Mariko Kobayashi

Toranomon Hospital, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (221)616.81 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction and Fanconi's syndrome associated with hypophosphatemia caused by long-term administration of low-dose adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) has been reported in recent years. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence and factors associated with renal dysfunction and hypophosphatemia in patients with hepatitis B infection on long-term treatment with ADV and lamivudine (LAM). METHODS: The study subjects were 292 patients treated with 10 mg/day ADV and 100 mg/day LAM for more than 6 months. We evaluated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum creatinine and serum phosphate level at the start of ADV and every 6 months. RESULT: During a median treatment duration of 64 months, 28 (9.6 %) patients developed renal impairment (defined as eGFR < 50 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), and 73 (27.1 %) developed hypophosphatemia, including 14 with persistent hypophosphatemia. The cumulative incidences of renal impairment at 1, 3, and 5 years were 1.4, 7.5, 10.5 %, respectively, and those of hypophosphatemia were 6.8, 20.6, 26.7 %, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified old age, liver cirrhosis and hypertension as determinants of renal impairment, and male sex, HCC, low baseline serum phosphate as determinants of hypophosphatemia. Three of the 14 patients with persistent hypophosphatemia developed Fanconi's syndrome; their serum creatinine level remained normal, but eGFR was lower than at baseline. CONCLUSION: Long-term treatment of hepatitis B with low-dose (10 mg/day) ADV and LAM can potentially cause renal impairment and hypophosphatemia. We advocate regular monitoring of serum phosphate and evaluation of eGFR, in addition to serum creatinine, in such patients.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00535-013-0779-0 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimThe aim of this case-control study was to assess the efficacy and safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (sitagliptin) for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods Twenty NAFLD patients with T2DM treated by sitagliptin were retrospectively enrolled as the sitagliptin group. These patients were given sitagliptin between January 2010 and July 2011. Another 20 NAFLD patients with T2DM treated only with diet and exercise for 48weeks were selected as the control group. Serum levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured before and 12, 24, 36 and 48weeks after the initiation of treatment. ResultsIn the sitagliptin group, average HbA1c levels decreased approximately 0.7% at 48weeks after the initiation of sitagliptin. Next, average FPG levels decreased approximately 15mg/dL at 48weeks after the initiation of sitagliptin. The serum levels of HbA1c and FPG in the sitagliptin group decreased with statistical significance compared to those in the control group (P<0.05). All the patients could take sitagliptin of 50mg/day without reduction necessitated by sitagliptin-related side-effects. There were no significant changes of average AST and ALT levels during follow up of 48weeks in both sitagliptin and control groups. Conclusion Our results indicate sitagliptin is effective and safe for the treatment of T2DM complicated with NAFLD.
    Hepatology Research 03/2013; 43(11). DOI:10.1111/hepr.12077 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to assess the cumulative development incidence and predictive factors for malignancies after the termination of interferon (IFN) therapy in Japanese patients for hepatitis C virus (HCV). A total of 4,302 HCV-positive patients treated with IFN were enrolled. The mean observation period was 8.1 years. The primary outcome is the first onset of malignancies. Evaluation was performed by using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard analysis. A total of 606 patients developed malignancies: 393 developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 213 developed malignancies other than HCC. The cumulative development rate of HCC was 4.3% at 5 years, 10.5% at 10 years, and 19.7% at 15 years. HCC occurred significantly (P<0.05) when histological staging was advanced, sustained virological response was not achieved, the patient was male, patients had aging, total alcohol intake of =200kg, and Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM). T2DM caused a 1.73-fold enhancement in HCC development. In patients with T2DM, HCC decreased when patients had mean HbA1c level of <7.0% during follow-up (hazard ratio:0.56; 95% CI 0.33-0.89; P = 0.015). The cumulative development rate of malignancies other than HCC was 2.4% at 5 years, 5.1% at 10 years, and 9.8% at 15 years. Malignancies other than HCC occurred significantly when patients had aging, smoking index (package per day × year) of =20, and T2DM. T2DM caused a 1.70-fold enhancement in the development of malignancies other than HCC. Conclusion: T2DM causes an approximately 1.7-fold enhancement in the development of HCC and malignancies other than HCC in HCV-positive patients treated with IFN. In T2DM patients, maintaining mean HbA1c level of <7.0% reduces the development of HCC. (HEPATOLOGY 2012.).
