J Yaouanq

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Nice, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

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Publications (46)414.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background and purposeMultiple sclerosis (MS) prognosis remains a challenge for both patients and physicians. Complementary to natural history studies, updated population-based data from the first event suggestive of MS, at the time of the first approved disease modifying drug (DMD), are needed. Our objective was to provide a 10-year history of MS from clinical onset at time of first approved DMDs in a population-based cohort.MethodsA population-based cohort of patients whose first clinical event suggestive of MS had occurred in Brittany between 2000 and 2001 was prospectively selected. History of relapses, treatments and disability up to 10 years after onset were collected.ResultsIn all, 278 patients with either attack-onset (n = 244) or progressive-onset (n = 34) were recruited. Amongst attack-onset patients, 30% remained as clinically isolated syndrome and 70% had a second relapse after a median time of 1.7 years (95% confidence interval 1.2–2.4). 80% of relapsing−remitting MS patients received DMDs for at least 6 months. 29% reached disability status scale (DSS) 3 and 8% DSS 6. Amongst progressive-onset patients, 100% reached DSS 3 and 59% DSS 6.Conclusion(s)Our population-based study reports a lower risk of disability progression at 10-year follow-up in the relapsing−remitting MS group than previously reported. This better prognosis was not observed in the progressive-onset MS group. This finding impacts the prognosis given to patients in clinical practice.
    European Journal of Neurology 12/2014; · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To report on multiple sclerosis (MS) incidence in Brittany, north-western France.Materials & Methods From 2000, we set up a population-based register for patients presenting a putative incident MS (PIMS), that is first symptoms compatible with MS onset. We used 3 medical sources of case ascertainment (neurologists, CSF, regional MS-Clinic). Eligibility criteria required both clinical onset and being permanent resident of Brittany in 2000 or 2001. From 2010, all medical records were tracked, the 10-year follow-up allowing previously reported data to be updated.ResultsOf 313 eligible PIMS, there were 208 definite MS (both McDonald and Poser criteria), 41 CIS-probable MS (Poser criteria), 32 CIS-possible MS and 32 non-MS. Our incident cohort of 249 MS cases with definite/probable MS (sex ratio 2.95) gave a crude annual incidence of 4.28 per 100,000 inhabitants (6.22 for women, 2.23 for men), and age-standardized rates (adjustment to the European population) of 4.41 [3.32–5.51], 6.68 [4.75–8.60], and 2.21 [1.12–3.31], respectively. Age-specific rates by gender and initial course showed that attack onset MS peaked at 25–29 years and progressive onset MS at 40–44 years in women (20–24 years and 45–49 years in men, respectively).Conclusions Brittany is confirmed a high-risk region for MS. Our data show marked differences in sex-specific pattern of MS incidence by clinical course and point out 25- to 29-year-old women as having the highest MS risk. While temporal variations cannot be excluded, comparison with overall French data suggests that other factors rather than latitude may influence the MS risk in France.
    Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 10/2014; · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Benign multiple sclerosis (BMS) is a controversial concept which is still debated. However identification of this kind of patients is crucial to prevent them from unnecessary exposure to aggressive and/or long term medical treatments. OBJECTIVES: To assess two definitions of 'clinically definite benign multiple sclerosis' (CDBMS) using long-term follow-up data, and to look for prognostic factors of CDBMS. METHODS: In 874 patients with definite relapsing-remitting MS, followed up for at least 10 years, disability was assessed using the Disability Status Scale (DSS). CDBMS was defined by either DSS score≤2 (CDBMS1 group) or DSS score≤ 3 (CDBMS2 group) at 10 years. We estimated the proportion of patients who were still benign at 20 and 30 years after clinical onset. RESULTS: CDBMS frequency estimates were 57.7% and 73.9% when using CDBMS1 and CDBMS2 definitions, respectively. In the CDBMS1 group, only 41.7% (105/252) of cases were still benign 10 years later, and 41.1% (23/56) after an additional decade, while there were 53.8% (162/301) and 59.5% (44/74) respectively in the CDBMS2 group. CONCLUSIONS: This 30-year observational study, which is one of the largest published series, indicates that favourable 10-year disability scores of DSS 2 or 3 fail to ensure a long-term benign course of multiple sclerosis. After every decade almost half of the CDBMS were no longer benign. CDBMS, as currently defined, is an unwarranted conceptual hodgepodge. Other criteria using new biomarkers (genetic, biologic or MRI) should be found to detect benign cases of MS.
