[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The investigational oral DNA vaccine VXM01 targets the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and uses Salmonella typhi Ty21a as a vector. The immune reaction elicited by VXM01 is expected to disrupt the tumor neovasculature and, consequently, inhibit tumor growth. VXM01 potentially combines the advantages of anti-angiogenic therapy and active immunotherapy. METHODS: This phase I trial examines the safety, tolerability, and immunological and clinical responses to VXM01. The randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind dose-escalation study includes up to 45 patients with locally advanced and stage IV pancreatic cancer. The patients will receive four doses of VXM01 or placebo in addition to gemcitabine as standard of care. Doses from 106 cfu up to 1010 cfu of VXM01 will be evaluated in the study. An independent data safety monitoring board (DSMB) will be involved in the dose-escalation decisions. In addition to safety as primary endpoint, the VXM01-specific immune reaction, as well as clinical response parameters will be evaluated. DISCUSSION: The results of this study shall provide the first data regarding the safety and immunogenicity of the oral anti-VEGFR-2 vaccine VXM01 in cancer patients. They will also define the recommended dose for phase II and provide the basis for further clinical evaluation, which may also include additional cancer indications.Trial registrationEudraCT No.: 2011-000222-29, NCT01486329, ISRCTN68809279.
BMC Cancer 08/2012; 12(1):361. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The non-ABC transport protein RalBP1 has been shown to be overexpressed in various cancer cell lines and implicated in the process of metastasis formation, but its expression in tissue samples and prognostic significance has not been shown. In this study matched tumor-mucosa tissue samples from 78 CRC patients were investigated. The RalBP1 mRNA and protein levels were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and ELISA. RalBP1 was found to be overexpressed in tumor at the mRNA level both overall (p = 0.027), and for stages I (p = 0.024), II (p = 0.038) and IV (p = 0.004). At the protein level, RalBP1 was only significantly overexpressed in stage IV patients (p = 0.018). Expression of RalBP1 mRNA and protein were inversely correlated (r = 0.4173; p = 0.0004). Multivariate Cox regression analysis including sex, age, stage, grade, and nodal status as covariates showed that overexpression of RalBP1 protein, but not mRNA, was an independent predictor of both decreased disease free survival (p = 0.016, RR = 6.892) and overall survival (p = 0.039, RR = 5.986). These results suggest that RalBP1 protein is an independent predictor of poor survival and early relapse for CRC patients. Owing to its multifunctional intermediary role in cell survival, chemotherapeutic resistance, and metastasis formation, RalBP1 represents a promising novel therapeutic target.
Cancer biology & therapy 06/2012; 13(8):694-700. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The surgical approach to benign goiter is becoming increasingly radical due to the risk of recurrent goiter. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of surgery on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with benign goiter.
HRQoL data from 115 patients with benign goiter were analyzed. Thirty-three patients (group 1) had a hemithyroidectomy. Sixty-five patients (group 2) had a so-called Dunhill operation (hemithyroidectomy + near-total thyroidectomy of the opposite side), and in 17 patients, a total resection of the goiter was performed. The validated HRQoL instrument, the EuroQol-5D, was applied to measure the health-related quality of life.
With an overall complication rate of 10% and no permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, it was shown that surgery for benign goiter is safe. In the validated HRQoL questionnaire (EQ-5D), no significant variance could be found between different surgical procedures such as thyroidectomy, hemithyroidectomy, or Dunhill procedure. Further, no significant differences in QoL were found in EQ-5D questionnaire compared to normal population.
Thyroid surgery can be done safely and without impairment of life quality, regardless of the extent of the operation.
Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 08/2011; 396(8):1157-63. · 1.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to the increase of cardiovascular diseases acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) has become one of the most frequently prescribed drugs these days. Despite the rising number of patients with ASA medication presenting for elective general and abdominal surgery and the potentially increased risk of hemorrhage in these patients, there are no clear, evidence-based guidelines for the perioperative use of antiplatelet agents. The present randomised controlled trial was designed to evaluate the safety and optimize the use of ASA in the perioperative management of patients undergoing general and abdominal surgery.
This is a two-arm, monocenter randomised controlled trial. Patients scheduled for elective surgical treatment (i.e. inguinal hernia repair, cholecystectomy and colorectal resections) with ASA as a permanent medication are randomised equally to perioperative continuation or discontinuation of ASA. Patients who are randomised in the discontinuation group stop the administration of ASA five days prior to surgical treatment and start intake of ASA on postoperative day 5. Fifty-two patients will be enrolled in this trial. The primary outcome is the incidence of postoperative bleeding and cardiovascular events at 30 days after surgery. In addition a set of general as well as surgical variables are analysed.