    Hepatology 03/2013; 57(3). DOI:10.1002/hep.26087 · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of amino acid (aa) 70 substitution in the core region on hepatocarcinogenesis and survival for liver-related death in patients of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b (HCV-1b), who had not received antiviral therapy, is unknown. The relationships among aa 70 substitution, IL28B genotype, and hepatocarcinogenesis are also not clear. A total of 1,181 consecutive HCV-infected patients, who had not received antiviral therapy, were included in a follow-up study to determine predictive factors of hepatocarcinogenesis and survival for liver-related death. The cumulative hepatocarcinogenesis rates in HCV-1b of Gln70(His70) (glutamine (histidine) at aa 70) were significantly higher than those in HCV-1b of Arg70 (arginine at aa 70) and HCV-2a/2b. The cumulative survival rates for liver-related death in HCV-1b of Gln70(His70) were significantly lower than those in HCV-1b of Arg70 and HCV-2a/2b. Multivariate analysis identified gender (male), age (≥60 years), albumin (<3.9 g/dL), platelet count (<15.0 × 104/mm3), aspartate aminotransferase (≥67 IU/L), and HCV subgroup (HCV-1b of Gln70(His70)) as determinants of both hepatocarcinogenesis and survival rates for liver-related death. In HCV-1b patients, the cumulative change rates from Arg70 to Gln70(His70) by direct sequencing were significantly higher than those from Gln70(His70) to Arg70. In patients of Arg70 at the initial visit, the cumulative change rates from Arg70 to Gln70(His70) in IL28B rs8099917 non-TT genotype were significantly higher than those in the TT genotype. Conclusion: Substitution of aa 70 in the core region of HCV-1b is an important predictor of hepatocarcinogenesis and survival for liver-related death in HCV patients who had not received antiviral therapy. The IL28B genotype might partly affect changes over time of dominant amino acid in core aa 70 of HCV-1b. (HEPATOLOGY 2012;56:2134–2141)
    Hepatology 12/2012; 56(6). DOI:10.1002/hep.25949 · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIM: The aims of this study are to assess the antiviral effects, safety and telaprevir (TVR) pharmacokinetics in two cohorts given TVR every 8 h (q8h) at doses of 500 mg and 750 mg with peginterferon-α-2b and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C patients. METHODS: Twenty chronic hepatitis C (HCV) patients with genotype 1b in high viral loads were randomly assigned to two TVR-based regimens of 750 mg q8h (group A) and 500 mg q8h (group B) in combination with peginterferon-α-2b and ribavirin for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Although the difference was not statistically significant other than trough concentration (C(trough) ) at week 4, the parameters of maximum concentration (C(max) ), the area under the concentration time curve (AUC(0-∞) ) and C(trough) tended to be higher in group A than those in group B. The antiviral effects were similar in the two groups (sustained virological response rates [SVR], 40% in group A, 50% in group B). The discontinuation rates by anemia were 30% in group A and 20% in group B. Serum creatinine concentrations were lower in group B than those in group A. CONCLUSION: Although the exposure to TVR tended to be lower in 500 mg q8h than that in 750 mg q8h, the SVR rates in both groups were similar. The result suggests that the 500 mg q8h dose may be one option for treatment. In addition, the present findings indicate that the development of adverse events which increase with a TVR-based regimen, specifically anemia and creatinine, could be avoided by dose adjustment of TVR.
    Hepatology Research 11/2012; 43(7). DOI:10.1111/hepr.12009 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major worldwide public health problem, and mutations at amino acids 70 and 91 in the genotype 1b core region predict the effectiveness of combination therapy with peginterferon and ribavirin. An assay based on the Q-Invader technology was developed to determine the relative ratios of the mutant to wild-type virus with high sensitivity. The assay detected a minor type plasmid that constituted only 1% of a mixture of plasmids containing wild-type and mutant sequences. The calculated ratios agreed with those of the template DNA. A total of 123 serum samples of HCV in Japan were examined with the Q-Invader assay. The Q-Invader assay detected all of the mutations that were detected by direct sequencing and even some mutants that direct sequencing could not. PCR with mutant specific primers confirmed those mutations found by the Q-Invader assay and not by direct sequencing. The Q-Invader assay, thus, is a useful tool for detecting mutations at positions 70 and 91 in the HCV-1b core region.
