[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MDM2 binding protein (MTBP) is a protein that interacts with oncoprotein murine double minute (MDM2), a major inhibitor of the tumor suppressor p53. Overexpression of MTBP leads to p53-independent cell proliferation arrest, which is in turn blocked by simultaneous overexpression of MDM2. Importantly, reduced expression of MTBP in mice increases tumor metastasis and enhances migratory potential of mouse embryonic fibroblasts regardless of the presence of p53. Clinically, loss of MTBP expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is associated with reduced patient survival, and is shown to serve as an independent prognostic factor when p53 is mutated in tumors. These results indicate the involvement of MTBP in suppressing tumor progression. Our recent findings demonstrate that overexpression of MTBP in human osteosarcoma cells lacking wild-type p53 inhibits metastasis, but not primary tumor growth, when cells are transplanted in femurs of immunocompromised mice. These data indicate that MTBP functions as a metastasis suppressor independent of p53 status. Furthermore, overexpression of MTBP suppresses cell migration and filopodia formation, in part, by inhibiting function of an actin crosslinking protein α-actinin-4. Thus, increasing evidence indicates the significance of MTBP in tumor progression. We summarize published results related to MTBP function and discuss caveats and future directions in this review article.
CANCER AND METASTASIS REVIEW 06/2012; 31(3-4):633-40. · 9.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Murine double minute (MDM2) binding protein (MTBP) has been implicated in cancer progression. Here, we demonstrate one mechanism by which MTBP inhibits cancer metastasis. Overexpression of MTBP in human osteosarcoma cell lines lacking wild-type p53 did not alter primary tumor growth in mice, but significantly inhibited metastases. MTBP downregulation increased the migratory potential of MDM2(-/-)p53(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts, suggesting that MTBP inhibited cell migration independently of the Mdm2-p53 pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometric analysis identified alpha-actinin-4 (ACTN4) as an MTBP-interacting protein. Endogenous MTBP interacted with and partially colocalized with ACTN4. MTBP overexpression inhibited cell migration and filopodia formation mediated by ACTN4. Increased cell migration by MTBP downregulation was inhibited by concomitant downregulation of ACTN4. MTBP also inhibited ACTN4-mediated F-actin bundling. We furthermore demonstrated that nuclear localization of MTBP was dispensable for inhibiting ACTN4-mediated cell migration and filopodia formation. Thus, MTBP suppresses cell migration, at least partially, by inhibiting ACTN4 function. Our study not only provides a mechanism of metastasis suppression by MTBP, but also suggests MTBP as a potential biomarker for cancer progression.Oncogene advance online publication, 27 February 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.69.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is an essential T-cell survival cytokine. IL-7 receptor (IL-7Rα) deficiency severely impairs T-cell development due to substantial apoptosis. We hypothesized that IL-7Rα(null)-induced apoptosis is partially contributed by an elevated p53 activity. To investigate the genetic association of IL-7/IL-7Rα signaling with the p53 pathway, we generated IL-7Rα(null)p53(null) (DKO) mice. DKO mice exhibited a marked reduction of apoptosis in developing T cells and an augmented thymic lymphomagenesis with telomere erosions and exacerbated chromosomal anomalies, including chromosome duplications, breaks, and translocations. In particular, Robertsonian translocations, in which telocentric chromosomes fuse at the centromeric region, and a complete loss of telomeres at the fusion site occurred frequently in DKO thymic lymphomas. Cellular and molecular investigations revealed that IL-7/IL-7Rα signaling withdrawal diminished the protein synthesis of protection of telomere 1 (POT1), a subunit of telomere protective complex shelterin, leading to telomere erosion and the activation of the p53 pathway. Blockade of IL-7/IL-7Rα signaling in IL-7-dependent p53(null) cells reduced POT1 expression and caused telomere and chromosome abnormalities similar to those observed in DKO lymphomas. This study underscores a novel function of IL-7/IL-7Rα during T-cell development in regulating telomere integrity via POT1 expression and provides new insights into cytokine-mediated survival signals and T-cell lymphomagenesis.
