[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four crop plants Oryza sativa (rice), Solanum melongena (brinjal), Spinacea oleracea (spinach) and Raphanus sativus (radish) were grown to study the impact of secondary treated municipal waste water irrigation. These plants were grown in three plots each of 0.5 ha, and irrigated with secondary treated waste water from a sewage treatment plant. Sludge from the same sewage treatment plant was applied as manure. Cultivated plants were analyzed for accumulation of heavy metals and pesticides. Results revealed the accumulation of six heavy metals cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) as well as two pesticides [1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane; DDT] and benzene hexa chloride (BHC). Order of the plants for the extent of bioaccumulation was S. oleracea > R. sativus > S. melongena > O. sativa. The study has shown the secondary treated waste water can be a source of contamination to the soil and plants.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 09/2009; 156(1-4):99-107. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the mercury (Hg) removal capacities of two aquatic macrophytes, Pistia stratiotes and Azolla pinnata, were investigated against the coal mining effluent. These plants reduced mercury from the effluent via rhizofiltration and subsequent accumulation in plant. The removal rate of P. stratiotes and A. pinnata was 80% and 68%, respectively, after 21 days of exposure to the effluent containing 10 microg L(-1) of Hg. As mercury from the effluent was accumulated in the root and shoot tissues of both aquatic macrophytes, they were proven to be a root accumulator with a translocation factor of less than one during the entire study. The decreasing Hg content in effluent (from 10 to 2.0 microg L(-1)) was reflected by its accumulation in roots (0.57+/-0.02 mg g(-1) in P. stratiotes) and leaves of the experimental plants (0.42+/-0.01 mg g(-1), P. stratiotes). As a result, Hg concentrations in the coal mining effluent were tightly associated with those observed from macrophytes. Considering the high removal efficiencies of Hg by these aquatic macrophytes, these plants can be recommended for the actual treatment of Hg-containing waste waters.
Journal of hazardous materials 08/2009; 172(2-3):749-54. · 4.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Under the present investigation effectiveness of three aquatic macrophytes Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce), Spirodela polyrrhiza W. Koch (duckweed) and Eichhornia crassipes were tested for the removal of five heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr and Cd). These plants were grown at three different concentrations (1.0, 2.0 and 5.0mgl(-1)) of metals in laboratory experiment. Result revealed high removal (>90%) of different metals during 15 days experiment. Highest removal was observed on 12th day of experiment, thereafter it decreased. Results revealed E. crassipes as the most efficient for the removal of selected heavy metals followed by P. stratiotes and S. polyrrhiza. Results from analysis confirmed the accumulation of different metals within the plant and a corresponding decrease of metals in the water. Significant correlations between metal concentration in final water and macrophytes were obtained. Plants have accumulated heavy metals in its body without the production of any toxicity or reduction in growth. Selected plants shown a wide range of tolerance to all of the selected metals and therefore can be used for large scale removal of heavy metals from waste water.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Under present investigation Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) has been tested for removal of two important heavy metals chromium (Cr) and zinc (Zn) from metal solution. This species was grown at four concentrations of Cr and Zn, i.e. 1.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg l(-1) in single metal solution. This plant has performed extremely well in removing the Cr and Zn from their solution and was capable of removing up to 95% of zinc and 84% of chromium during 11 days incubation period. Removal of Cr at lower concentrations (1.0 and 5.0 mg l(-1)) was found harmless, without any symptom of toxicity but at 10.0 and 20.0 mg l(-1), plants have shown some morphological symptoms of toxicity. On the other hand E. crassipes removed Zn safely at all the four concentrations, i.e. 1.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg l(-1). In this case morphological symptoms of toxicity were not evident in the test plant. Biochemical parameters viz. protein, sugar and chlorophyll in experimental plants have shown a decreasing trend due to accumulation of Zn and Cr. Overall this methodology is safe for the removal of Zn and Cr and can be utilized at large scale after few further investigation.