    Multiple Sclerosis 08/2012; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) constitute a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized at least by slowly progressive spasticity of the lower limbs. Mutations in REEP1 were recently associated with a pure dominant HSP, SPG31. We sequenced all exons of REEP1 and searched for rearrangements by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in a large panel of 175 unrelated HSP index patients from kindreds with dominant inheritance (AD-HSP), with either pure (n = 102) or complicated (n = 73) forms of the disease, after exclusion of other known HSP genes. We identified 12 different heterozygous mutations, including two exon deletions, associated with either a pure or a complex phenotype. The overall mutation rate in our clinically heterogeneous sample was 4.5% in French families with AD-HSP. The phenotype was restricted to pyramidal signs in the lower limbs in most patients but nine had a complex phenotype associating axonal peripheral neuropathy (= 5/11 patients) including a Silver-like syndrome in one patient, and less frequently cerebellar ataxia, tremor, dementia. Interestingly, we evidenced abnormal mitochondrial network organization in fibroblasts of one patient in addition to defective mitochondrial energy production in both fibroblasts and muscle, but whether these anomalies are directly or indirectly related to the mutations remains uncertain. Hum Mutat 32:1118–1127, 2011. ©2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Human Mutation 09/2011; 32(10):1118 - 1127. · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals, and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk. Modestly powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects have a key role in disease susceptibility. Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9,772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the HLA-DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly overrepresented among those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T-helper-cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.
    Nature 08/2011; 476(7359):214-9. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals, and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk. Modestly powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects have a key role in disease susceptibility. Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9,772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the HLA-DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly overrepresented among those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T-helper-cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.
    Nature 01/2011; 476(7359):214-9. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well documented that disability accumulation in multiple sclerosis is correlated with axonal injury and that the extent of axonal injury is correlated with the degree of inflammation. However, the interdependence between focal inflammation, diffuse inflammation and neurodegeneration, and their relative contribution to clinical deficits, remains ambiguous. A hypothesis might be that early focal inflammation could be the pivotal event from which all else follows, suggesting the consideration of multiple sclerosis as a two-stage disease. This prompted us to define two phases in the disease course of multiple sclerosis by using two scores on the Kurtzke Disability Status Scale as benchmarks of disability accumulation: an early phase, 'Phase 1', from multiple sclerosis clinical onset to irreversible Disability Status Scale 3 and a late phase, 'Phase 2', from irreversible Disability Status Scale 3 to irreversible Disability Status Scale 6. Outcome was assessed through five parameters: Phase 1 duration, age at Disability Status Scale 3, time to Disability Status Scale 6 from multiple sclerosis onset, Phase 2 duration and age at Disability Status Scale 6. The first three were calculated among all patients, while the last two were computed only among patients who had reached Disability Status Scale 3. The possible influence of early clinical markers on these outcomes was studied using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox models. The analysis was performed in the Rennes multiple sclerosis database (2054 patients, accounting for 26,273 patient-years) as a whole, and according to phenotype at onset (1609 relapsing/445 progressive onset). Our results indicated that the disability progression during Phase 2 was independent of that during Phase 1. Indeed, the median Phase 2 duration was nearly identical (from 6 to 9 years) irrespective of Phase 1 duration (<3, 3 to <6, 6 to <10, 10 to <15, >or=15 years) in the whole population, and in both phenotypes. In relapsing onset multiple sclerosis, gender, age at onset, residual deficit after the first relapse and relapses during the first 2 years of multiple sclerosis were found to be independent predictive factors of disability progression, but only during Phase 1. Our findings demonstrate that multiple sclerosis disability progression follows a two-stage process, with a first stage probably dependent on focal inflammation and a second stage probably independent of current focal inflammation. This concept has obvious implications for the future therapeutic strategy in multiple sclerosis.
    Brain 07/2010; 133(Pt 7):1900-13. · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a genetically complex immune mediated, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. To date no genetic variants have been unambiguously linked to disease severity. We have conducted a genome wide screen, using Affymetrix Genechip 500K technology, for severity in 1040 MS patients. Two markers within MGAT5, a gene coding for a glycosylation enzyme, were found to be significantly associated with outcome in the screening as well as in an independent population (combined p-values: 2.8 x 10(-6) and 1.5 x 10(-7)).