Cell death and differentiation 01/2012; 19(7):1139-51. · 8.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mdm2 and Mdm4 are homologous RING domain-containing proteins that negatively regulate the tumor suppressor p53 under physiological and stress conditions. The RING domain of Mdm2 encodes an E3-ubiquitin ligase that promotes p53 degradation. In addition, Mdm2 and Mdm4 interact through their respective RING domains. The in vivo significance of Mdm2-Mdm4 heterodimerization in regulation of p53 function is unknown. In this study, we generated an Mdm4 conditional allele lacking the RING domain to investigate its role in Mdm2 and p53 regulation. Our results demonstrate that homozygous deletion of the Mdm4 RING domain results in prenatal lethality. Mechanistically, Mdm2-Mdm4 heterodimerization is critical for inhibiting lethal p53 activation during early embryogenesis. However, Mdm2-Mdm4 interaction is dispensable for regulating p53 activity as well as the stability of Mdm2 and p53 at later stages of development. We propose that Mdm4 is a key cofactor of Mdm2 that inhibits p53 activity primarily during early embryogenesis but is dispensable for regulating p53 and Mdm2 stability in the adult mouse.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2011; 108(29):11995-2000. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence suggests that the tumor suppressor p53 is also a crucial regulator for many physiological processes. Previous observations indicate that p53 suppresses inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory antigen-presenting cells. To investigate the potential role of p53 in autoimmune effector T cells, we generated p53(null)CD45.1 mice by crossing p53(null)CD45.2 and CD45.1 mice. We demonstrate that p53(null)CD45.1 mice spontaneously developed autoimmunity, with a significant increase in IL-17-producing Th17 effectors in their lymph nodes (4.7 ± 1.0%) compared to the age-matched counterparts (1.9 ± 0.8% for p53(null)CD45.2, 1.1 ± 0.2% for CD45.1, and 0.5 ± 0.1% for CD45.2 mice). Likewise, p53(null)CD45.1 mice possess highly elevated serum levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IL-6. This enhanced Th17 response results largely from an increased sensitivity of p53(null)CD45.1 T cells to IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. Administration of STAT3 inhibitor S31-201 (IC50 of 38.0 ± 7.2 μM for IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation), but not PBS control, to p53(null)CD45.1 mice suppressed Th17 effectors and alleviated autoimmune pathology. This is the first report revealing that p53 activity in T cells suppresses autoimmunity by controlling Th17 effectors. This study suggests that p53 serves as a guardian of immunological functions and that the p53-STAT3-Th17 axis might be a therapeutic target for autoimmunity.
The FASEB Journal 04/2011; 25(7):2387-98. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 (COP9) signalosome (CSN), a protein complex involved in embryonic development, is implicated in cell cycle regulation and the DNA damage response. Its role in tumor development, however, remains unclear. Here, we have shown that the COP9 subunit 6 (CSN6) gene is amplified in human breast cancer specimens, and the CSN6 protein is upregulated in human breast and thyroid tumors. CSN6 expression positively correlated with expression of murine double minute 2 (MDM2), a potent negative regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor. Expression of CSN6 appeared to prevent MDM2 autoubiquitination at lysine 364, resulting in stabilization of MDM2 and degradation of p53. Mice in which Csn6 was deleted died early in embryogenesis (E7.5). Embryos lacking both Csn6 and p53 survived to later in embryonic development (E10.5), which suggests that loss of p53 could partially rescue the effect of loss of Csn6. Mice heterozygous for Csn6 were sensitized to γ-irradiation-induced, p53-dependent apoptosis in both the thymus and the developing CNS. These mice were also less susceptible than wild-type mice to γ-irradiation-induced tumorigenesis. These results suggest that loss of CSN6 enhances p53-mediated tumor suppression in vivo and that CSN6 plays an important role in regulating DNA damage-associated apoptosis and tumorigenesis through control of the MDM2-p53 signaling pathway.
The Journal of clinical investigation 03/2011; 121(3):851-65. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lethality of cancer is mainly caused by its properties of metastasis, drug resistance, and subsequent recurrence. Understanding the mechanisms governing these properties and developing novel strategies to overcome them will greatly improve the survival of cancer patients. Recent findings suggest that tumors are comprised of heterogeneous cell populations, and only a small fraction of these are tumorigenic with the ability to self-renew and produce phenotypically diverse tumor cell populations. Cells in this fraction are called tumor-initiating cells (TICs) or cancer stem cells (CSCs). TICs have been identified from many types of cancer. They share several similarities with normal adult stem cells including sphere-forming ability, self-renewability, and expression of stem cell surface markers and transcription factors. TICs have also been proposed to be responsible for cancer metastasis, however, scarce evidence for their metastatic potential has been provided. In this review article, we have attempted to summarize the studies which have examined the metastatic potential of TICs in solid tumors.
Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2011; 16:1927-38. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) binding protein (MTBP) has been implicated in tumor cell proliferation, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The results of MTBP expression analysis during cell cycle progression demonstrated that MTBP protein was rapidly degraded during mitosis. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that a portion of MTBP was localized at the kinetochores during prometaphase. MTBP overexpression delayed mitotic progression from nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB) to anaphase onset and induced abnormal chromosome segregation such as lagging chromosomes, chromosome bridges, and multipolar chromosome segregation. Conversely, MTBP downmodulation caused an abbreviated metaphase and insufficient mitotic arrest, resulting in abnormal chromosome segregation, aneuploidy, decreased cell proliferation, senescence, and cell death, similar to that of Mad2 (mitotic arrest-deficient 2) downmodulation. Furthermore, MTBP downmodulation inhibited the accumulation of Mad1 and Mad2, but not BubR1 (budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles related 1), on the kinetochores, whereas MTBP overexpression inhibited the release of Mad2 from the metaphase kinetochores. These results may imply that MTBP has an important role in recruiting and/or retaining the Mad1/Mad2 complex at the kinetochores during prometaphase, but its degradation is required for silencing the mitotic checkpoint. Together, this study indicates that MTBP has a crucial role in proper mitotic progression and faithful chromosome segregation, providing new insights into regulation of the mitotic checkpoint.
Cell death and differentiation 01/2011; 18(7):1208-19. · 8.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MDM2, a negative regulator of p53, is elevated in many cancers that retain wild-type p53. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the human MDM2 promoter increases the affinity of Sp1 resulting in elevated MDM2 levels. We generated mice carrying either the MDM2(SNP309T) or the MDM2(SNP309G) allele to address the impact of MDM2(SNP309G) on tumorigenesis. Mdm2(SNP309G/G) cells exhibit elevated Mdm2 levels, reduced p53 levels, and decreased apoptosis. Importantly, some Mdm2(SNP309G/G) mice succumbed to tumors before 1 year of age, suggesting that this allele increases tumor risk. Additionally, the Mdm2(SNP309G) allele potentiates the tumor phenotype and alters tumor spectrum in mice inheriting a p53 hot-spot mutation. These data provide causal evidence for increased cancer risk in carriers of the Mdm2(SNP309G) allele.
Cancer cell 09/2010; 18(3):220-30. · 25.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence indicates the presence of tumor-initiating cells (TIC) or cancer stem cells in osteosarcoma. However, no study has shown specific markers to identify osteosarcoma TICs with in vivo tumor formation ability. Additionally, there has been a lack of investigations gauging the contribution of osteosarcoma TICs to metastatic and drug-resistant properties. In this study, we have identified mouse and human osteosarcoma TICs using mesenchymal stem cell markers CD117 and Stro-1. These markers were preferentially expressed in spheres and doxorubicin-resistant cells. Both mouse and human cells expressing these markers were sorted and analyzed for their abilities of tumor formation with as few as 200 cells, self-renewability, multipotency, drug resistance, metastatic potential, and enrichment of a metastasis-associated marker (CXCR4) and a drug resistance marker (ABCG2). CD117(+)Stro-1(+) cells efficiently formed serially transplantable tumors, whereas CD117(-)Stro-1(-) cells rarely initiated tumors. On orthotopic injections, CD117(+)Stro-1(+ )cell-derived tumors metastasized at a high frequency. Further, CD117(+)Stro-1(+) cells showed high invasive and drug-resistant properties and were efficiently enriched for CXCR4 (20-90%) and ABCG2 (60-90%). These results suggest possible mechanisms for the high metastatic and drug-resistant properties of osteosarcoma TICs. In summary, CD117 and Stro-1 identify osteosarcoma TICs associated with the most lethal characteristics of the disease-metastasis and drug resistance-and these markers offer candidates for TIC-targeted drug delivery aimed at eradicating osteosarcoma.
