/sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts may be useful as a platform for development of anticancer chemotherapeutic agents.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 12/2012; · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hydroxamate based HDAC inhibitors have promising anticancer activities but metabolic instability and poor phar-macokinetic profiles cause poor in vivo results. From QSAR and PK studies, gamma-lactam core and diverse substituents on cap group including halo, alkyl, and alkoxy groups with various carbon chain linkers improved HDAC inhibition and metabolic stability. The biological properties of prepared gamma-lactam HDAC inhibitors were evaluated and compound 10f had potent anticancer activity and high oral bioavailability.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 11/2012; · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of (E)-phenoxyacrylic amide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) 1α inhibitors. The present structure-activity relationship study on this series identified the morpholinoethyl containing ester 4p as a potent inhibitor of HIF-1α under hypoxic conditions (IC(50) = 0.12 μM in a cell-based HRE reporter assay) in HCT116 cells. The representative compound 4p suppressed hypoxia-induced HIF-1α accumulation and targeted gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of HIF-1α inhibition by 4p was further demonstrated by its inhibitory activity on in vitro tube formation and migration of cells, which may be valuable for development of novel therapeutics for cancer and tumor angiogenesis.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 11/2012; · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Artemisinin is a well-known anti-malarial drug and has been shown to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production. In this study, we investigated the effect of artemisinin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of IFN-β and characterized the potential relationship between artemisinin-mediated inhibition of IFN-β and NO production. Artemisinin suppressed IFN-β production and mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. LPS-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1) was also inhibited by artemisinin treatment in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, artemisinin suppressed LPS-induced production of NO in RAW 264.7 cells. Further study demonstrated that artemisinin-mediated inhibition of NO production and STAT-1 phosphorylation was reversed by addition of exogenous IFN-β. Moreover, artemisinin does not affect IFN-β-induced STAT-1 phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that the inhibition of IFN-β production by artemisinin and concomitant attenuation of STAT-1 activation might be involved in artemisinin-mediated inhibition of NO production in macrophages.
    International immunopharmacology 10/2012; 14(4):580-584. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitiligo is a progressive depigmenting disorder. Histamine has been shown to induce melanogenesis via histamine receptor 2, suggesting the possibility of histamine as a repigmenting agent for the treatment of vitiligo. However, the role and signaling mechanism of histamine are still unclear in melanogenesis, especially in relation to growth-differentiation factor-15, which is a protein belonging to transforming growth factor beta and found to be overexpressed in metastatic or malignant melanoma. We found that histamine induces growth-differentiation factor-15 in melanoma cell lines such as SK-MEL-2, B16F10, and melan-a cells. Therefore, in the present study, the role of growth-differentiation factor-15 in histamine-induced melanogenesis was investigated using gene silencing or overexpression of growth-differentiation factor-15 and histamine related compounds such as histamine, amthamine, and cimetidine. Gene silencing of growth-differentiation factor-15 suppressed histamine-induced proliferation, melanin production, tyrosinase activity, and chemotactic migration of SK-MEL-2 cells. Histamine-induced expression of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1, and tyrosinase-related protein 2 was also suppressed by growth-differentiation factor-15 gene silencing. On the other hand, overexpression of growth-differentiation factor-15 using a plasmid containing growth-differentiation factor-15 in SK-MEL-2 cells increased melanin production and chemotactic migration. Amthamine induced expression of growth-differentiation factor-15 in a time and concentration dependent manner. Amthamine-induced expression of growth-differentiation factor-15 was suppressed by cimetidine. Our results suggest that growth-differentiation factor-15 is a new player in histamine-induced melanogenesis, which can help researchers to extend the knowledge of the role of the transforming growth factor beta family in melanogenesis and in skin pigment disorders such as vitiligo.