    Journal of virological methods 11/2012; 189(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jviromet.2012.10.011 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is considered the ultimate goal in chronic hepatitis B treatment. One treatment option is long-term nucleot(s)ide analog (NA) therapy. We followed a group of long-term NA therapy patients to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment in promoting clearance and longitudinal declines of HBsAg. METHOD: The study included 791 NA therapy patients who received lamivudine as their first drug. At the baseline, 442 patients were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)+ and 349 were HBeAg-. All analyses were performed after separating the HBeAg+ and HBeAg- cohorts. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine which factors were associated with HBsAg clearance. RESULTS: HBsAg clearance was observed in 18 (4.1 %) of the HBeAg+ patients and 20 (5.7 %) of the HBeAg- patients at baseline, giving seroclearance rates of 6.4 and 6.9 %, respectively, over the nine-year study period. HBsAg clearance was influenced by several independent factors that varied according to HBeAg cohort. For HBeAg+ patients, these included previous interferon therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype A, a ≥0.5 log IU/mL decline in HBsAg level within six months, and clearance of HBeAg at six months. For HBeAg- patients, these included infection with HBV genotype A, decline in HBsAg at six months, and a baseline HBsAg level of <730 IU/mL. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both direct antiviral potential and host immune response are needed to achieve HBsAg clearance by NA therapy. Viral genotype strongly influenced HBsAg clearance during NA therapy.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2012; DOI:10.1007/s00535-012-0688-7 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Anticarcinogenic activity of ribavirin combination therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related compensated cirrhosis is still unclear. Methods: In study 1, in 157 consecutive patients with HCV-related compensated cirrhosis, treatment efficacy with interferon plus ribavirin therapy was evaluated for 48 weeks of HCV genotype 1b (HCV-1b) or 24 weeks of HCV-2a/2b. In study 2, in 185 consecutive patients with HCV-related compensated cirrhosis, who showed no sustained virological response following the first course of interferon monotherapy, hepatocarcinogenesis rates were evaluated according to the additional treatment, and they were classified into three groups: no treatment, interferon monotherapy, and ribavirin combination therapy. Results: In study 1, in HCV-1b, rates of sustained virological response and sustained biochemical response were 21 and 56%, respectively. In HCV-2a/2b, rates of sustained virological response and sustained biochemical response were 70 and 78%, respectively. In HCV-1b, sustained biochemical response rates were significantly higher than those of sustained virological response. In study 2, the hepatocarcinogenesis rates in ribavirin combination therapy were significantly lower than those in interferon monotherapy and no treatment, respectively. Conclusion: Ribavirin combination therapy for HCV-related compensated cirrhosis reduces the risk of hepatocarcinogenesis in comparison with interferon monotherapy, and higher rates of sustained biochemical response might be associated with lower hepatocarcinogenesis rates.
    Intervirology 10/2012; 56(1). DOI:10.1159/000342746 · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impacts of IL28B genotype to treatment response of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 are still not clear. A total of 381 consecutive Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 2, who could complete combination therapy with interferon (IFN) plus ribavirin for 24 weeks, were evaluated to investigate pretreatment predictors. Patients, who could not achieve sustained virological response at the first course of 24-week IFN plus ribavirin, were recruited into the study protocol of total 48-week IFN plus ribavirin. In 24-week regimen, rates of sustained virological response and rapid virological response were 82% and 50%, respectively. There were no significant differences in rates of sustained virological response and rapid virological response, according to IL28B genotype. Multivariate analysis identified younger age, higher level of albumin, absence of past history of IFN, and lower level of viremia as significant determinants of sustained virological response. As significant or marginal significant determinants of non-sustained virological response regardless of rapid virological response, multivariate analysis identified IL28B rs8099917 genotype TG + GG and lower level of albumin. In 48-week regimen to 10 patients of non-sustained virological response at the first course of 24-week regimen, sustained virological response rates were 70%. All of six patients, with IL28B TT and relapse at the first course of 24-week regimen, could achieve sustained virological response, but two patients with IL28B TG could not achieve sustained virological response. In conclusion, the present results suggest that IL28B genotype might partly affect viral response of HCV genotype 2 to combination therapy.