Cancer Research 06/2010; 70(11):4602-12. · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mdm2 binding protein (MTBP) has been implicated in cell-cycle arrest and the Mdm2/p53 tumor suppressor pathway through its interaction with Mdm2. To determine the function of MTBP in tumorigenesis and its potential role in the Mdm2/p53 pathway, we crossed Mtbp-deficient mice to Emu-myc transgenic mice, in which overexpression of the oncogene c-Myc induces B-cell lymphomas primarily through inactivation of the Mdm2/p53 pathway. We report that Myc-induced B-cell lymphoma development in Mtbp heterozygous mice was profoundly delayed. Surprisingly, reduced levels of Mtbp did not lead to an increase in B-cell apoptosis or affect Mdm2. Instead, an Mtbp deficiency inhibited Myc-induced proliferation and the upregulation of Myc target genes necessary for cell growth. Consistent with a role in proliferation, Mtbp expression was induced by Myc and other factors that promote cell-cycle progression and was elevated in lymphomas from humans and mice. Therefore, Mtbp functioned independent of Mdm2 and was a limiting factor for the proliferative and transforming functions of Myc. Thus, Mtbp is a previously unrecognized regulator of Myc-induced tumorigenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p53 is an indispensible tumor suppressor and exerts this function by transactivating numerous downstream target genes that play vital roles in controlling cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and DNA repair. Mutations in the p53 gene, which are frequently seen in human tumors, impair its tumor suppressor function. Several of these tumor-derived p53 mutants can confer further aggressive oncogenic properties such as exacerbated malignant transformation and metastatic phenotype when overexpressed in p53-null cells. This oncogene-like behavior of mutant p53 is referred to as gain of function. The exact mechanism underlying gain-of-function phenotypes, however, remains enigmatic. Recently, we have generated mice with a point mutation (p53(R172H)) in their endogenous p53 loci as a model for the human Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The mutant p53(R172H) knock-in mice spontaneously develop tumors with high frequency of metastasis, contrary to that observed in mice with p53 deletion, indicating gain of function by the mutant p53R172H. In addition, our results show that other p53 family members, p63 and p73, are involved in the gain-of-function phenotypes. We further demonstrate that mutant p53(R172H) is inherently unstable and its stabilization is required for its gain-of-function phenotypes. This review focuses on recent reports regarding the potential molecular pathways for mutant p53 gain of oncogenic function and discusses its clinical implications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: APE1/Ref-1 is an essential DNA repair/gene regulatory protein in mammals of which intracellular level significantly affects cellular sensitivity to genotoxicants. The apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) functions are altered by phosphorylation and acetylation. We here report that APE1 is also modified by ubiquitination. APE1 ubiquitination occurred specifically at Lys residues near the N-terminus, and was markedly enhanced by mouse double minute 2 (MDM2), the major intracellular p53 inhibitor. Moreover, DNA-damaging reagents and nutlin-3, an inhibitor of MDM2-p53 interaction, increased APE1 ubiquitination in the presence of p53. Downmodulation of MDM2 increased APE1 level, suggesting that MDM2-mediated ubiquitination can be a signal for APE1 degradation. In addition, unlike the wild-type APE1, ubiquitin-APE1 fusion proteins were predominantly present in the cytoplasm. Therefore, monoubiquitination not only is a prerequisite for degradation, but may also alter the APE1 activities in cells. These results reveal a novel regulation of APE1 through ubiquitination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutational inactivation of p53 is a hallmark of most human tumors. Loss of p53 function also occurs by overexpression of negative regulators such as MDM2 and MDM4. Deletion of Mdm2 or Mdm4 in mice results in p53-dependent embryo lethality due to constitutive p53 activity. However, Mdm2(-/-) and Mdm4(-/-) embryos display divergent phenotypes, suggesting that Mdm2 and Mdm4 exert distinct control over p53. To explore the interaction between Mdm2 and Mdm4 in p53 regulation, we first generated mice and cells that are triple null for p53, Mdm2, and Mdm4. These mice had identical survival curves and tumor spectrum as p53(-/-) mice, substantiating the principal role of Mdm2 and Mdm4 as negative p53 regulators. We next generated mouse embryo fibroblasts null for p53 with deletions of Mdm2, Mdm4, or both; introduced a retrovirus expressing a temperature-sensitive p53 mutant, p53A135V; and examined p53 stability and activity. In this system, p53 activated distinct target genes, leading to apoptosis in cells lacking Mdm2 and a cell cycle arrest in cells lacking Mdm4. Cells lacking both Mdm2 and Mdm4 had a stable p53 that initiated apoptosis similar to Mdm2-null cells. Additionally, stabilization of p53 in cells lacking Mdm4 with the Mdm2 antagonist nutlin-3 was sufficient to induce a cell death response. These data further differentiate the roles of Mdm2 and Mdm4 in the regulation of p53 activities.
