[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: ATP links changes in glucose metabolism to electrical activity, Ca(2+) signalling and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. There is evidence that beta cell metabolism oscillates, but little is known about ATP dynamics at the plasma membrane, where regulation of ion channels and exocytosis occur. METHODS: The sub-plasma-membrane ATP concentration ([ATP]pm) was recorded in beta cells in intact mouse and human islets using total internal reflection microscopy and the fluorescent reporter Perceval. RESULTS: Glucose dose-dependently increased [ATP]pm with half-maximal and maximal effects at 5.2 and 9 mmol/l, respectively. Additional elevations of glucose to 11 to 20 mmol/l promoted pronounced [ATP]pm oscillations that were synchronised between neighbouring beta cells. [ATP]pm increased further and the oscillations disappeared when voltage-dependent Ca(2+) influx was prevented. In contrast, K(+)-depolarisation induced prompt lowering of [ATP]pm. Simultaneous recordings of [ATP]pm and the sub-plasma-membrane Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]pm) during the early glucose-induced response revealed that the initial [ATP]pm elevation preceded, and was temporarily interrupted by the rise of [Ca(2+)]pm. During subsequent glucose-induced oscillations, the increases of [Ca(2+)]pm correlated with lowering of [ATP]pm. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In beta cells, glucose promotes pronounced oscillations of [ATP]pm, which depend on negative feedback from Ca(2+) . The bidirectional interplay between these messengers in the sub-membrane space generates the metabolic and ionic oscillations that underlie pulsatile insulin secretion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The events leading to the activation of store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) involve Ca(2+) depletion of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resulting in translocation of the transmembrane Ca(2+) sensor protein, stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), to the junctions between ER and the plasma membrane where it binds to the Ca(2+) channel protein Orai1 to activate Ca(2+) influx. Using confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we studied redistribution kinetics of fluorescence-tagged STIM1 and Orai1 as well as SOCE in insulin-releasing β-cells and glucagon-secreting α-cells within intact mouse and human pancreatic islets. ER Ca(2+) depletion triggered accumulation of STIM1 puncta in the subplasmalemmal ER where they co-clustered with Orai1 in the plasma membrane and activated SOCE. Glucose, which promotes Ca(2+) store filling and inhibits SOCE, stimulated retranslocation of STIM1 to the bulk ER. This effect was evident at much lower glucose concentrations in α- than in β-cells consistent with involvement of SOCE in the regulation of glucagon secretion. Epinephrine stimulated subplasmalemmal translocation of STIM1 in α-cells and retranslocation in β-cells involving raising and lowering of cAMP, respectively. The cAMP effect was mediated both by protein kinase A and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP. However, the cAMP-induced STIM1 puncta did not co-cluster with Orai1, and there was no activation of SOCE. STIM1 translocation can consequently occur independently of Orai1 clustering and SOCE.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2012; 287(13):9862-72. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies of isolated human islets have shown that glucose induces hormone release with repetitive pulses of insulin and somatostatin in antisynchrony with those of glucagon. Since the mouse is the most important animal model we studied the temporal relation between hormones released from mouse islets. Batches of 5-10 islets were perifused and the hormones measured with radioimmunoassay in 30s fractions. At 3mM glucose, hormone secretion was stable with no detectable pulses of glucagon, insulin or somatostatin. Increase of glucose to 20mM resulted in an early secretory phase with a glucagon peak followed by peaks of insulin and somatostatin. Subsequent hormone secretion was pulsatile with a periodicity of 5min. Cross-correlation analyses showed that the glucagon pulses were antisynchronous to those of insulin and somatostatin. In contrast to the marked stimulation of insulin and somatostatin secretion, the pulsatility resulted in inhibition of overall glucagon release. The cytoarchitecture of mouse islets differs from that of human islets, which may affect the interactions between the hormone-producing cells. Although indicating that paracrine regulation is important for the characteristic patterns of pulsatile hormone secretion, the mouse data mimic those of human islets with more than 20-fold variations of the insulin/glucagon ratio. The data indicate that the mouse serves as an appropriate animal model for studying the temporal relation between the islet hormones controlling glucose production in the liver.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2012; 417(4):1219-23. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulsatile insulin release into the portal vein is critically dependent on entrainment of the islets in the pancreas into a common oscillatory phase. Because the pulses reflect periodic variations of the cytoplasmic Ca concentration ([Ca]i), we studied whether the neurotransmitters adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and acetylcholine promote synchronization of [Ca]i oscillations between islets lacking contact.