    Journal of Medical Virology 10/2012; 84(10):1593-9. DOI:10.1002/jmv.23368 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is involved in inflammation, anti-apoptosis and carcinogenesis. The -1195GG genotype of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in COX-2 promoter was associated with low platelet counts in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Polymorphism of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) gene (rs738409 C>G) have been reported to be associated with cirrhosis, and the major genotype of SNPs near interleukin (IL)28B are related to viral clearance. The present study was designed to assess the contribution of these SNPs to disease progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The study enrolled 220 Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C. Three SNPs, -1195 COX-2, PNPLA3 and IL28B (rs8099917), were genotyped in order to analyze their association with hepatic fibrosis and inflammation. The -1195GG genotype in COX-2 was associated with advanced fibrosis and higher levels of inflammation in the liver tissues. The major genotype of IL28B was also associated with advanced fibrosis, but the polymorphism of PNPLA3 was neither associated with fibrosis nor inflammation. Multivariate analysis showed that -1195GG in COX-2 is an independent factor associated with advanced fibrosis, while the major genotype of IL28B and HCV genotype 2 were other independent factors. In conclusion, the -1195GG genotype in COX-2 is a genetic marker for liver disease progression, while the PNPLA3 genotypes are not associated with disease progression in Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C.
    Journal of Viral Hepatitis 09/2012; 19(9):608-14. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2893.2011.01580.x · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Substitution of amino acid 70 and/or 91 in the core region of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b (HCV-1b) is an important predictor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its impact on HCC in nonresponders to interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RIB) combination therapy is not clear. Methods: A total of 292 patients with HCV-1b-related chronic liver disease who did not achieve a sustained virological response to 24-48 weeks of IFN+RIB combination therapy were included in a follow-up study to investigate the risk factors for HCC. Results: Sixteen patients developed HCC during the follow-up. The cumulative HCC rates were 5.0, 13.1 and 16.9% at the end of 3, 5 and 7 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified substitution of core amino acid 70 (Gln70/His70; hazard ratio 4.64, p = 0.018) and low serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<50 mg/dl; hazard ratio 9.35, p = 0.041) as determinants of HCC. Gender, stage of fibrosis and interleukin-28B showed no such relationship. Conclusions: Amino acid substitution in the core region of HCV-1b and low serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are significant and independent predictors of HCC in nonresponders to IFN+RIB combination therapy. These results emphasize the importance of viral and lipid metabolic factors in the development of HCC after combination therapy.
    Intervirology 08/2012; 56(1). DOI:10.1159/000339993 · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of long-term interferon (IFN) monotherapy on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients who showed no virological response to the first course of IFN therapy, define predictive factors for HCC in patients on long-term IFN monotherapy, and evaluate the clinical impact of amino acid (aa) substitutions in the hepatitis C virus (HCV)-1b core region on HCC rate. This retrospective study included 494 consecutive treatment-naive patients infected with HCV-1b who failed to achieve sustained virological response after ≥24-week IFN monotherapy. Of 494 patients, 113 (22.9%) received another course of ≥48-week IFN monotherapy (additional-IFN group), while the remaining 381 (77.1%) received no such therapy (no-additional-IFN group), and 10 years have elapsed since the end of the first IFN monotherapy. The cumulative HCC rate was significantly higher in the no-additional-IFN group than additional-IFN group, and in those with aa substitutions in the core region of Gln70(His 70) and Met 91 than those with Arg 70 and/or Leu 91. Multivariate analysis identified stage of liver fibrosis, liver enzymes, age, treatment group, aa substitution in the core region, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol), and gender as determinants of HCC, and that additional IFN treatment significantly lowered the cumulative rate of HCC, even in patients with cirrhosis. In conclusion, long-term IFN monotherapy reduces the risk of HCC, even in patients with cirrhosis. Substitution of aa at position 70 and/or 91 in the core region and lipid metabolism are important predictors of HCC in long-term IFN monotherapy.
