Maki Katsuhara

Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan

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Publications (53)240.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Previous reports indicate that salt stress reduces the root hydraulic conductance and the expression of plasmamembrane-type aquaporins (PIPs). As a molecular mechanism for this phenomenon, the present study found evidence that the osmotic component, but probably not an ion-specific component, decreases PIP transcripts. Eight of ten PIP transcripts were reduced to less than half by 360 mM mannitol treatment for 12 h in comparison with control samples. A large decrease of HvPIP2;1 protein was also recorded. This reduction of both transcripts and proteins of HvPIP2s should be physiologically effective for preventing or reducing dehydration at an initial phase of severe salt/osmotic stress. Root cell sap osmolality increased from 278 to 372 mOsm 24 h after 360 mM mannitol treatment. These steps can secure survival and growth recovery with water reabsorption in barley. Our data also suggest that H2O2 seems not to be the main cause of osmotic stress-induced transcriptional down-regulation within the concentrations (20-500 μM) and time periods (24 h) examined, although H2O2 was previously proposed to be involved in the mechanisms of salinity/osmotic tolerance.
    Journal of Plant Research 07/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CO2 permeability of PIP2 aquaporins of Hordeum vulgare L. was investigated. Five PIP2 members were heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. CO2 permeability was determined by decrease of cytosolic pH in CO2-enriched buffer using a hydrogen ion-selective microelectrode. HvPIP2;1, HvPIP2;2, HvPIP2;3 and HvPIP2;5 facilitated CO2 transport across the oocyte cell membrane. However, HvPIP2;4 that is highly homologous to HvPIP2;3 did not. The isoleucine residue at position 254 of HvPIP2;3 was conserved in PIP2 aquaporins of barley except HvPIP2;4, which possesses methionine instead. CO2 permeability was lost by the substitution of the isoleucine-254 of HvPIP2;3 to methionine, while water permeability was not affected. These results suggest that PIP2 aquaporins permeate CO2 and the conserved isoleucine at the end of the E-loop is crucial for CO2 selectivity.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 01/2014; · 4.98 Impact Factor
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    Miki Kawase, Yuko T Hanba, Maki Katsuhara
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the photosynthetic capacity and plant growth of tobacco plants overexpressing ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) aquaporin McMIPB under (1) a well-watered growth condition, (2) a well-watered and temporal higher vapor pressure deficit (VPD) condition, and (3) a soil water deficit growth condition to investigate the effect of McMIPB on photosynthetic responses under moderate soil and atmospheric humidity and water deficit conditions. Transgenic plants showed a significantly higher photosynthesis rate (by 48 %), higher mesophyll conductance (by 52 %), and enhanced growth under the well-watered growth condition than those of control plants. Decreases in the photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance from ambient to higher VPD were slightly higher in transgenic plants than those in control plants. When plants were grown under the soil water deficit condition, decreases in the photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance were less significant in transgenic plants than those in control plants. McMIPB is likely to work as a CO(2) transporter, as well as control the regulation of stomata to water deficits.
    Journal of Plant Research 01/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cyanobacteria possess Aquaporin-Z membrane channels (AqpZ) which have been suggested to mediate the water efflux underlying osmostress-inducible gene expression and to be essential for glucose metabolism under photomixotrophic growth. However, preliminary observations suggest that the biophysical properties of transport and physiological meaning of AqpZ in such photosynthetic microorganisms are not yet completely assessed. RESULTS: In this study, we used Xenopus laevis oocyte and proteoliposome systems to directly demonstrate the water permeability of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 aquaporin, SsAqpZ. By an in-vitro assay of intracellular acidification in yeast cells SsAqpZ was found to transport also CO(2) . Consistent with this result, during the entire exponential phase of growth, Synechococcus SsAqpZ-null mutant cells grew slower than the corresponding wild type cells. This phenotype was stronger with higher levels of extracellular CO(2) . In line with the conversion of CO(2) gas into HCO(3) (-) ions under alkaline conditions, the impairment in growth of the SsAqpZ null strain was weaker in more alkaline culture medium. CONCLUSIONS: Cyanobacterial SsAqpZ may exert a pleiotropic function in addition to the already reported roles in macronutrient homeostasis and osmotic stress response as it appears to constitute an important pathway in CO(2) uptake, a fundamental step in photosynthesis.
    Biology of the Cell 01/2013; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OsPIP1;1 is one of the most abundant aquaporins in rice leaves and roots and is highly responsible to environmental stresses. However, its biochemical and physiological functions are still largely unknown. The oocyte assay data showed OsPIP1;1 had lower water channel activity in contrast to OsPIP2;1. EGFP and immunoelectron microscopy studies revealed OsPIP1;1 was predominantly localized in not only plasma membrane but also in some ER-like intracellular compartments in the cells. OsPIP1;1 exhibited low water channel activity in Xenopus oocytes but coexpression of OsPIP2;1 significantly enhanced its water permeability. Stop-flow assay indicated that 10His-OsPIP1;1-reconstituted proteoliposomes had significantly higher water permeability than the control liposomes. Overexpression of OsPIP1;1 greatly altered many physiological features of transgenic plants in a dosage-dependent manner. Moderate expression of OsPIP1;1 increased rice seed yield, salt resistance, root hydraulic conductivity, and seed germination rate. This work suggests OsPIP1;1 functions as an active water channel and plays important physiological roles.