Medium-sized and small mouse islets and cell aggregates were used for measuring [Ca]i with the indicator fura-2.
Exposure to acetylcholine resulted in an initial [Ca]i peak followed by disappearance of the [Ca]i oscillations induced by 11-mmol/L glucose. The effect of ATP was often restricted to an elusive [Ca]i peak. The incidence of distinct [Ca]i responses to ATP increased under conditions (accelerated superfusion, small islets, or cell aggregates) intended to counteract purinoceptor desensitization owing to intercellular accumulation of ATP. Attempts to imitate neural activity by brief (15 seconds) exposure to ATP or acetylcholine resulted in temporary synchronization of the glucose-induced [Ca]i oscillations between islets lacking contact.
The data support the idea that purinergic signaling has a key role for coordinating the oscillatory activity of the islets in the pancreas, reinforcing previous arguments for the involvement of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic neurons.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ghrelin reportedly restricts insulin release in islet β-cells via the Gα(i2) subtype of G-proteins and thereby regulates glucose homeostasis. This study explored whether ghrelin regulates cAMP signaling and whether this regulation induces insulinostatic cascade in islet β-cells.
Insulin release was measured in rat perfused pancreas and isolated islets and cAMP production in isolated islets. Cytosolic cAMP concentrations ([cAMP](i)) were monitored in mouse MIN6 cells using evanescent-wave fluorescence imaging. In rat single β-cells, cytosolic protein kinase-A activity ([PKA](i)) and Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) were measured by DR-II and fura-2 microfluorometry, respectively, and whole cell currents by patch-clamp technique.
Ghrelin suppressed glucose (8.3 mmol/L)-induced insulin release in rat perfused pancreas and isolated islets, and these effects of ghrelin were blunted in the presence of cAMP analogs or adenylate cyclase inhibitor. Glucose-induced cAMP production in isolated islets was attenuated by ghrelin and enhanced by ghrelin receptor antagonist and anti-ghrelin antiserum, which counteract endogenous islet-derived ghrelin. Ghrelin inhibited the glucose-induced [cAMP](i) elevation and [PKA](i) activation in MIN6 and rat β-cells, respectively. Furthermore, ghrelin potentiated voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) channel currents without altering Ca(2+) channel currents and attenuated glucose-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increases in rat β-cells in a PKA-dependent manner.
Ghrelin directly interacts with islet β-cells to attenuate glucose-induced cAMP production and PKA activation, which lead to activation of Kv channels and suppression of glucose-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase and insulin release.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: cAMP is a critical messenger for insulin and glucagon secretion from pancreatic β- and α-cells, respectively. Dispersed β-cells show cAMP oscillations, but the signaling kinetics in cells within intact islets of Langerhans is unknown.
The subplasma-membrane cAMP concentration ([cAMP](pm)) was recorded in α- and β-cells in the mantle of intact mouse pancreatic islets using total internal reflection microscopy and a fluorescent translocation biosensor. Cell identification was based on the opposite effects of adrenaline on cAMP in α- and β-cells.
In islets exposed to 3 mmol/L glucose, [cAMP](pm) was low and stable. Glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)-amide (GLP-1) induced dose-dependent elevation of [cAMP](pm), often with oscillations synchronized among β-cells. Whereas glucagon also induced [cAMP](pm) oscillations in most α-cells, <20% of the α-cells responded to GLP-1. Elevation of the glucose concentration to 11-30 mmol/L in the absence of hormones induced slow [cAMP](pm) oscillations in both α- and β-cells. These cAMP oscillations were coordinated with those of the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in the β-cells but not caused by the changes in [Ca(2+)](i). The transmembrane adenylyl cyclase (AC) inhibitor 2'5'-dideoxyadenosine suppressed the glucose- and hormone-induced [cAMP](pm) elevations, whereas the preferential inhibitors of soluble AC, KH7, and 1,3,5(10)-estratrien-2,3,17-β-triol perturbed cell metabolism and lacked effect, respectively.