Journal of hazardous materials 10/2008; 164(2-3):1059-63. · 4.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five heavy metals Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Hg were found in high concentration from three sampling sites located in Asia's largest anthropogenic lake Govind Ballabh Pant GBP Sagar. Concentrations of these heavy metals were measured in Water, bottom sediment and in different parts of the aquatic macrophytes collected from the reservoir. Plants collected from the lake were Eichhornia crassipes, Azolla pinnata, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrrhiza, Potamogeton pectinatus, Marsilea quadrifolia, Pistia stratiotes, Ipomea aquqtica, Potamogeton crispus, Hydrilla verticillata and Aponogeton natans. These plants have shown the high concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Hg in their different parts due to bioaccumulation. In general plant roots exhibited higher concentrations of heavy metals than corresponding sediments. A comparison between different morphological tissues of the sampled plants revealed the metal concentration in following order roots > leaves. Analyses of bottom sediment indicated the higher concentrations of Cd, Mn, Cu and Pb. Strong positive correlations were obtained between the metals in water and in plants as well as between metal in sediment and in plants. Indicating the potential of these plants for pollution monitoring of these metals.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 06/2008; 141(1-3):49-58. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three aquatic plants Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhhiza were used in laboratory for the removal of heavy metals from the coal mining effluent. Plants were grown singly as well as in combination during 21 days phytoremediation experiment. Results revealed that combination of E. crassipes and L. minor was the most efficient for the removal of heavy metals while E. crassipes was the most efficient in monoculture. Significant correlations between metal concentration in final water and macrophytes were obtained. Translocation factor i.e. ratio of shoot to root metal concentration revealed that metals were largely retained in the roots of aquatic macrophytes. Analytical results showed that plant roots have accumulated heavy metals approximately 10 times of its initial concentration. These plants were also subjected to toxicity assessment and no symptom of metal toxicity was found therefore, this method can be applied on the large scale treatment of waste water where volumes generated are very high and concentrations of pollutants are low.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper provides baseline information about the total annual dust fall, and its constituents and seasonal variation, from a sub-tropical opencast coalmine area in Bina, India. Dust samples were collected monthly for 2 years (June 2002-May 2004) from five sampling sites in the region and analyzed in the laboratory for water-soluble and -insoluble matter. Water-insoluble components constituted the major fraction of the total annual dust fall. Two-way ANOVA indicated significant variations in dust fall at different sites, over the months and in their interactions. The dust deposition rate was highest during summer (March-June), followed by winter (November-February) and lowest in the rainy season (July-October). Maximum dust fall was observed near the coal handling plant (at site 2) followed by the receiving pit of the coal handling plant (site 3), near the main sub-station (site 4), Jawahar colony (site 1) and Gharasari village (site 5). An inverse and significant relation was observed between dust fall and precipitation. Our studies have shown that the main residential areas are experiencing higher levels of dust fall which makes them unsuitable for living. We suggest that residential areas should be moved farther away from the mining area in the opposite direction of prevalent winds.
Journal of Environmental Management 02/2008; 86(1):132-8. · 3.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noise level monitoring and its reduction with different width and height of vegetation belt were studied in the Varanasi city. Noise level monitoring of the Varanasi city revealed the fact that area category A (without vegetation) was highly polluted as compare to area category B (with vegetation) having less fluctuation of traffic load. Four plant species Putranjeva roxburghi, Cestrum nocturnum, Hibiscus rosasinensis and Murraya peniculata were tested for noise reduction study at different frequencies. Experiment revealed the fact that H. rosasinensis reduced noise highest at both low and high frequencies (100-500 Hz, 22 dB and 2.5-6.3 KHz 26 dB), followed by M. peniculata (100-500 Hz, 18 dB and 2.5-6.3 KHz 20 dB), P. roxburghi (100-500 Hz 15 dB and 2.5-6.3 KHz 17 dB) and C. nocturnum (100-500 Hz 9 dB and 2.5-6.3 KHz 14 dB). Significance of vegetation belt in noise reduction was established with multiple regression models.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 01/2008; 146(1-3):67-75. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Under the present investigation phytoremediation of mercury and arsenic from a tropical open cast coalmine effluent was performed.
Three aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrrhiza removed appreciable amount of mercury and arsenic during 21days experiment. Removal capacities of these macrophytes were
found in the order of E. crassipes > L. minor > S. polyrrhiza. Translocation factor (shot to root ratio of heavy metals) revealed low transportation of metals from root to leaves leading
higher accumulation of metals in root as compared to leaves of the plant. It was evident from plant tissue analysis that mercury
and arsenic up take by macrophytes had deteriorated the N, P, K, chlorophyll and protein content in these macrophytes. Correlations
between removal of arsenic and mercury from mining effluent and its increase in plant parts were highly significant. Results
favoured selected species to use as promising accumulator of metals.