    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 09/2012; 44(12):2124-2128. · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Magnolia bark contains several compounds such as magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol, obovatol, and other neolignan compounds. These compounds have been reported to have various beneficial effects in various diseases. There is sufficient possibility that ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis is more effective in amyloidogenesis via synergism of these ingredients. Neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether the ethanol extract of M. officinalis (10 mg/ kg in 0.05% ethanol) prevents memory dysfunction and amyloidogenesis in AD mouse model by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250 µg/ kg/day for seven times) injection. We found that ethanol extract of M. officinalis prevented LPS-induced memory deficiency as well as inhibited the LPS-induced elevation of inflammatory proteins, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, and activation of astrocytes and microglia. In particular, administration of M. officinalis ethanol extract inhibited LPS-induced amyloidogenesis, which resulted in the inhibition of amyloid precursor protein, beta-site amyloid-precursor-protein-cleaving enzyme 1 and C99. Thus, this study shows that ethanol extract of M. officinalis prevents LPS-induced memory impairment as well as amyloidogenesis via inhibition of neuroinflammation and suggests that ethanol extract of M. officinalis might be a useful intervention for neuroinflammation-associated diseases such as AD. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 05/2012; · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Widdrol, a natural sesquiterpene present in Juniperus sp., has been shown to exert anticancer and antifungal effects. Emerging evidence has suggested that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which functions as a cellular energy sensor, is a potential therapeutic target for human cancers. In this study, we found that AMPK mediates the anticancer effects of widdrol through induction of apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells. We showed that widdrol induced the phosphorylation of AMPK in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The selective AMPK inhibitor compound C abrogated the inhibitory effect of widdrol on HT-29 cell growth. In addition, we demonstrated that widdrol induced apoptosis and this was associated with the activation of caspases, including caspase‑3/7 and caspase-9, in HT-29 cells. We also demonstrated that transfection of HT-29 cells with AMPK siRNAs significantly suppressed the widdrol-mediated apoptosis and the activation of caspases. However, cell cycle arrest induced by widdrol was not affected by transfection of HT-29 cells with AMPK siRNAs. Furthermore, widdrol inhibited HT-29 tumor growth in a human tumor xenograft model. Taken together, our results suggest that the anticancer effect of widdrol may be mediated, at least in part, by induction of apoptosis via AMPK activation.
    Oncology Reports 05/2012; 27(5):1407-12. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in post-translational modification and epi-genetic expression, and have been the intriguing targets for treatment of cancer. In previous study, we reported synthesis and the biological preliminary results of γ-lactam based HDAC inhibitors. Based on the previous results, smaller γ-lactam core HDAC inhibitors are more active than the corresponding series of larger δ-lactam based analogues and the hydrophobic and bulky cap groups are required for better potency which decreased microsomal stability. Thus, γ-lactam analogues with methoxy, trifluoromethyl groups of ortho-, meta-, para-positions of cap group were prepared and evaluated their biological potency. Among them, trifluoromethyl analogues, which have larger lipophilicity, showed better HDAC inhibitory activity than other analogues. In overall, lipophilicity leads to increase hydrophobic interaction between surface of HDAC active site and HDAC inhibitor, improves HDAC inhibitory activity.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 04/2012; 22(12):4189-92. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the effect of methanolic extract isolated from the root of Lycoris aurea (LA) on the growth of cancer cells and the tube formation activity of endothelial cells. Various cancer cells were treated with LA at doses of 0.3, 1, 3, 10 or 30 μg/ml and LA significantly suppressed the growth of several cancer cell lines, including ACHN, HCT-15, K-562, MCF-7, PC-3 and SK-OV-3, in a dose-dependent manner. We also found that LA induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in ACHN renal cell adenocarcinoma cells. Further study demonstrated that LA concentration-dependently inhibited the tube formation, which is a widely used in vitro model of reorganization stage of angiogenesis, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Collectively, these results show that LA inhibits the growth of cancer cells and tube formation of endothelial cells and the growth-inhibitory effect of LA might be mediated, at least in part, by blocking cell cycle progression.
    Toxicological research. 03/2012; 28(1):33-38.

Publication Stats

2k Citations
438.97 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • Gachon University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Sŏngnam, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • Dongguk University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Chonbuk National University
      Tsiuentcheou, North Jeolla, South Korea
  • 2008–2013
    • Yonsei University
      • Department of Biotechnology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • The Seoul Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1996–2013
    • Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology KRIBB
      • • Bioevaluation Center
      • • Biopotency Evaluation Laboratory
      Ansan, Gyeonggi, South Korea
    • Kyonggi University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009–2011
    • Chungbuk National University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Tyundyu, North Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2002–2011
    • Chungnam National University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Seongnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea
    • Chosun University
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 2008–2010
    • Korea University
      • Department of Food and Nutrition
      Seoul, Seoul, United States
  • 2004–2010
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Chemistry
      Andong, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2006
    • Ajou University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea