Mariko Kobayashi

Toranomon Hospital, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (178)551.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is considered the ultimate goal in chronic hepatitis B treatment. One treatment option is long-term nucleot(s)ide analog (NA) therapy. We followed a group of long-term NA therapy patients to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment in promoting clearance and longitudinal declines of HBsAg. METHOD: The study included 791 NA therapy patients who received lamivudine as their first drug. At the baseline, 442 patients were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)+ and 349 were HBeAg-. All analyses were performed after separating the HBeAg+ and HBeAg- cohorts. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine which factors were associated with HBsAg clearance. RESULTS: HBsAg clearance was observed in 18 (4.1 %) of the HBeAg+ patients and 20 (5.7 %) of the HBeAg- patients at baseline, giving seroclearance rates of 6.4 and 6.9 %, respectively, over the nine-year study period. HBsAg clearance was influenced by several independent factors that varied according to HBeAg cohort. For HBeAg+ patients, these included previous interferon therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype A, a ≥0.5 log IU/mL decline in HBsAg level within six months, and clearance of HBeAg at six months. For HBeAg- patients, these included infection with HBV genotype A, decline in HBsAg at six months, and a baseline HBsAg level of <730 IU/mL. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both direct antiviral potential and host immune response are needed to achieve HBsAg clearance by NA therapy. Viral genotype strongly influenced HBsAg clearance during NA therapy.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2012; · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Anticarcinogenic activity of ribavirin combination therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related compensated cirrhosis is still unclear. Methods: In study 1, in 157 consecutive patients with HCV-related compensated cirrhosis, treatment efficacy with interferon plus ribavirin therapy was evaluated for 48 weeks of HCV genotype 1b (HCV-1b) or 24 weeks of HCV-2a/2b. In study 2, in 185 consecutive patients with HCV-related compensated cirrhosis, who showed no sustained virological response following the first course of interferon monotherapy, hepatocarcinogenesis rates were evaluated according to the additional treatment, and they were classified into three groups: no treatment, interferon monotherapy, and ribavirin combination therapy. Results: In study 1, in HCV-1b, rates of sustained virological response and sustained biochemical response were 21 and 56%, respectively. In HCV-2a/2b, rates of sustained virological response and sustained biochemical response were 70 and 78%, respectively. In HCV-1b, sustained biochemical response rates were significantly higher than those of sustained virological response. In study 2, the hepatocarcinogenesis rates in ribavirin combination therapy were significantly lower than those in interferon monotherapy and no treatment, respectively. Conclusion: Ribavirin combination therapy for HCV-related compensated cirrhosis reduces the risk of hepatocarcinogenesis in comparison with interferon monotherapy, and higher rates of sustained biochemical response might be associated with lower hepatocarcinogenesis rates.
    Intervirology 10/2012; · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impacts of IL28B genotype to treatment response of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 are still not clear. A total of 381 consecutive Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 2, who could complete combination therapy with interferon (IFN) plus ribavirin for 24 weeks, were evaluated to investigate pretreatment predictors. Patients, who could not achieve sustained virological response at the first course of 24-week IFN plus ribavirin, were recruited into the study protocol of total 48-week IFN plus ribavirin. In 24-week regimen, rates of sustained virological response and rapid virological response were 82% and 50%, respectively. There were no significant differences in rates of sustained virological response and rapid virological response, according to IL28B genotype. Multivariate analysis identified younger age, higher level of albumin, absence of past history of IFN, and lower level of viremia as significant determinants of sustained virological response. As significant or marginal significant determinants of non-sustained virological response regardless of rapid virological response, multivariate analysis identified IL28B rs8099917 genotype TG + GG and lower level of albumin. In 48-week regimen to 10 patients of non-sustained virological response at the first course of 24-week regimen, sustained virological response rates were 70%. All of six patients, with IL28B TT and relapse at the first course of 24-week regimen, could achieve sustained virological response, but two patients with IL28B TG could not achieve sustained virological response. In conclusion, the present results suggest that IL28B genotype might partly affect viral response of HCV genotype 2 to combination therapy.
    Journal of Medical Virology 10/2012; 84(10):1593-9. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to assess the cumulative development incidence and predictive factors for malignancies after the termination of interferon (IFN) therapy in Japanese patients for hepatitis C virus (HCV). A total of 4,302 HCV-positive patients treated with IFN were enrolled. The mean observation period was 8.1 years. The primary outcome is the first onset of malignancies. Evaluation was performed by using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard analysis. A total of 606 patients developed malignancies: 393 developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 213 developed malignancies other than HCC. The cumulative development rate of HCC was 4.3% at 5 years, 10.5% at 10 years, and 19.7% at 15 years. HCC occurred significantly (P<0.05) when histological staging was advanced, sustained virological response was not achieved, the patient was male, patients had aging, total alcohol intake of =200kg, and Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM). T2DM caused a 1.73-fold enhancement in HCC development. In patients with T2DM, HCC decreased when patients had mean HbA1c level of <7.0% during follow-up (hazard ratio:0.56; 95% CI 0.33-0.89; P = 0.015). The cumulative development rate of malignancies other than HCC was 2.4% at 5 years, 5.1% at 10 years, and 9.8% at 15 years. Malignancies other than HCC occurred significantly when patients had aging, smoking index (package per day × year) of =20, and T2DM. T2DM caused a 1.70-fold enhancement in the development of malignancies other than HCC. Conclusion: T2DM causes an approximately 1.7-fold enhancement in the development of HCC and malignancies other than HCC in HCV-positive patients treated with IFN. In T2DM patients, maintaining mean HbA1c level of <7.0% reduces the development of HCC. (HEPATOLOGY 2012.).
    Hepatology 09/2012; · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is involved in inflammation, anti-apoptosis and carcinogenesis. The -1195GG genotype of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in COX-2 promoter was associated with low platelet counts in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Polymorphism of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) gene (rs738409 C>G) have been reported to be associated with cirrhosis, and the major genotype of SNPs near interleukin (IL)28B are related to viral clearance. The present study was designed to assess the contribution of these SNPs to disease progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The study enrolled 220 Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C. Three SNPs, -1195 COX-2, PNPLA3 and IL28B (rs8099917), were genotyped in order to analyze their association with hepatic fibrosis and inflammation. The -1195GG genotype in COX-2 was associated with advanced fibrosis and higher levels of inflammation in the liver tissues. The major genotype of IL28B was also associated with advanced fibrosis, but the polymorphism of PNPLA3 was neither associated with fibrosis nor inflammation. Multivariate analysis showed that -1195GG in COX-2 is an independent factor associated with advanced fibrosis, while the major genotype of IL28B and HCV genotype 2 were other independent factors. In conclusion, the -1195GG genotype in COX-2 is a genetic marker for liver disease progression, while the PNPLA3 genotypes are not associated with disease progression in Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C.
    Journal of Viral Hepatitis 09/2012; 19(9):608-14. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Substitution of amino acid 70 and/or 91 in the core region of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b (HCV-1b) is an important predictor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its impact on HCC in nonresponders to interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RIB) combination therapy is not clear. Methods: A total of 292 patients with HCV-1b-related chronic liver disease who did not achieve a sustained virological response to 24-48 weeks of IFN+RIB combination therapy were included in a follow-up study to investigate the risk factors for HCC. Results: Sixteen patients developed HCC during the follow-up. The cumulative HCC rates were 5.0, 13.1 and 16.9% at the end of 3, 5 and 7 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified substitution of core amino acid 70 (Gln70/His70; hazard ratio 4.64, p = 0.018) and low serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<50 mg/dl; hazard ratio 9.35, p = 0.041) as determinants of HCC. Gender, stage of fibrosis and interleukin-28B showed no such relationship. Conclusions: Amino acid substitution in the core region of HCV-1b and low serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are significant and independent predictors of HCC in nonresponders to IFN+RIB combination therapy. These results emphasize the importance of viral and lipid metabolic factors in the development of HCC after combination therapy.