This is a randomised controlled two-group parallel trial designed to assess the safety and optimize the use of ASA in the perioperative management of patients undergoing general and abdominal surgery. The results of this pilot study build the basis for a confirmative randomised controlled trial that may help to clarify the use and potential risk/benefits of perioperative ASA medication in patients undergoing elective surgery.
The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN45810007.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microcirculatory disturbances are known to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of severe necrotizing pancreatitis (SNP). Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a vasodilatatory neuropeptide with potential anti-inflammatory effects. This study characterizes the protective effects and the anti-inflammatory pathway of exogenous CGRP in SNP.
SNP was induced in rats using the glycodeoxycholic acid model. CGRP was injected prophylactically before or therapeutically after initiation of the disease. Pancreatic damage was assessed using intravital microscopy, histology, NF-kappaB p50/p65 electrophoretic mobility shift assay, serum cytokine assay and ICAM-1 immunohistochemistry at 6 or 12 h after the onset of disease.
Pancreatic microcirculatory disturbances, nuclear NF-kappaB levels and pancreatic ICAM-1 expression were increased in SNP compared to controls. After CGRP application, microcirculatory disturbances, NF-kappaB levels and pancreatic ICAM-1 expression were attenuated compared to pancreatitis alone. Moreover, pancreatic morphologic damage was significantly reduced by both prophylactic and therapeutic application of CGRP.
CGRP is a neuropeptide that ameliorates the development of SNP in rats and may provide new treatment options. Its anti-inflammatory effects appear to be mediated by the modulation of pancreatic microcirculation and the inflammatory cascade.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed our experience with intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) followed by moderate doses of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after organ-sparing surgery in patients with primary or recurrent aggressive fibromatosis.
Indication for IOERT and postoperative EBRT as an individual treatment approach to avoid mutilating surgical procedures was seen when complete surgical removal seemed to be unlikely or impossible. A total of 31 lesions in 30 patients were treated by surgery and IOERT with a median dose of 12 Gy. Median age was 31 years (range, 13-59 years). Resection status was close margin in six lesions, microscopically positive in 13, and macroscopically positive in 12. Median tumor size was 9 cm. In all, 25 patients received additional EBRT, with a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 36-54 Gy).
After a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 3-139 months), no disease-related deaths occurred. A total of five local recurrences were seen, resulting in actuarial 3-year local control rates of 82% overall and 91% inside the IOERT areas. Trends to improved local control were seen for older age (>31 years) and negative margins, but none of these factors reached significance. Perioperative complications were found in six patients, in particular as wound healing disturbances in five patients and venous thrombosis in one patient. Late toxicity was seen in five patients.
Introduction of IOERT into a multimodal treatment approach in patients with aggressive fibromatosis is feasible with low toxicity and yielded good local control rates even in patients with microscopical or gross residual disease.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 07/2009; 76(4):1154-60. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A joint analysis of data from five contributing centers within the ISIORT-Europe program was performed to investigate the main contributions of intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) to the multidisciplinary treatment of pancreatic cancer.
Patients with a histologic diagnosis of carcinoma of the pancreas, with an absence of distant metastases, undergoing surgery with radical intent and IORT were considered eligible for participation in this study.
From 1985 to 2006, a total of 270 patients were enrolled in the study from five European institutions. Surgery was performed in 91.5% of cases and complicated by adverse events in 59 cases. External radiotherapy (ERT) preceded surgery in 23.9% of cases. One-hundred and six patients received further ERT. After surgery + IORT, median follow-up was 96 months (range 3-180). Median local control was 15 months, 5-year local control was 23.3%. Median overall survival was 19 months, while 5-year survival was 17.7%. A significantly greater local control and survival were observed in patients undergoing preoperative radiotherapy (LC: median not reached; OS: median 30 months) compared to patients treated with postoperative ERT alone (LC: median 28 months; OS: median 22 months), and to patients submitted to IORT exclusively (LC: median 8 months; OS: median 13 months) (p < 0.0001).
From this joint analysis emerges the fact that preoperative radiotherapy increases the effects of IORT in terms of local control and overall survival. The 5-year local control of 23.3% confirms the beneficial "sterilizing" effect of IORT on the tumor bed.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 08/2008; 91(1):54-9. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infected pancreatic necrosis is the main cause of death in patients with acute pancreatitis, and therefore its early prediction is of utmost importance. Endogenous cortisol metabolism plays a basic role both in the course of acute pancreatitis and in the process of infection. The purpose of this study was to analyze corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), total cortisol, calculated free cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone as potential early predictors in order to differentiate between infected pancreatic necrosis and sterile pancreatic necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis.