    Journal of Medical Virology 08/2012; 84(8):1199-207. DOI:10.1002/jmv.23288 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:  To evaluate the efficacy of natural human interferon (IFN)-β and ribavirin in elderly patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 and high virus load. Methods:  Inclusion criteria were age of 65 years or older, HCV genotype 2 and serum HCV RNA level of 5.0 logIU/mL or more. A total of 33 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. IFN-β was administrated i.v. at a dose of 6 million units daily for 4 weeks initially, followed by three times a week for 20 weeks. Ribavirin was given daily for 24 weeks at the dose described based on bodyweight. Fifteen patients were given a standard dose of ribavirin (standard group). Eighteen patients were given a reduction dose of ribavirin that decreased by one tablet per day compared to the standard group (reduction group). Results:  Of the 33 study patients, no patient stopped the treatment due to treatment-related adverse events. The dose of IFN-β was reduced in three patients: Two patients belonged to the standard group and one patient belonged to the reduction group. The dose of ribavirin was reduced in 11 patients during combination therapy: nine patients belonged to the standard group and two patients belonged to the reduction group. The sustained virological response (SVR) was 72.2% (13/18) in the reduction group and 80.0% (12/15) in the standard group. There was no significant difference in SVR rate between the reduction and standard groups (P = 0.699). Conclusion:  The reduction therapy of IFN-β and ribavirin in elderly chronic hepatitis C patients with genotype 2 and high virus load is one selection of treatment.
    Hepatology Research 08/2012; 42(8):750-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1872-034X.2012.00982.x · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients who do not achieve sustained virological response to telaprevir/peginterferon (PEG-IFN)/ribavirin need to be identified. Predictive factors of virological response to the triple therapy in non-responders to previous PEG-IFN/ribavirin therapy are not clear. The aims of this study were to determine the predictive factors of virological response to a 24-week regimen of triple therapy in 15 non-responders to previous PEG-IFN/ribavirin therapy among 61 Japanese adults infected with HCV genotype 1. Overall, sustained virological response and end-of-treatment response were achieved by 27% and 60%, respectively. Telaprevir-resistant variants (by direct sequencing) appeared during or after treatment in 82% of patients who did not show sustained virological response, but disappeared at the end of study, except for one patient with resistant variant at baseline. Substitution at aa 70 (Arg70) and type of previous response to PEG-IFN/ribavirin (partial response) were identified as significant determinants of sustained virological response. In addition, alpha-fetoprotein level (<10 µg/L) and type of previous response (partial response) were identified as significant determinants of end-of-treatment response. Prediction of response to therapy based on the combination of these factors had high sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values. In conclusion, this study identified amino acid substitution of the core region, alpha-fetoprotein level, and type of previous response as predictors of virological response to telaprevir/PEG-IFN/ribavirin in patients infected with HCV genotype 1b who had not responded to previous PEG-IFN/ribavirin therapy.