    Intervirology 08/2012; · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of long-term interferon (IFN) monotherapy on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients who showed no virological response to the first course of IFN therapy, define predictive factors for HCC in patients on long-term IFN monotherapy, and evaluate the clinical impact of amino acid (aa) substitutions in the hepatitis C virus (HCV)-1b core region on HCC rate. This retrospective study included 494 consecutive treatment-naive patients infected with HCV-1b who failed to achieve sustained virological response after ≥24-week IFN monotherapy. Of 494 patients, 113 (22.9%) received another course of ≥48-week IFN monotherapy (additional-IFN group), while the remaining 381 (77.1%) received no such therapy (no-additional-IFN group), and 10 years have elapsed since the end of the first IFN monotherapy. The cumulative HCC rate was significantly higher in the no-additional-IFN group than additional-IFN group, and in those with aa substitutions in the core region of Gln70(His 70) and Met 91 than those with Arg 70 and/or Leu 91. Multivariate analysis identified stage of liver fibrosis, liver enzymes, age, treatment group, aa substitution in the core region, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol), and gender as determinants of HCC, and that additional IFN treatment significantly lowered the cumulative rate of HCC, even in patients with cirrhosis. In conclusion, long-term IFN monotherapy reduces the risk of HCC, even in patients with cirrhosis. Substitution of aa at position 70 and/or 91 in the core region and lipid metabolism are important predictors of HCC in long-term IFN monotherapy.
    Journal of Medical Virology 08/2012; 84(8):1199-207. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:  To evaluate the efficacy of natural human interferon (IFN)-β and ribavirin in elderly patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 and high virus load. Methods:  Inclusion criteria were age of 65 years or older, HCV genotype 2 and serum HCV RNA level of 5.0 logIU/mL or more. A total of 33 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. IFN-β was administrated i.v. at a dose of 6 million units daily for 4 weeks initially, followed by three times a week for 20 weeks. Ribavirin was given daily for 24 weeks at the dose described based on bodyweight. Fifteen patients were given a standard dose of ribavirin (standard group). Eighteen patients were given a reduction dose of ribavirin that decreased by one tablet per day compared to the standard group (reduction group). Results:  Of the 33 study patients, no patient stopped the treatment due to treatment-related adverse events. The dose of IFN-β was reduced in three patients: Two patients belonged to the standard group and one patient belonged to the reduction group. The dose of ribavirin was reduced in 11 patients during combination therapy: nine patients belonged to the standard group and two patients belonged to the reduction group. The sustained virological response (SVR) was 72.2% (13/18) in the reduction group and 80.0% (12/15) in the standard group. There was no significant difference in SVR rate between the reduction and standard groups (P = 0.699). Conclusion:  The reduction therapy of IFN-β and ribavirin in elderly chronic hepatitis C patients with genotype 2 and high virus load is one selection of treatment.
    Hepatology Research 08/2012; 42(8):750-6. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients who do not achieve sustained virological response to telaprevir/peginterferon (PEG-IFN)/ribavirin need to be identified. Predictive factors of virological response to the triple therapy in non-responders to previous PEG-IFN/ribavirin therapy are not clear. The aims of this study were to determine the predictive factors of virological response to a 24-week regimen of triple therapy in 15 non-responders to previous PEG-IFN/ribavirin therapy among 61 Japanese adults infected with HCV genotype 1. Overall, sustained virological response and end-of-treatment response were achieved by 27% and 60%, respectively. Telaprevir-resistant variants (by direct sequencing) appeared during or after treatment in 82% of patients who did not show sustained virological response, but disappeared at the end of study, except for one patient with resistant variant at baseline. Substitution at aa 70 (Arg70) and type of previous response to PEG-IFN/ribavirin (partial response) were identified as significant determinants of sustained virological response. In addition, alpha-fetoprotein level (<10 µg/L) and type of previous response (partial response) were identified as significant determinants of end-of-treatment response. Prediction of response to therapy based on the combination of these factors had high sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values. In conclusion, this study identified amino acid substitution of the core region, alpha-fetoprotein level, and type of previous response as predictors of virological response to telaprevir/PEG-IFN/ribavirin in patients infected with HCV genotype 1b who had not responded to previous PEG-IFN/ribavirin therapy.