Serum levels of CBG, total cortisol, calculated free cortisol, and plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone were determined in 109 consecutive patients with acute pancreatitis. C-reactive protein was measured as the control parameter. Thirty-five patients developed necrotizing pancreatitis and 10 developed infection of the necrosis. Blood was monitored for 6 days after the onset of pain; 30 healthy individuals served as controls.
Of all parameters only CBG showed a significant difference (p = 0.0318) in its peak levels measured in the first 48 h in patients with sterile (26.5 microg/ml, range 21.3-34.7) and infected (16.0 microg/ml, range 15.2-25.0) necrosis at a cut-off level of 16.8 microg/ml. That difference was further preserved for the first 6 days after onset of pain.
In our group of patients, a decreased CBG level below 16.8 g/ml within the initial 48 h of acute pancreatitis was an early predictor of later infected pancreatic necrosis, with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 87.5%.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2007; 42(11):1354-61. · 2.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate local control and patterns of failure in patients treated with intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IOERT) after total mesorectal excision (TME), to appraise the effectiveness of intraoperative target definition.
We analyzed the outcome of 243 patients with rectal cancer treated with IOERT (median dose, 10 Gy) after TME. Eighty-eight patients received neoadjuvant and 122 patients adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (median dose, 41.4 Gy), and in 88% simultaneous chemotherapy was applied. Median follow-up was 59 months.
Local failure was observed in 17 patients (7%), resulting in a 5-year local control rate of 92%. Only complete resection and absence of nodal involvement correlated positively with local control. Considering IOERT fields, seven infield recurrences were seen in the presacral space, resulting in a 5-year local control rate of 97%. The remaining local relapses were located as follows: retrovesical/retroprostatic (5), anastomotic site (2), promontorium (1), ileocecal (1), and perineal (1).
Intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy as part of a multimodal treatment approach including TME is a highly effective regimen to prevent local failure. The presacral space remains the site of highest risk for local failure, but IOERT can decrease the percentage of relapses in this area.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 05/2007; 67(5):1381-8. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For a better understanding of the factors contributing to tumor progression in metastatic renal cell carcinoma and to identify possible targets for immunotherapeutic approaches, we characterized several primary cultures from renal cell carcinoma.
Cell cultures were tested for activity of telomerase, secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines and others. The induction of cytotoxic activity against the autologous tumor was tested in a cytotoxicity assay after coculture of immunological effector cells with antigen-pulsed dendritic cells. The data were tested for influence on survival.
We were able to establish primary cell cultures from 58 patients with renal cell carcinoma and their metastasis. 48/58 were positive for telomerase activity and all secreted IL-6, TGF-beta, VEGF and IL-8. High TGF-beta secretion, the activity of telomerase and the induction of a telomerase-specific immune response against telomerase peptides in telomerase-positive tumors had a significant impact on survival.
TGF-beta secretion, activity of telomerase in telomerase-positive tumors and the ability to generate a telomerase-specific immune response might serve as a prognostic marker for RCC. New approaches might focus on attacking the TGF-beta pathway and on induction of telomerase-specific immune cells.
Urologia Internationalis 02/2007; 79(3):235-43. · 1.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the long-term results of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer using a multimodal approach consisting of total mesorectal excision (TME), intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy (IOERT), and pre- or postoperative chemoradiation (CRT).
Between 1991 and 2003, 210 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (65 International Union Against Cancer [UICC] Stage II, 116 UICC Stage III, and 29 UICC Stage IV cancers) were treated with TME, IOERT, and preoperative or postoperative CHT. A total of 122 patients were treated postoperatively; 88 patients preoperatively. Preoperative or postoperative fluoropyrimidine-based CRT was applied in 93% of these patients.
Median age was 61 years (range, 26-81). Median follow-up was 61 months. The 5-year actuarial overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), local control rate (LC), and distant relapse free survival (DRS) of all patients was 69%, 66%, 93%, and 67%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that UICC stage and resection status were the most important independent prognostic factors for OS, DFS, and DRS. The resection status was the only significant factor for local control. T-stage, tumor localization, type of resection, and type of chemotherapy had no significant impact on OS, DFS, DRS, and LC. Acute and late complications > or =Grade 3 were seen in 17% and 13% of patients, respectively.