Oscillatory [cAMP](pm) signaling in secretagogue-stimulated β-cells is maintained within intact islets and depends on transmembrane AC activity. The discovery of glucose- and glucagon-induced [cAMP](pm) oscillations in α-cells indicates the involvement of cAMP in the regulation of pulsatile glucagon secretion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulsatile insulin release from glucose-stimulated beta-cells is driven by oscillations of the Ca(2+) and cAMP concentrations in the subplasma membrane space ([Ca(2+)](pm) and [cAMP](pm)). To clarify mechanisms by which cAMP regulates insulin secretion, we performed parallel evanescent wave fluorescence imaging of [cAMP](pm), [Ca(2+)](pm), and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) in the plasma membrane. This lipid is formed by autocrine insulin receptor activation and was used to monitor insulin release kinetics from single MIN6 beta-cells. Elevation of the glucose concentration from 3 to 11 mm induced, after a 2.7-min delay, coordinated oscillations of [Ca(2+)](pm), [cAMP](pm), and PIP(3). Inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) markedly diminished the PIP(3) response when applied before glucose stimulation, but did not affect already manifested PIP(3) oscillations. The reduced PIP(3) response could be attributed to accelerated depolarization causing early rise of [Ca(2+)](pm) that preceded the elevation of [cAMP](pm). However, the amplitude of the PIP(3) response after PKA inhibition was restored by a specific agonist to the cAMP-dependent guanine nucleotide exchange factor Epac. Suppression of cAMP formation with adenylyl cyclase inhibitors reduced already established PIP(3) oscillations in glucose-stimulated cells, and this effect was almost completely counteracted by the Epac agonist. In cells treated with small interfering RNA targeting Epac2, the amplitudes of the glucose-induced PIP(3) oscillations were reduced, and the Epac agonist was without effect. The data indicate that temporal coordination of the triggering [Ca(2+)](pm) and amplifying [cAMP](pm) signals is important for glucose-induced pulsatile insulin release. Although both PKA and Epac2 partake in initiating insulin secretion, the cAMP dependence of established pulsatility is mediated by Epac2.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2010; 285(30):23007-18. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The kinetics of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin release was studied in human pancreatic islets. Batches of 10-15 islets were perifused and the hormones measured with RIA in 30-sec fractions. Increase of glucose from 3 to 20 mm resulted in a brief pulse of glucagon coinciding with suppression of basal insulin and somatostatin release. There was a subsequent drop of glucagon release concomitant with the appearance of a pronounced pulse of insulin and a slightly delayed pulse of somatostatin. Continued exposure to 20 mm glucose generated pulsatile release of the three hormones with 7- to 8-min periods accounting for 60-70% of the secreted amounts. Glucose caused pronounced stimulation of average insulin and somatostatin release. However, the nadirs between the glucagon pulses were lower than the secretion at 3 mm glucose, resulting in 18% suppression of average release. The repetitive glucagon pulses were antisynchronous to coincident pulses of insulin and somatostatin. The resulting greater than 20-fold variations of the insulin to glucagon ratio might be essential for minute-to-minute regulation of the hepatic glucose production.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and Ca(2+) are key regulators of exocytosis in many cells, including insulin-secreting beta cells. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta cells is pulsatile and involves oscillations of the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), but little is known about the detailed kinetics of cAMP signaling. Using evanescent-wave fluorescence imaging we found that glucose induces pronounced oscillations of cAMP in the submembrane space of single MIN6 cells and primary mouse beta cells. These oscillations were preceded and enhanced by elevations of [Ca(2+)](i). However, conditions raising cytoplasmic ATP could trigger cAMP elevations without accompanying [Ca(2+)](i) rise, indicating that adenylyl cyclase activity may be controlled also by the substrate concentration. The cAMP oscillations correlated with pulsatile insulin release. Whereas elevation of cAMP enhanced secretion, inhibition of adenylyl cyclases suppressed both cAMP oscillations and pulsatile insulin release. We conclude that cell metabolism directly controls cAMP and that glucose-induced cAMP oscillations regulate the magnitude and kinetics of insulin exocytosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic beta-cells possess an inherent ability to generate oscillatory signals that trigger insulin release. Coordination of the secretory activity among beta-cells results in pulsatile insulin secretion from the pancreas, which is considered important for the action of the hormone in the target tissues. This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying oscillatory control of insulin secretion at the level of the individual beta-cell. Recent studies have demonstrated that oscillations of the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration are synchronized with oscillations in beta-cell metabolism, intracellular cAMP concentration, phospholipase C activity and plasma membrane phosphoinositide lipid concentrations. There are complex interdependencies between the different messengers and signalling pathways that contribute to amplitude regulation and shaping of the insulin secretory response to nutrient stimuli and neurohormonal modulators. Several of these pathways may be important pharmacological targets for improving pulsatile insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 08/2008; 297(1-2):58-72. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms by which glucose regulates glucagon release are poorly understood. The present study aimed to clarify the direct effects of glucose on the glucagon-releasing alpha cells and those effects mediated by paracrine islet factors.