    Journal of Medical Virology 07/2012; 84(7):1097-105. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) of genotype 1b is the most prevalent worldwide, and the least responsive to interferon-based treatments. A combination therapy with two direct-acting antivirals has shown promising results in patients with HCV-1b, but the prevalence of drug-resistant variants before treatment is not known in the Japanese population. To detect HCV variants resistant to NS3 protease inhibitors or the NS5A inhibitor (BMS-790052) in hepatitis patients infected with HCV-1b. Drug-resistant mutations were determined in the 362 hepatitis patients infected with HCV-1b who had not received direct-acting antivirals before. Amino-acid substitutions resistant to NS3 inhibitors (V36A, T54S, Q80H and D168E) were detected in 15 of the 307 (4.9%) patients, who had been examined, and T54S (3.3%) predominated over V36A (0.3%), Q80R (0.7%) and D168E (0.7%) in them. Amino-acid substitutions resistant to BMS-790052 (L31M and/or Y93H) were detected in 33 of the 294 (11.2%) patients, and Y93H (8.2%) predominated over L31M (2.7%). One of the 239 (0.4%) patients, who had been examined for amino-acid substitutions in both NS3 and NS5A regions, possessed HCV-1b variants resistant to NS3 inhibitors (T54S) and BMS-790052 (L31M). Mutations conferring resistance to NS3 inhibitors or BMS-790052 were frequent in our treatment-naive study population, but double mutants with possible resistance to both drugs were rare. Since single mutations did not result in treatment failure in a previous pilot trial combining BMS-790052 and an NS3 inhibitor, larger trials of this drug regimen appear warranted in the Japanese population.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 06/2012; 54(4):352-4. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determined the antiviral potency and viral resistance rate after 4 years of continuous entecavir treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. The cumulative rates of undetectable hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV DNA;<2.6 log(10) copies/ml), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seronegativity, seroconversion, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization, and entecavir signature mutations were calculated in 474 nucleos(t)ide-naïve CHB patients (HBeAg-positive: 47%) on continuous entecavir treatment for 4 years. Median age was 47 years and follow-up period was 2.4 years, with 403, 281, 165, and 73 patients followed-up for at least 1, 2, 3, and 4 years, respectively. Incremental increases were observed in the rates of undetectable HBV DNA, HBeAg seroclearance and seroconversion, and ALT normalization, reaching 96%, 42%, 38% and 93%, respectively, by the fourth year. In all, 100% and 93% of patients negative and positive for HBeAg, respectively, had undetectable HBV DNA at year 4. Of 165 patients, HBV DNA was detectable in nine patients after 3 years. Multivariate analysis identified HBV DNA level (≤7.6 log(10) copies/ml, OR=15.8; 95% CI=43.1-79.9, P=0.001) as an independent predictor of undetectable HBV DNA at year 3. Five patients experienced virological breakthrough including two (0.4%) who developed entecavir-resistance mutations. Continuous treatment of nucleos(t)ide-naïve CHB patients with entecavir over 4 years was associated with 96% chance of undetectable HBV DNA and only 0.4% chance of emerging entecavir-resistant mutations.
    Journal of Hepatology 05/2012; 57(3):508-14. · 9.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:  To evaluate the efficacy of reduction therapy of natural human interferon (IFN)-β and ribavirin in elderly patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b and high viral load who had complications of anemia, low bodyweight (<50 kg), diabetes mellitus and/or hypertension. Methods:  Inclusion criteria were age of 65 years or older, HCV genotype 1b, and serum HCV RNA level of 5.0 logIU/mL or higher. A total of 23 subjects with hemoglobin level of less than 13 g/dL, low bodyweight, diabetes mellitus and/or hypertension were enrolled in this study (reduction-dose group). IFN-β was administrated i.v. at a dose of 6 million units daily for 4 weeks initially, followed by three times a week for 44 weeks. Ribavirin was given daily for 48 weeks at a decreased dose of one tablet per day compared to the ordinary dose described based on bodyweight. As a control, another 22 patients without anemia, low bodyweight and/or complications treated with the standard dose of ribavirin (standard-dose group) were enrolled. Results:  Patients' rates with further dose reduction or discontinuation of treatment was 26.1% (6/23) in the reduction-dose group and 77.3% (17/22) in the standard-dose group. The sustained virological response (SVR) was 39.1% (9/23) in the reduction-dose group and 27.3% (6/22) in the standard-dose group (P = 0.404). Based on genetic variations near the IL28B gene (rs8099917), SVR was 44.1% (15/34) in patients with TT and 0% (0/11) in patients with TG (P = 0.008). Conclusion:  The reduction therapy of IFN-β and ribavirin in elderly HCV patients with genotype 1b, high viral load, IL28B gene (rs8099917) of TT who had complications of anemia, low bodyweight, diabetes mellitus and/or hypertension is one possible selection of treatment.