Multimodality treatment with TME and IOERT boost in combination with moderate dose pre- or postoperative CRT is feasible and results in excellent long-term local control rates in patients with intermediate to high-risk locally advanced rectal cancer.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 12/2006; 66(4):1143-51. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEH) is a rare malignant tumor of vascular origin with unknown etiology and a variable natural course. The authors present a comprehensive review of the literature on HEH with a focus on clinical outcome after different therapeutic strategies. All published series on patients with HEH (n = 434 patients) were analyzed from the first description in 1984 to the current literature. The reviewed parameters included demographic data, clinical manifestations, therapeutic modalities, and clinical outcome. The mean age of patients with HEH was 41.7 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 2:3. The most common clinical manifestations were right upper quadrant pain, hepatomegaly, and weight loss. Most patients presented with multifocal tumor that involved both lobes of the liver. Lung, peritoneum, lymph nodes, and bone were the most common sites of extrahepatic involvement at the time of diagnosis. The most common management has been liver transplantation (LTx) (44.8% of patients), followed by no treatment (24.8% of patients), chemotherapy or radiotherapy (21% of patients), and liver resection (LRx) (9.4% of patients). The 1-year and 5-year patient survival rates were 96% and 54.5%, respectively, after LTx; 39.3% and 4.5%, respectively, after no treatment, 73.3% and 30%, respectively, after chemotherapy or radiotherapy; and 100% and 75%, respectively, after LRx. LRx has been the treatment of choice in patients with resectable HEH. However, LTx has been proposed as the treatment of choice because of the hepatic multicentricity of HEH. In addition, LTx is an acceptable option for patients who have HEH with extrahepatic manifestation. Highly selected patients may be able to undergo living-donor LTx, preserving the donor pool. The role of different adjuvant therapies for patients with HEH remains to be determined.
Cancer 12/2006; 107(9):2108-21. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Von Meyenburg complexes are benign liver lesions consisting of adenomatous bile duct proliferates. We present two patients suffering from esophageal cancer accompanied by the occurrence of von Meyenburg complexes. Preoperative computerized tomography (CT) of the liver had not shown these lesions. In one of the patients, diffuse nodular manifestation was found in both liver lobes, mimicking diffuse hepatic metastases. Intraoperative frozen section revealed the benign nature of the lesions in both cases. The patients underwent esophageal resection without complications. To the best of our knowledge, the coincidence of von Meyenburg complexes and esophageal cancer has never been reported before. This uncommon entity should be taken into consideration as a differential diagnosis of liver lesions in malignancies. It underlines the importance of intraoperative frozen section for liver lesions of unknown origin.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2006; 12(26):4250-2. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assesses the long-term outcome of patients with retroperitoneal soft-tissue sarcomas treated by maximal resection in combination with intraoperative electron-beam therapy (IOERT) and postoperative external-beam radiotherapy.
From 1991 to 2004, 67 patients were treated with curative intent for primary (n = 26) or recurrent (n = 41) retroperitoneal soft-tissue sarcoma. All patients underwent maximal resection in combination with IOERT (mean dose, 15 Gy), 45 patients underwent additional postoperative EBRT, and 20 patients were previously irradiated.
The 5-year actuarial overall survival (OS), disease-free survival, local control (LC), and freedom from metastatic disease of all patients was 64%, 28%, 40%, and 50%, respectively. The 5-year LC inside the IOERT field was 72%. For patients who completed IOERT and EBRT after R0-resection 5-year and 10-year OS was 80%, and 5-year and 10-year LC was 100%. Only 1 of the 21 patients after R0-resection and only 8 of 34 patients after R1-resection compared with 9 of 12 patients after R2-resection experienced inside IOERT-field relapse. Grade II or higher late complications were seen in 21% of the patients, but only 2 patients required surgical intervention because of late complications.
In selected patients, IOERT results in excellent local control and survival, with acceptable morbidity.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 08/2006; 65(3):773-9. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to observe how levels of total cortisol, calculated free cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin, and adrenocorticotropic hormone change during the early course of human acute pancreatitis and to describe how these changes affect the development of pancreatic necrosis.
In a total of 109 consecutive patients with acute pancreatitis (74 with edematous pancreatitis, 35 with necrotizing pancreatitis), serial daily blood monitoring of total and free cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and corticosteroid-binding globulin was done after hospital admission, up to day 6 after the onset of pain; 30 healthy individuals served as controls.