    Journal of Medical Virology 07/2012; 84(7):1097-105. DOI:10.1002/jmv.23262 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) of genotype 1b is the most prevalent worldwide, and the least responsive to interferon-based treatments. A combination therapy with two direct-acting antivirals has shown promising results in patients with HCV-1b, but the prevalence of drug-resistant variants before treatment is not known in the Japanese population. To detect HCV variants resistant to NS3 protease inhibitors or the NS5A inhibitor (BMS-790052) in hepatitis patients infected with HCV-1b. Drug-resistant mutations were determined in the 362 hepatitis patients infected with HCV-1b who had not received direct-acting antivirals before. Amino-acid substitutions resistant to NS3 inhibitors (V36A, T54S, Q80H and D168E) were detected in 15 of the 307 (4.9%) patients, who had been examined, and T54S (3.3%) predominated over V36A (0.3%), Q80R (0.7%) and D168E (0.7%) in them. Amino-acid substitutions resistant to BMS-790052 (L31M and/or Y93H) were detected in 33 of the 294 (11.2%) patients, and Y93H (8.2%) predominated over L31M (2.7%). One of the 239 (0.4%) patients, who had been examined for amino-acid substitutions in both NS3 and NS5A regions, possessed HCV-1b variants resistant to NS3 inhibitors (T54S) and BMS-790052 (L31M). Mutations conferring resistance to NS3 inhibitors or BMS-790052 were frequent in our treatment-naive study population, but double mutants with possible resistance to both drugs were rare. Since single mutations did not result in treatment failure in a previous pilot trial combining BMS-790052 and an NS3 inhibitor, larger trials of this drug regimen appear warranted in the Japanese population.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 06/2012; 54(4):352-4. DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2012.04.024 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determined the antiviral potency and viral resistance rate after 4 years of continuous entecavir treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. The cumulative rates of undetectable hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV DNA;<2.6 log(10) copies/ml), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seronegativity, seroconversion, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization, and entecavir signature mutations were calculated in 474 nucleos(t)ide-naïve CHB patients (HBeAg-positive: 47%) on continuous entecavir treatment for 4 years. Median age was 47 years and follow-up period was 2.4 years, with 403, 281, 165, and 73 patients followed-up for at least 1, 2, 3, and 4 years, respectively. Incremental increases were observed in the rates of undetectable HBV DNA, HBeAg seroclearance and seroconversion, and ALT normalization, reaching 96%, 42%, 38% and 93%, respectively, by the fourth year. In all, 100% and 93% of patients negative and positive for HBeAg, respectively, had undetectable HBV DNA at year 4. Of 165 patients, HBV DNA was detectable in nine patients after 3 years. Multivariate analysis identified HBV DNA level (≤7.6 log(10) copies/ml, OR=15.8; 95% CI=43.1-79.9, P=0.001) as an independent predictor of undetectable HBV DNA at year 3. Five patients experienced virological breakthrough including two (0.4%) who developed entecavir-resistance mutations. Continuous treatment of nucleos(t)ide-naïve CHB patients with entecavir over 4 years was associated with 96% chance of undetectable HBV DNA and only 0.4% chance of emerging entecavir-resistant mutations.
    Journal of Hepatology 05/2012; 57(3):508-14. DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2012.04.037 · 10.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:  To evaluate the efficacy of reduction therapy of natural human interferon (IFN)-β and ribavirin in elderly patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b and high viral load who had complications of anemia, low bodyweight (<50 kg), diabetes mellitus and/or hypertension. Methods:  Inclusion criteria were age of 65 years or older, HCV genotype 1b, and serum HCV RNA level of 5.0 logIU/mL or higher. A total of 23 subjects with hemoglobin level of less than 13 g/dL, low bodyweight, diabetes mellitus and/or hypertension were enrolled in this study (reduction-dose group). IFN-β was administrated i.v. at a dose of 6 million units daily for 4 weeks initially, followed by three times a week for 44 weeks. Ribavirin was given daily for 48 weeks at a decreased dose of one tablet per day compared to the ordinary dose described based on bodyweight. As a control, another 22 patients without anemia, low bodyweight and/or complications treated with the standard dose of ribavirin (standard-dose group) were enrolled. Results:  Patients' rates with further dose reduction or discontinuation of treatment was 26.1% (6/23) in the reduction-dose group and 77.3% (17/22) in the standard-dose group. The sustained virological response (SVR) was 39.1% (9/23) in the reduction-dose group and 27.3% (6/22) in the standard-dose group (P = 0.404). Based on genetic variations near the IL28B gene (rs8099917), SVR was 44.1% (15/34) in patients with TT and 0% (0/11) in patients with TG (P = 0.008). Conclusion:  The reduction therapy of IFN-β and ribavirin in elderly HCV patients with genotype 1b, high viral load, IL28B gene (rs8099917) of TT who had complications of anemia, low bodyweight, diabetes mellitus and/or hypertension is one possible selection of treatment.