    Hepatology Research 04/2012; 42(10):949-57. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two nucleotide polymorphisms of the interleukin-28B (IL28B) gene, at rs8099917 and rs12979860, influence the response to interferon (IFN)-based therapies in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) of genotype 1. We aimed to investigate whether these polymorphisms showed complete linkage in Japanese patients. A total of 1,518 Japanese patients infected with HCV were genotyped for the two IL28B loci, and the two sets of genotypes were compared. TT at rs8099917 and CC at rs12979860 were detected in 77.7 and 76.8%, respectively, of the 1,518 patients and TG/GG and CT/TT were detected in 22.3 and 23.2%. These two sets of IL28B genotype stood in strong linkage disequilibrium (r (2) = 0.98). Discordance between the two IL28B polymorphisms occurred in 16 (1.1%) patients, and 13 (0.9%) of them possessed IFN-sensitive TT at rs8099917 and IFN-resistant CT at rs12979860. Three of these 13 patients had HCV of genotype 1b and had received pegylated-interferon and ribavirin, and none of them gained a sustained virological response. At rs8099917, IFN-resistant TG/GG were more frequent in patients infected with HCV of genotype 1 than in those infected with HCV of genotype 2 [258/1,046 (24.7%) vs. 75/441 (17.0%), p = 0.001]. The response to pegylated-interferon/ribavirin in 279 patients who were infected with HCV-1 and the response to IFN monotherapy in 361 patients who were infected with HCV-1 , was higher in those with TT than in those with TG/GG at rs8099917, as well as being higher in those with CC than in those with CT/TT at rs12979860 (p < 0.001). Linkage disequilibrium between two IL28B polymorphisms at rs8099917 and rs12979860 is strong in Japanese HCV patients, but there are some discrepancies between the two sets of genotypes.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2012; 47(5):596-605. · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severe acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B can sometimes occur and lead to hepatic failure and death. The objective of this study was to elucidate the predictors of progression to hepatic decompensation during severe acute exacerbation. We prospectively analyzed 37 consecutive patients with acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B (accompanied by jaundice and coagulopathy) for clinical outcome and factors that influenced the development of severe acute exacerbation, including viral kinetics. Fourteen (37.8%) patients progressed to severe acute exacerbation (accompanied by encephalopathy). Multivariate analysis identified serum bilirubin (>5 mg/dl, P = 0.002) as a significant determinant of progression to hepatic failure and prothrombin activity (<45%, P = 0.028) and as a determinant of liver-related death. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level before therapy was measured in 25 patients. HBV DNA levels increased or did not change from before commencement of treatment in all 11 patients who progressed to severe acute exacerbation. On the other hand, HBV DNA levels did not change or increased in 8 of 14 patients (57%) with acute exacerbation (P = 0.02). Serum bilirubin and prothrombin activities were significant predictors of clinical outcome in patients with severe acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B. Viral kinetics until commencement of therapy can predict the severity of acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2012; 47(9):1022-9. · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have investigated the long-term effects of interferon (IFN) therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). In this retrospective study, we investigated the efficacy of and predictors of response to IFN therapy in CHB patients. We analyzed data for 615 Japanese CHB patients (hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg]-positive 414, HBeAg-negative 201) treated with IFN, and conducted follow up for a median duration of 8.1 years (range 0.5-23.2). Responders were defined as patients who showed continuously normalized alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, HBeAg clearance, and low hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels at 6 months post-treatment or for a span of more than 6 months until each test point at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years. The IFN response rates of all patients were 21, 18, 21, 23, and 25% at 6 months and 1, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. On multivariate analysis, significant determinants of the outcome of IFN therapy were as follows: at 6 months and 1 year, young age, low HBV DNA levels, and long duration of treatment; at 3 years, long duration of treatment, young age, and high level of albumin; at 5 years, high level of albumin, female, and pretreated with IFN; and at 10 years, HBeAg-negative. Sixty-nine of the 615 patients (11%) achieved seroclearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). On multivariate analysis, age ≥30 years, HBV genotype A, and male were all independent factors predicting the achievement of HBsAg seroclearance. HBeAg, HBV DNA level, age, sex, albumin, duration of treatment, pretreatment with IFN, and HBV genotype were important factors in determining long-term response to IFN therapy.