    Journal of neuroimmunology 03/2010; 220(1-2):120-4. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to multiple sclerosis, the most common neurodegenerative disorder with onset in young adults. The objective of the current study is, based on the hypothesis that environmentally predisposed individuals are at risk for multiple sclerosis, to investigate whether they also carry genetic variants within the vitamin D machinery. Using medical files and DNA samples from 583 trios (a patient and both parents) of the French Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Group as well as data from the French Statistics Bureau, we aimed to assess whether: (1) a seasonality of birth was observed in French multiple sclerosis patients; (2) three single nucleotide polymorphisms within the promoter region of the vitamin D receptor were associated with multiple sclerosis susceptibility; and (3) the combination of a high risk month of birth and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms were correlated to multiple sclerosis incidence. We observed a significantly reduced number of individuals born in November who were later diagnosed as multiple sclerosis patients. However, we found no association between the three studied vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and multiple sclerosis. In conclusion, our data suggest that high levels of vitamin D during the third trimester of pregnancy could be a protective factor for multiple sclerosis.
    Multiple Sclerosis 10/2009; 15(10):1146-52. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most of the published works so far have aimed at finding genes associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility. Very few studies have attempted to correlate disease features with DNA variants. In a well-characterized sample (651 patients) representative of multiple sclerosis natural history, we engaged a comprehensive study of the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in the course of the disease. We investigated the role of HLA-DRB1*15 allele in samples stratified according to severity evaluated by the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS), time to reach EDSS 6.0 and disease type. We found that HLA-DRB1*15 genotype does not influence MS severity even among patients presenting with a given type of the disease. However, we show for the first time that HLA-DRB1*15 allele modulates the course of MS for relapsing-remitting (RR) onset patients likely by precipitating the secondary progressive (SP) phase.
    Genes and immunity 08/2008; 9(6):570-4. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic inflammatory neurologic disorder diagnosed in young adults and, due to its chronic course, is responsible for a substantial economic burden. MS is considered to be a multifactorial disease in which both genetic and environmental factors intervene. The well-established human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association does not completely explain the genetic impact on disease susceptibility. However, identification and validation of non-HLA-genes conferring susceptibility to MS has proven to be difficult probably because of the small individual contribution of each of these genes. Recently, associations with two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL2RA gene (rs12722489, rs2104286) and one SNP in the IL7RA gene (rs6897932) have been reported by several groups. These three SNPs were genotyped in a French and a German population of MS patients using the hME assay by the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight technology (Sequenom, San Diego, CA, USA). We show that these SNPs do contribute to the risk of MS in these two unrelated European MS patient populations with odds ratios varying from 1.1 to 1.5. The discovery and validation of new genetic risk factors in independent populations may help toward the understanding of MS pathogenesis by providing valuable information on biological pathways to be investigated.
    Genes and immunity 05/2008; 9(3):259-63. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In France no data have been published about comparing survival in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with the general French population. We estimated survival probabilities in MS patients from a major centre for MS in West France. We also compared MS survival with the general population and assessed prognostic parameters. All patients with MS onset after January 1976 and classified as dead or alive on 1 January 2004 were included. One thousand eight-hundred and seventy-nine patients (sex ratio W: M 2.3; relapsing/progressive onset 77.4%/22.6%) fulfilled these criteria, disease duration ranged from one to 28 years. By 2004, 68 patients died (51 due to MS) and the 15 and 25-year survival probabilities were 96% and 88%. Male gender, progressive course (either primary or secondary), polysymptomatic onset, and increased annual relapse rate during the first two years of MS were related to a worse prognosis. After a mean follow-up duration of 12.7 years since clinical onset, MS increased the number of deaths compared with the general population. However taking into account disability status, we found that less disabled MS patients had a better survival and highly disabled patients a worse survival (eight-fold increase of mortality) compared with the French population.