    Hepatology Research 04/2012; 42(10):949-57. DOI:10.1111/j.1872-034X.2012.01008.x · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two nucleotide polymorphisms of the interleukin-28B (IL28B) gene, at rs8099917 and rs12979860, influence the response to interferon (IFN)-based therapies in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) of genotype 1. We aimed to investigate whether these polymorphisms showed complete linkage in Japanese patients. A total of 1,518 Japanese patients infected with HCV were genotyped for the two IL28B loci, and the two sets of genotypes were compared. TT at rs8099917 and CC at rs12979860 were detected in 77.7 and 76.8%, respectively, of the 1,518 patients and TG/GG and CT/TT were detected in 22.3 and 23.2%. These two sets of IL28B genotype stood in strong linkage disequilibrium (r (2) = 0.98). Discordance between the two IL28B polymorphisms occurred in 16 (1.1%) patients, and 13 (0.9%) of them possessed IFN-sensitive TT at rs8099917 and IFN-resistant CT at rs12979860. Three of these 13 patients had HCV of genotype 1b and had received pegylated-interferon and ribavirin, and none of them gained a sustained virological response. At rs8099917, IFN-resistant TG/GG were more frequent in patients infected with HCV of genotype 1 than in those infected with HCV of genotype 2 [258/1,046 (24.7%) vs. 75/441 (17.0%), p = 0.001]. The response to pegylated-interferon/ribavirin in 279 patients who were infected with HCV-1 and the response to IFN monotherapy in 361 patients who were infected with HCV-1 , was higher in those with TT than in those with TG/GG at rs8099917, as well as being higher in those with CC than in those with CT/TT at rs12979860 (p < 0.001). Linkage disequilibrium between two IL28B polymorphisms at rs8099917 and rs12979860 is strong in Japanese HCV patients, but there are some discrepancies between the two sets of genotypes.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2012; 47(5):596-605. DOI:10.1007/s00535-012-0531-1 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severe acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B can sometimes occur and lead to hepatic failure and death. The objective of this study was to elucidate the predictors of progression to hepatic decompensation during severe acute exacerbation. We prospectively analyzed 37 consecutive patients with acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B (accompanied by jaundice and coagulopathy) for clinical outcome and factors that influenced the development of severe acute exacerbation, including viral kinetics. Fourteen (37.8%) patients progressed to severe acute exacerbation (accompanied by encephalopathy). Multivariate analysis identified serum bilirubin (>5 mg/dl, P = 0.002) as a significant determinant of progression to hepatic failure and prothrombin activity (<45%, P = 0.028) and as a determinant of liver-related death. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level before therapy was measured in 25 patients. HBV DNA levels increased or did not change from before commencement of treatment in all 11 patients who progressed to severe acute exacerbation. On the other hand, HBV DNA levels did not change or increased in 8 of 14 patients (57%) with acute exacerbation (P = 0.02). Serum bilirubin and prothrombin activities were significant predictors of clinical outcome in patients with severe acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B. Viral kinetics until commencement of therapy can predict the severity of acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2012; 47(9):1022-9. DOI:10.1007/s00535-012-0561-8 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have investigated the long-term effects of interferon (IFN) therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). In this retrospective study, we investigated the efficacy of and predictors of response to IFN therapy in CHB patients. We analyzed data for 615 Japanese CHB patients (hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg]-positive 414, HBeAg-negative 201) treated with IFN, and conducted follow up for a median duration of 8.1 years (range 0.5-23.2). Responders were defined as patients who showed continuously normalized alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, HBeAg clearance, and low hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels at 6 months post-treatment or for a span of more than 6 months until each test point at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years. The IFN response rates of all patients were 21, 18, 21, 23, and 25% at 6 months and 1, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. On multivariate analysis, significant determinants of the outcome of IFN therapy were as follows: at 6 months and 1 year, young age, low HBV DNA levels, and long duration of treatment; at 3 years, long duration of treatment, young age, and high level of albumin; at 5 years, high level of albumin, female, and pretreated with IFN; and at 10 years, HBeAg-negative. Sixty-nine of the 615 patients (11%) achieved seroclearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). On multivariate analysis, age ≥30 years, HBV genotype A, and male were all independent factors predicting the achievement of HBsAg seroclearance. HBeAg, HBV DNA level, age, sex, albumin, duration of treatment, pretreatment with IFN, and HBV genotype were important factors in determining long-term response to IFN therapy.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2012; 47(7):814-22. DOI:10.1007/s00535-012-0548-5 · 4.02 Impact Factor