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2012; 47(7):814-22. · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:  The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictive factors of diabetes in hepatitis virus positive liver cirrhotic patients with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level of <126 mg/dL. Methods:  A total of 263 patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) positive liver cirrhosis, FPG level of <126 mg/dL, and had diabetes status evaluated by the use of 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), were enrolled in this study. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were analyzed periodically for 3 h after oral glucose loading. Diabetes was defined as a 2-h post-load glucose on the OGTT of ≥200 mg/dL. The prevalence of diabetes by use of OGTT and predictive factors for diabetes were evaluated by the use of the Mann-Whitney U-test, Fisher's exact probability test or multivariate analysis by logistic regression. Hypoalbuminemia was defined as serum albumin level of <3.9 g/dL. Elevated indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (ICG( R) 15) was regarded as ≥ 25%. Results:  Out of 263 patients, 44 (16.7%) were diagnosed as having diabetes. Multivariate analysis showed that diabetes occurred when patients had hypoalbuminemia of <3.9 g/dL (odds ratio [OR] 2.33; 95% confidential interval [CI] = 1.04-5.24; P = 0.040) and ICG( R) 15 of <25% (OR 2.36; 95%CI = 1.01-5.58). Conclusions:  Hypoalbuminemia and elevated ICG( R) 15 in hepatitis virus related cirrhotic patients with FPG level of <126 mg/day enhance diabetes pattern after OGTT with significant difference.
    Hepatology Research 01/2012; 42(6):558-63. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impacts of IL28B genotype to treatment response of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 are still not clear. A total of 381 consecutive Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 2, who could complete combination therapy with interferon (IFN) plus ribavirin for 24 weeks, were evaluated to investigate pretreatment predictors. Patients, who could not achieve sustained virological response at the first course of 24‐week IFN plus ribavirin, were recruited into the study protocol of total 48‐week IFN plus ribavirin. In 24‐week regimen, rates of sustained virological response and rapid virological response were 82% and 50%, respectively. There were no significant differences in rates of sustained virological response and rapid virological response, according to IL28B genotype. Multivariate analysis identified younger age, higher level of albumin, absence of past history of IFN, and lower level of viremia as significant determinants of sustained virological response. As significant or marginal significant determinants of non‐sustained virological response regardless of rapid virological response, multivariate analysis identified IL28B rs8099917 genotype TG + GG and lower level of albumin. In 48‐week regimen to 10 patients of non‐sustained virological response at the first course of 24‐week regimen, sustained virological response rates were 70%. All of six patients, with IL28B TT and relapse at the first course of 24‐week regimen, could achieve sustained virological response, but two patients with IL28B TG could not achieve sustained virological response. In conclusion, the present results suggest that IL28B genotype might partly affect viral response of HCV genotype 2 to combination therapy. J. Med. Virol. 84:1593–1599, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Medical Virology 01/2012; 84(10). · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:  Malignancies that include hepatocellular carcinoma often occurred in patients with chronic liver disease. The aim of this retrospective match control study was to assess the cumulative development incidence and predictive factors for total malignancies in elderly Japanese patients with non-alcoholic hepatic diseases (NAFLD) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). Methods:  A total of 1600 NAFLD patients with age of ≥60 years were enrolled, and 1600 HCV patients with age of ≥60 years were selected as control by matching 1:1 with NAFLD group for age, sex, and follow-up period. The primary goal is the first development of malignancies. Evaluation was performed by the use of the Wilcoxon rank sum test, the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazard model. The mean observation period is 8.2 years in both NAFLD and HCV group, respectively. Results:  The number of patients with the development of malignancies was 167 in the NAFLD group and 395 in the HCV group. The 10th development rate of malignancies was 13.9% in the NAFLD group and 28.2% in the HCV group (risk ratio 2.27; P < 0.001). The incident rates of hepatocellular carcinoma in all the malignancies were 6.0% (10/167) in the NAFLD group and 67.6% (267/395) in the HCV group (P < 0.001). The malignancies in the NAFLD group were observed in the following order: gastric cancer 34 cases (20.4%) > colon cancer 31 cases (18.6%) > prostate cancer 21 cases (12.6%). Conclusions:  The incident rates of hepatocellular carcinoma in all the malignancies were approximately 6% in the NAFLD group and two-thirds in the HCV group.