    Multiple Sclerosis 09/2007; 13(7):865-74. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating neuroimmunological and neurodegenerative disorder. Despite substantial evidence for polygenic inheritance of the disease, the major histocompatibility complex is the only region that clearly and consistently demonstrates linkage and association in MS studies. The goal of this study was to identify additional chromosomal regions that harbor susceptibility genes for MS. With a panel of 390 microsatellite markers genotyped in 245 U.S. and French multiplex families (456 affected relative pairs), this is the largest genomic screen for MS conducted to date. Four regions met both of our primary criteria for further interest (heterogeneity LOD [HLOD] and Z scores >2.0): 1q (HLOD=2.17; Z=3.38), 6p (HLOD=4.21; Z=2.26), 9q (HLOD; Z=2.71), and 16p (HLOD=2.64; Z=2.05). Two additional regions met only the Z score criterion: 3q (Z=2.39) and 5q (Z=2.17). Further examination of the data by country (United States vs. France) identified one additional region demonstrating suggestive linkage in the U.S. subset (18p [HLOD=2.39]) and two additional regions generating suggestive linkage in the French subset (1p [HLOD=2.08] and 22q [HLOD=2.06]). Examination of the data by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR2 stratification identified four additional regions demonstrating suggestive linkage: 2q (HLOD=3.09 in the U.S. DR2- families), 6q (HLOD=3.10 in the French DR2- families), 13q (HLOD=2.32 in all DR2+ families and HLOD=2.17 in the U.S. DR2+ families), and 16q (HLOD=2.32 in all DR2+ families and HLOD=2.13 in the U.S. DR2+ families). These data suggest several regions that warrant further investigation in the search for MS susceptibility genes.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 01/2005; 75(6):1070-8. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease with a strong yet complex genetic component. To date only the HLA-DR locus, and specifically the HLA-DR15 allele, has been identified and confirmed as influencing the risk of developing MS. Genomic screens on several datasets have been performed and have identified several chromosomal regions with interesting results, but none have yet been confirmed. We tested seven of the most-promising regions (on chromosomes 1p, 2p, 3p, 3q, 5q, 19q, and Xp) identified from several genomic screens in a dataset of 98 multiplex MS families from the United States and 90 multiplex MS families from France. The results did not confirm linkage to 2p, 3q, 5q, or Xp in the overall dataset, or in subsets defined by geographic origin or HLA-DR15 status. Regions on 1p34, 3p14, and 19q13 produced lod scores >0.90 in at least one subset of the data, suggesting that these regions should be examined in more detail.
    Neurogenetics 02/2004; 5(1):45-8. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three recently identified NOD2/CARD15 mutations have been described associated with an increased susceptibility Crohn's disease (CD). Our aim was to examine the potential association of these NOD2 mutations with CD and different subsets of CD phenotypes in our population. Two hundred and five well-defined CD patients from north-western France and 95 ethnically matched healthy controls were genotyped for mutations R702W, G908R and Leu1007insC by DNA sequencing. Allele and genotype frequencies of NOD2 variants were examined in the whole series of CD and in different subgroups of CD phenotypes defined by the clinical characteristics of the Vienna classification (age at diagnosis, location and behaviour) or by histological features (granuloma). Carriers of at least one NOD2/CARD15 variant were significantly more frequent in CD than in controls (38.0% versus 20.0%, P < 0.002), and the R702W allele was the most significant contributor to this NOD2 association with CD. Homozygotes and compound heterozygotes combined had a higher risk of CD (odds ratio = 12.0, P < 0.0026) than simple heterozygotes for any variant (odds ratio = 2.2, P < 0.013) compared with subjects with no variant. Univariate analysis revealed that carriage of at least one NOD2 mutation was significantly associated with ileal involvement (P < 0.03), and stricturing evolution (P < 0.0015). Granuloma was associated with an excess of the R702W allele (16.1% versus 8.0%, Pc < 0.035), and was correlated with a young age at diagnosis, whatever the NOD2/CARD15 genotype. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that carriage of NOD2/CARD15 mutants, especially R702W, was primarily and independently associated both with stricturing evolution of CD and the presence of granuloma. In our population, all NOD2/CARD15 mutant genotypes, especially compound heterozygosity, were found to increase the risk of CD, but R702W was the sole allele showing a significant association with CD. In addition, we confirm the positive and independent association of the R702W mutation with stricturing behaviour and describe a second one with the presence of granuloma.