Molecular Cancer Research 07/2008; 6(6):947-54. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The p53 tumor suppressor is often disrupted in human cancers by the acquisition of missense mutations. We generated mice with a missense mutation at codon 172 that mimics the p53R175H hot spot mutation in human cancer. p53 homozygous mutant mice have unstable mutant p53 in normal cells and stabilize mutant p53 in some but not all tumors. To investigate the significance of these data, we examined the regulation of mutant p53 stability by Mdm2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets p53 for degradation, and p16INK4a, a member of the Rb tumor suppressor pathway. Mice lacking Mdm2 or p16INK4a stabilized mutant p53, and revealed an earlier age of tumor onset than p53 mutant mice and a gain-of-function metastatic phenotype. Analysis of tumors from p53 homozygous mutant mice with stable p53 revealed defects in the Rb pathway. Additionally, ionizing radiation stabilizes wild-type and mutant p53. Thus, the stabilization of mutant p53 is not a given but it is a prerequisite for its gain-of-function phenotype. Since mutant p53 stability mimics that of wild-type p53, these data indicate that drugs aimed at activating wild-type p53 will also stabilize mutant p53 with dire consequences.
Genes & Development 06/2008; 22(10):1337-44. · 12.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mdm2 inhibits the function of the p53 tumor suppressor. Mdm2 is overexpressed in many tumors with wild-type p53 suggesting an alternate mechanism of loss of p53 activity in tumors. An Mdm2-binding protein (MTBP) was identified using a yeast two-hybrid screen. In tissue culture, MTBP inhibits Mdm2 self-ubiquitination, leading to stabilization of Mdm2 and increased degradation of p53. To address the role of MTBP in the regulation of the p53 pathway in vivo, we deleted the Mtbp gene in mice. Homozygous disruption of Mtbp resulted in early embryonic lethality, which was not rescued by loss of p53. Mtbp+/- mice were not tumor prone. When mice were sensitized for tumor development by p53 heterozygosity, we found that the Mtbp+/-p53+/- mice developed significantly more metastatic tumors (18.2%) as compared to p53+/- mice (2.6%). Results of in vitro migration and invasion assays support the in vivo findings. Downmodulation of Mtbp in osteosarcoma cells derived from p53+/- mice resulted in increased invasiveness, and overexpression of Mtbp in Mtbp+/-p53+/- osteosarcoma cells inhibited invasiveness. These results suggest that MTBP is a metastasis suppressor. These results advance our understanding of the cellular roles of MTBP and raise the possibility that MTBP is a novel therapeutic target for metastasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer. In vivo models have been generated using knock-in alleles in which missense mutations are introduced that mimic the kinds of mutations found in human cancers, or that abolish specific p53 functions. Critically, these studies examine the in vivo and physiological functions of p53. Studies indicate that p53 missense mutations in the DNA-binding domain identical with those inherited in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, have distinct properties. Studies in mice with mutants that separate cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis functions of p53 show delayed onset of tumor development, suggesting that both p53 functions are crucial for suppressing tumors. Mice with mutations at post-translational modification sites exhibit subtle effects on p53 activity and tumor development, indicating a fine-tuning mechanism of p53 activity in vivo. Importantly, each mutant mouse has a distinct phenotype, suggesting diverse and exquisite mechanisms of p53 regulation in different environments, different tissues and different genetic backgrounds. The generation of these mutant p53 knock-in mice has laid the groundwork for future studies to elucidate the in vivo physiological function of mutant p53 and to examine cooperating effects in combination with other alterations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The p53 alterations frequently found in human tumors are missense mutations in the DNA binding domain. These p53 mutations have been shown to have gain-of-function or dominant-negative properties in multiple experiments. The consequences of these p53 mutations at physiological levels on the development of a tumor were unclear. Using mouse models, three recent papers have shed light on the mechanisms of mutant p53 and its family members, p63 and p73, in tumorigenesis. Interestingly, the p53 point mutant mice had a similar phenotype to p53 family compound mutant mice suggesting that there is an interplay between the p53 family members in tumorigenesis and Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with Li-Fraumeni syndrome carry inherited mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene and are predisposed to tumor development. To examine the mechanistic nature of these p53 missense mutations, we generated mice harboring a G-to-A substitution at nucleotide 515 of p53 (p53+/515A) corresponding to the p53R175H hot spot mutation in human cancers. Although p53+/515A mice display a similar tumor spectrum and survival curve as p53+/- mice, tumors from p53+/515A mice metastasized with high frequency. Correspondingly, the embryonic fibroblasts from the p53515A/515A mutant mice displayed enhanced cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, and transformation potential. The disruption of p63 and p73 in p53-/- cells increased transformation capacity and reinitiated DNA synthesis to levels observed in p53515A/515A cells. Additionally, p63 and p73 were functionally inactivated in p53515A cells. These results provide in vivo validation for the gain-of-function properties of certain p53 missense mutations and suggest a mechanistic basis for these phenotypes.