    Hepatology Research 12/2011; 42(3):264-72. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:  The factors associated with hepatitis recurrence after discontinuation of nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) in patients with chronic hepatitis B were analyzed to predict the risk of relapse more accurately. Methods:  A total of 126 patients who discontinued NA therapy were recruited retrospectively. The clinical conditions of a successful discontinuation were set as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) below 30 IU/L and serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA below 4.0 log copies/mL. Results:  Relapse of hepatitis B were judged to occur when maximal serum ALT became higher than 79 IU/L or when maximal serum HBV DNA surpassed 5.7 log copies/mL following NA discontinuation since these values corresponded with mean values of ALT (30 IU/L) and HBV DNA (4.0 log copies/mL), respectively. At least 90% of patients with either detectable hepatitis B e antigen or serum HBV DNA higher than 3.0 log copies/mL at the time of NA discontinuation relapsed within one year. In the remaining patients, higher levels of both hepatitis B surface and core-related antigens at the time of discontinuation, as well as a shorter course of NA treatment, were significantly associated with relapse by multivariate analysis. Conclusions:  It appears that negative results for hepatitis B e antigen and serum HBV DNA lower than 3.0 log copies/mL are essential for successful NA discontinuation, which may be attained by a longer treatment period. Levels of hepatitis B surface and core-related antigens are also significant factors independently associated with relapse of hepatitis.
    Hepatology Research 11/2011; 42(2):139-149. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:  The aim of this retrospective cohort study is to assess the development incidence and predictive factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) after the termination of interferon therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive Japanese patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods:  A total of 650 HCV positive, liver cirrhotic patients who were treated with interferon and showed an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) after the termination of interferon therapy were enrolled. CKD was defined as an eGFR of <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) . End-stage-CKD was defined as an eGFR of <15 mL/min/1.73 m(2) . The primary goal is the new development of CKD and end-stage-CKD. Results:  Eighty-five patients developed CKD, and six patients progressed to end-stage-CKD. The development rate of CKD was 5.2% at the 5th year, 14.5% at the 10th year and 30.6% at the 15th year. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that CKD occurred when patients had age increments of 10 years (hazard ratio: 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61-3.35; P < 0.001), eGFR decrements of 10 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (hazard ratio: 1.66; 95% CI 1.27-2.16; P < 0.001), hypertension (hazard ratio: 2.00; 95% CI 1.13-3.53; P = 0.017), diabetes (hazard ratio: 1.79; 95% CI 1.02-3.14; P = 0.042), and non-clearance of HCV (hazard ratio: 2.67; 95% CI 1.34-5.32; P = 0.005). The development rate of end-stage-CKD was 0.4% at the 5th year, 1.6% at the 10th year and 2.8% at the 15th year. Conclusions:  The annual incidence for CKD among cirrhotic patients with HCV was determined to be about 1.0-1.5%. In addition, the annual incidence for end-stage-CKD is one order of magnitude lower than that of CKD.
    Hepatology Research 08/2011; 41(10):946-54. · 2.07 Impact Factor