    European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 01/2004; 16(1):55-62. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the results of a genome-wide screen for linkage disequilibrium (LD) in multiple sclerosis (MS) performed on 200 cases, 200 controls and 200 case-parent trios from France employing pooled DNA methodology. A total of 3510 microsatellite markers supplied through the GAMES collaborative were analysed and ranked according to their evidence for association. The most promising 117 markers were then followed up in a two-step validation process. In the first step, additional PCR of the DNA pools was performed in order to refine the ranking order. In the second step, markers were genotyped in individual cases and parents from the trio families. Seven markers showing nominally significant allele frequency differences between affected and unaffected emerged-D6S265, D12S1064, TNFa, D7S1824, D14S1426, D14S605 and D21S2051. These potential associations will require confirmation in further studies.
    Journal of Neuroimmunology 11/2003; 143(1-2):74-8. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with a genetic component. Until now, the more consistent association with the disease is found with the major histocompatibility complex, especially HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype. In this report, we demonstrate the interaction of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4 [CD152]) gene with DRB1*15 haplotype in multiple sclerosis genetic susceptibility. Our data were obtained from two European independent family-based studies including 610 multiple sclerosis family trios. Ann Neurol 2003;54:119-122
    Annals of Neurology 08/2003; 54(1):119-22. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the pathophysiology of MS and may influence the clinical expression of the disease. To determine the contribution of familial factors to the clinical expression of MS. The French Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Group identified 87 sibling pairs. For each patient, sex, age at onset, duration of the disease, and disease course from onset were recorded. Disability was determined by the progression index (PI), defined as the ratio of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score disease duration when the latter exceeded 5 years. Statistical analyses were performed either with a group of patients (clinical features, relation between human leukocyte antigen and clinical features) or with a group of sibpairs (concordance for clinical features). The mean age at onset was 29.6 years, the ratio of women to men was 59:28, and the mean PI was 0.27. There was no correlation for disease course and age at onset between sibs with MS. In contrast, we observed a weak but significant correlation of the PI in MS sibpairs (r = 0.234, p = 0.03). This study revealed a concordance in MS sibling pairs for the disease severity, supporting the hypothesis that the degree of disability might be partly influenced by familial factors (environmental or genetic).
    Neurology 06/1999; 52(8):1632-6. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HLA DM is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule that has been shown to facilitate peptide loading with classical class II molecules. In this study, we analysed the polymorphism in exon 3 of HLA DMA and DMB genes by a polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe method in 163 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and 146 ethnically matched controls. The HLA-DRB1 genotype was also analysed by a reverse-dot blot method. Our results show in RA patients a significant increase in the HLA DMB*0101 allele frequency (83% vs 72.3% of the controls, P < 1.6 x 10(-3), significance at P < 0.0125) and in the HLA DMB*0101-0101 homozygote genotype frequency [70.8% vs 50% of the controls, P < 4.2 x 10(-4), significance at P < 0.00625, odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43-4]. The increase in DMB*0101 allele and homozygote genotype frequencies was independent of a linkage disequilibrium between DMB and DRB1 alleles. The analysis of non-random associations between the HLA-DM and DRB1 alleles only revealed a significant association in controls between DMB*0104 and DRB1*07 alleles (delta = 0.01, P < 7 x 10(-4), significance at P < 9.6 x 10(-4)). On the other hand, the DMB*0101-0102 genotype frequency was increased in DRB1*0401-negative RA patients as compared to controls (11% vs 2%, P < 0.011, significance at P < 0.015, OR = 6.2, 95% CI: 1.2-30). Our data suggest that HLA-DM alleles could play a role in the genetic susceptibility to RA.
    Rheumatology 05/1999; 38(5):448-52. · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • Revue De Medecine Interne - REV MED INTERNE. 01/1999; 20.

Publication Stats

1k Citations
414.58 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1987–2010
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice
      Nice, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 1990–2008
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2005
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Center for Human Genetics Research (CHGR)
      Nashville, MI, United States
  • 1988–2004
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes
      Roazhon, Brittany, France
  • 1999
    • Hôpital La Pitié Salpêtrière (Groupe Hospitalier "La Pitié Salpêtrière - Charles Foix")
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1997
    • CHRU de Strasbourg
      Strasburg, Alsace, France
  • 1989
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Biostatistics
      Seattle, WA, United States