Water Air and Soil Pollution 01/2008; 192(1):303-314. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The contamination of agricultural products with heavy metals resulting from waste water irrigation has become an important concern throughout the world due to potential adverse effects of heavy metals on human health. The present study was conducted to investigate the level of heavy metal in irrigation water, soil and some vegetables like spinach and cauliflower grown in the adjacent areas of sewage treatment plant (STP). People in this area utilize treated sewage for irrigation for the last two decades. The field study was conducted at three sites in the adjacent areas of Bhagwanpur (STP), 10 MLD, Varanasi, Samples of irrigation water, soil and edible portion of palak (Spinach oleraceae) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) were collected during summer and winter season and analyzed for Pb, Cu., Zn, Cd and Cr. The data generated show elevated level of some heavy metals in all environmental media, suggesting a definite adverse impact on the environmental quality of the disposal area. Heavy metals in irrigation water were higher than the internationally recommended (WHO) maximum permissible limit set for agricultural use for all heavy metals. Similarly the heavy metal concentration in soil below the Indian standard for all heavy metals, but the maximum value of Cr recoded during summer was higher than the standard (13.95 mg kg -1). However in edible portion of spinach Cd, Cu and Cr concentration (5.93, 28.15 and 12.02 mg kg -1 respectively, in Madarva) was higher than the permissible limits of Indian standard while in the edible portion of cauliflower Cr, and Cd (5.95 and 1.96 mg kg -1 respectively, in Madarva) were higher than the permissible limits. The study revealed highly significant variation (p> 0.005) among different sites. There was positive and significant correlation between heavy metal concentration in secondary treated sewage and soil. This correlation was also significant between metal concentration in treated sewage and concentration in different plant parts. The study points to the fact that the use of treated and untreated waste water for irrigation has increased the contamination of Cd, Cu and Cr in the edible portion of vegetables causing potential health risk in the long term from this practice. Introduction The term 'heavy metal' often not rigidly defined is commonly held for those metals, which have specific weight more than 5 g cm -3 . There are about 40 elements fall in this category. Some of these elements such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn),molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) are called micronutrients (Reeves and Baker, 2000), and are only toxic when in excess of requirement (Melloul et al., 2002;Blaylock and Hung, 2000). Heavy metals are also called trace elements due to their presence in trace (10 mg kg -1 or /l) or in ultra trace (1 µg kg -1 or/l) quantities in environmental matrices. Heavy metals are kept under environmental pollutant category due to their toxic effect o plants, animals and human beings (Sharma et al., 2005). Heavy metal toxicity to plants vary with plant species, specific metals, concentration, chemical form and soil composition and pH, as many heavy metals are considered to be essential for the plant growth. They are persistent in nature, therefore accumulate in soil, plants and interfere with physiological activities of plants such as photosynthesis, gaseous exchange, nutrient absorption and cause reduction in plant growth, dry matter accumulation and yield. Heavy metal contamination of soil results from anthropogenic activities such as mining, smelting operations, agriculture; sewage treatment plants (STPs) etc., have increased the level of heavy metals in the environment. Among the various sources domestic sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major source of heavy metals in the environment. Effluents released from STPs contain various heavy metals (Mapanda et al., 2005).Most of the STPs in India are equipped with the facility of primary and secondary treatment only, which allow the treatment of physical impurities, nutrients and simple organic compounds.These plants are unable to treat persistent pollutant like heavy metals. Therefore heavy metals in are discharge along with secondary treated sewage. This industrial/municipal waste water has been extensively used for irrigation purposes (Singh et al., 2004). Thus there is always a risk of contamination which has not been properly assessed. Therefore the present study has been undertaken to assess the impact of secondary treated sewage waste water containing heavy metals on agricultural soil, water and some vegetable crops in Varanasi, India where waste water had been commonly used for the irrigation of vegetable crops for several decades.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the noise pollution problem in the Varanasi city and its effect on the exposed people. The study revealed the fact that noise levels have reached an alarming level. The result of the study indicated the fact that 85% of the people were disturbed by traffic noise, about 90% of the people reported that traffic noise is the main cause of headache, high BP problem, dizziness and fatigue. People having higher education and income level are much aware of the health impact due to traffic noise. Marital status was found to be significantly affecting the annoyance level caused by traffic noise. Traffic noise was found to be interfering daily activities such as at resting, reading, communication etc.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aquatic plants are quite effective in separating metals from polluted waters. A promising method using aquatic plants to sorb metals from secondary treated municipal wastewater is examined in the study. Traditional sewage treatment plants with secondary treatment facilities are not able to remove heavy metals efficiently from the wastewater. In Varanasi, the sewage is mixed with industrial effluents containing high concentrations of heavy metals such as Cr (1.2), Cd (0.09), Cu (0.11), Zn (0.92), Fe (1.8) and Ni (0.07) mg L−1. Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes, Lemna minor, Azolla pinnata, and Spirodela polyrhiza were tested for their heavy metal removal capacity from the secondary treated municipal wastewater. Accumulation of heavy metal was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The preferential sequence of percent removal by the selected aquatic macrophytes was Fe > Cr > Cu > Cd > Zn > Ni. Statistical analysis revealed a positive and significant correlation between percent removal of heavy metals from the wastewater and increase in the plant tissues.