Corticosteroid-binding globulin and total cortisol were measured by immunoassays, and free cortisol was calculated according to Coolens et al. The adrenocorticotropic hormone was measured with an enzyme-linked immunoassay.
Initially, highly elevated levels of calculated free cortisol (median, 86.2 ng/mL; quartile ranges, 50.6-106.7 ng/mL) and total cortisol (41.2 microg/dL, 30.4-51.1 microg/dL) and depressed levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (0.2 pg/mL, 0.1-2.0 pg/mL) and corticosteroid-binding globulin (30.6 microg/mL, 24.1-35.5 microg/mL) were observed. Further, daily measurements revealed increasing adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, whereas cortisol levels decreased.
Although an increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone levels is suggested to increase corresponding cortisol levels, cortisol levels decreased during the development of necrotizing acute pancreatitis. This phenomenon, along with the continuously decreasing corticosteroid-binding globulin levels, brings up the hypothesis of a relative adrenal insufficiency, which favors acinar cell apoptosis and hence may trigger the development of necrosis in the initial vulnerable phase of acute pancreatitis.
Critical Care Medicine 05/2006; 34(4):1060-6. · 6.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze long-term prognosis and morbidity after limb-sparing treatment of patients with extremity soft-tissue sarcoma, with intraoperative electron boost radiotherapy (IOERT) followed by a moderate dose of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT).
A total of 153 patients who were treated in a single center from 1991 to 2004 were evaluated. Median IOERT dose was 15 Gy, mean EBRT dose 43 Gy (range, 40-50.4 Gy) in conventional fractionation (1.8-2 Gy). Median duration of follow-up was 33 months. Acute toxicity was assessed with Common Toxicity Criteria; late toxic effects were scored according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria.
Five-year overall survival and 5-year local control rates were 77% and 78%, respectively. Whereas tumor size, patient age, and EBRT dose did not significantly affect outcome, resection status and grading were significant for survival; resection status and IOERT dose were significant for local control. Extremity salvage until death or time of follow-up was achieved in 90% of our patients, 86% of whom showed excellent limb function without impairment in activities of daily life. Acute toxicity Grade 2-4 was observed in 23% and late toxicity Grade 2-4 in 17% of patients.
Treatment with IOERT combined with moderate doses of external beam irradiation yields high local control and extremity preservation rates in resected extremity soft-tissue sarcoma.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 05/2006; 64(5):1416-23. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiosarcoma is a rare primary malignant neoplasm of the liver with a poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of a patient with a ruptured hepatic angiosarcoma which was treated by emergency catheter-directed embolization, followed by left-sided hemihepatectomy.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2006; 12(5):804-8. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The introduction of transjugular intrahepatic portal-systemic stent-shunt (TIPSS) has been a major breakthrough in the treatment of portal hypertension, which has evolved to a large extent, into a routine procedure. A 21-year-old male patient with progressive graft fibrosis/cirrhosis requiring TIPSS for variceal hemorrhage in the esophagus due to portal hypertension was unresponsive to conventional measures two years after living related liver transplantation (LDLT). Subsequently, variceal hemorrhage was controlled, however, liver function decreased dramatically with consecutive multi organ failure. CT scan revealed substantial necrosis in the liver. The patient underwent successful "high urgent" cadaveric liver transplantation and was discharged on postoperative d 20 in a stable condition.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2006; 12(3):493-5. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to analyze factors that may have an impact on the failure rate of the surgical implantation technique for totally implantable access ports (TIAP) and to assess whether morbidity rates differ between a primarily successful surgical and a secondary Seldinger approach.
Four hundred consecutive patients receiving a primary TIAP in local anesthesia were included into this retrospective cohort study. A logistic regression-model was used to evaluate reasons for failure of the TIAP method.
Three hundred eighteen (79.5%) patients had a successful TIAP procedure, 82 patients were intraoperatively converted to a Seldinger technique. Reasons for failure were: correct positioning impossible n = 54, no or only an undersized vessel for insertion available n = 17, other reasons n = 11. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any significant factor for failure of the primary surgical approach. In the group with primarily successful TIAP, 8 of 318 patients (3%) developed complications compared to 7 of 82 patients (9%) converted to a Seldinger technique.
Failure of the surgical approach for implanting totally implantable access ports is related to insertion and positioning. Conversion to a Seldinger technique results in a higher complication rate. A modified approach for surgical port placement should be considered in order to reduce complications.
Journal of Surgical Oncology 02/2006; 93(1):24-9. · 2.64 Impact Factor