Glucagon, insulin and somatostatin release were measured from incubated mouse pancreatic islets and the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) recorded in isolated mouse alpha cells.
Glucose inhibited glucagon release with maximal effect at 7 mmol/l. Since this concentration corresponded to threshold stimulation of insulin secretion, it is unlikely that inhibition of glucagon secretion is mediated by beta cell factors. Although somatostatin secretion data seemed consistent with a role of this hormone in glucose-inhibited glucagon release, a somatostatin receptor type 2 antagonist stimulated glucagon release without diminishing the inhibitory effect of glucose. In islets exposed to tolbutamide plus 8 mmol/l K(+), glucose inhibited glucagon secretion without stimulating the release of insulin and somatostatin, indicating a direct inhibitory effect on the alpha cells that was independent of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Glucose lowered [Ca(2+)](i) of individual alpha cells independently of somatostatin and beta cell factors (insulin, Zn(2+) and gamma-aminobutyric acid). Glucose suppression of glucagon release was prevented by inhibitors of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, which abolished the [Ca(2+)](i)-lowering effect of glucose on isolated alpha cells.
Beta cell factors or somatostatin do not seem to mediate glucose inhibition of glucagon secretion. We instead propose that glucose has a direct inhibitory effect on mouse alpha cells by suppressing a depolarising Ca(2+) store-operated current.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypersecretion of glucagon contributes to the dysregulation of glucose homeostasis in diabetes. To clarify the underlying mechanism, glucose-regulated glucagon secretion was studied in mouse pancreatic islets and clonal hamster In-R1-G9 glucagon-releasing cells. Apart from the well-known inhibition of secretion with maximal effect around 7 mmol/l glucose, we discovered that mouse islets showed paradoxical stimulation of glucagon release at 25-30 mmol/l and In-R1-G9 cells at 12-20 mmol/l sugar. Whereas glucagon secretion in the absence of glucose was inhibited by hyperpolarization with diazoxide, this agent tended to further enhance secretion stimulated by high concentrations of the sugar. Because U-shaped dose-response relationships for glucose-regulated glucagon secretion were observed in normal islets and in clonal glucagon-releasing cells, both the inhibitory and stimulatory components probably reflect direct effects on the alpha-cells. Studies of isolated mouse alpha-cells indicated that glucose inhibited glucagon secretion by lowering the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration. However, stimulation of glucagon release by high glucose concentrations did not require elevation of Ca(2+), indicating involvement of novel mechanisms in glucose regulation of glucagon secretion. A U-shaped dose-response relationship for glucose-regulated glucagon secretion may explain why diabetic patients with pronounced hyperglycemia display paradoxical hyperglucagonemia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipase C (PLC) regulates various cellular processes by catalyzing the formation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Here, we have investigated the influence of Ca2+ on receptor-triggered PLC activity in individual insulin-secreting beta-cells. Evanescent wave microscopy was used to record PLC activity using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged PIP2/IP3-binding pleckstrin homology domain from PLCdelta1, and the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was simultaneously measured using the indicator Fura Red. Stimulation of MIN6 beta-cells with the muscarinic-receptor agonist carbachol induced rapid and sustained PLC activation. By contrast, only transient activation was observed after stimulation in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or in the presence of the non-selective Ca2+ channel inhibitor La3+. The Ca2+-dependent sustained phase of PLC activity did not require voltage-gated Ca2+ influx, as hyperpolarization with diazoxide or direct Ca2+ channel blockade with nifedipine had no effect. Instead, the sustained PLC activity was markedly suppressed by the store-operated channel inhibitors 2-APB and SKF96365. Depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores with the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase inhibitors thapsigargin or cyclopiazonic acid abolished Ca2+ mobilization in response to carbachol, and strongly suppressed the PLC activation in Ca2+-deficient medium. Analogous suppressions were observed after loading cells with the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA. Stimulation of primary mouse pancreatic beta-cells with glucagon elicited pronounced [Ca2+]i spikes, reflecting protein kinase A-mediated activation of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release via IP3 receptors. These [Ca2+]i spikes were found to evoke rapid and transient activation of PLC. Our data indicate that receptor-triggered PLC activity is enhanced by positive feedback from Ca2+ entering the cytoplasm from intracellular stores and via store-operated channels in the plasma membrane. Such amplification of receptor signalling should be important in the regulation of insulin secretion by hormones and neurotransmitters.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the mechanism of Ca2+ entry and the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in Ca2+ signaling induced by activation of the calcium sensing receptor (CaR) in HEK293 cells stably expressing the CaR. We demonstrate that influx of Ca2+ following CaR activation exhibits store-operated characteristics in being associated with Ca2+ store depletion and inhibited by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate. Inhibition of PKC with GF109203X, Go6983, or Go6976 and down-regulation of PKC activity enhanced the release of Ca2+ from internal stores in response to the polyvalent cationic CaR agonist neomycin, whereas activation of PKC with acute 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment decreased the release. In contrast, overexpression of wild type PKC-alpha or -epsilon augmented the neomycin-induced release of Ca2+ from internal stores, whereas dominant negative PKC-epsilon strongly decreased the release, but dominant negative PKC-alpha had little effect. Prolonged treatment of cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate effectively down-regulated immunoreactive PKC-alpha but had little effect on the expression of PKC-epsilon. Together these results indicate that diacylglycerol-responsive PKC isoforms differentially influence CaR agonist-induced release of Ca2+ from internal stores. The fundamentally different results obtained when overexpressing or functionally down-regulating specific PKC isoforms as compared with pharmacological manipulation of PKC activity indicate the need for caution when interpreting data obtained with the latter approach.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2005; 280(6):4436-41. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hormones, such as glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1, potently amplify nutrient stimulated insulin secretion by raising cAMP. We have studied how cAMP affects Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) in pancreatic beta-cells from mice and rats and the role of CICR in secretion. CICR was observed as pronounced Ca(2+) spikes on top of glucose- or depolarization-dependent rise of the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). cAMP-elevating agents strongly promoted CICR. This effect involved sensitization of the receptors underlying CICR, because many cells exhibited the characteristic Ca(2+) spiking at low or even in the absence of depolarization-dependent elevation of [Ca(2+)](i). The cAMP effect was mimicked by a specific activator of protein kinase A in cells unresponsive to activators of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Ryanodine pretreatment, which abolishes CICR mediated by ryanodine receptors, did not prevent CICR. Moreover, a high concentration of caffeine, known to activate ryanodine receptors independently of Ca(2+), failed to mobilize intracellular Ca(2+). On the contrary, a high caffeine concentration abolished CICR by interfering with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs). Therefore, the cell-permeable IP(3)R antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate blocked the cAMP-promoted CICR. Individual CICR events in pancreatic beta-cells were followed by [Ca(2+)](i) spikes in neighboring human erythroleukemia cells, used to report secretory events in the beta-cells. The results indicate that protein kinase A-mediated promotion of CICR via IP(3)Rs is part of the mechanism by which cAMP amplifies insulin release.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2004; 279(44):45455-61. · 4.65 Impact Factor