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 11/2012; 63C:151-158. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Water homeostasis is crucial to the growth and survival of plants. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) have been shown to be primary channels mediating water uptake in plant cells. We characterized a novel PIP2 gene, HvPIP2;8 in barley (Hordeum vulgare). HvPIP2;8 shared 72-76% identity with other HvPIP2s and 74% identity with rice OsPIP2;8. The gene was expressed in all organs including the shoots, roots and pistil at a similar level. When HvPIP2;8 was transiently expressed in onion epidermal cells, it was localized to the plasma membrane. HvPIP2;8 showed transport activity for water in Xenopus oocytes, however its interaction with HvPIP1;2 was not observed. These results suggest that HvPIP2;8 plays a role in water homeostasis although further functional analysis is required in future.
    Plant signaling & behavior 10/2012; 7(12).
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    ABSTRACT: Aluminum (Al) stress represses mitochondrial respiration and produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. Mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) uncouples respiration from mitochondrial ATP production and may improve plant performance under Al stress by preventing excess accumulation of ROS. We tested respiratory changes and ROS production in isolated mitochondria and whole cell of tobacco (SL, ALT 301) under Al stress. Higher capacities of AOX pathways relative to cytochrome pathways were observed in both isolated mitochondria and whole cells of ALT301 under Al stress. AOX1 when studied showed higher AOX1 expression in ALT 301 than SL cells under stress. In order to study the function of tobacco AOX gene under Al stress, we produced transformed tobacco cell lines by introducing NtAOX1 expressed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35 S promoter in sensitive (SL) Nicotiana tabacum L. cell lines. The enhancement of endogenous AOX1 expression and AOX protein with or without Al stress was in the order of transformed tobacco cell lines > ALT301 > wild type (SL). A decreased respiratory inhibition and reduced ROS production with a better growth capability were the significant features that characterized AOX1 transformed cell lines under Al stress. These results demonstrated that AOX plays a critical role in Al stress tolerance with an enhanced respiratory capacity, reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress burden and improving the growth capability in tobacco cells.
    Molecular Biotechnology 09/2012; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of low air humidity and low root temperature (LRT) on water uptake, growth and aquaporin gene expression were investigated in rice plants. The daily transpiration of the plants grown at low humidity was 1.5- to 2-fold higher than that at high humidity. LRT at 13°C reduced transpiration, and the extent was larger at lower humidity. LRT also reduced total dry matter production and leaf area expansion, and the extent was again larger at lower humidity. These observations suggest that the suppression of plant growth by LRT is associated with water stress due to decreased water uptake ability of the root. On the other hand, the net assimilation rate was not affected by low humidity and LRT, and water use efficiency was larger for LRT. We found that low humidity induced coordinated up-regulation of many PIP and TIP aquaporin genes in both the leaves and the roots. Expression levels of two root-specific aquaporin genes, OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;5, were increased significantly after 6 and 13 d of LRT exposure. Taken together, we discuss the possibility that aquaporins are part of an integrated response of this crop to low air humidity and LRT.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 06/2012; 53(8):1418-31. · 4.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Members of class II of the HKT transporters, which have thus far only been isolated from grasses, were found to mediate Na(+)-K(+) cotransport and at high Na(+) concentrations preferred Na(+)-selective transport, depending on the ionic conditions. But the physiological functions of this K(+)-transporting class II of HKT transporters remain unknown in plants, with the exception of the unique class II Na(+) transporter OsHKT2;1. The genetically tractable rice (Oryza sativa; background Nipponbare) possesses two predicted K(+)-transporting class II HKT transporter genes, OsHKT2;3 and OsHKT2;4. In this study, we have characterized the ion selectivity of the class II rice HKT transporter OsHKT2;4 in yeast and Xenopus laevis oocytes. OsHKT2;4 rescued the growth defect of a K(+) uptake-deficient yeast mutant. Green fluorescent protein-OsHKT2;4 is targeted to the plasma membrane in transgenic plant cells. OsHKT2;4-expressing oocytes exhibited strong K(+) permeability. Interestingly, however, K(+) influx in OsHKT2;4-expressing oocytes did not require stimulation by extracellular Na(+), in contrast to other class II HKT transporters. Furthermore, OsHKT2;4-mediated currents exhibited permeabilities to both Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) in the absence of competing K(+) ions. Comparative analyses of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) permeabilities in several HKT transporters, including Arabidopsis thaliana HKT1;1 (AtHKT1;1), Triticum aestivum HKT2;1 (TaHKT2;1), OsHKT2;1, OsHKT2;2, and OsHKT2;4, revealed that only OsHKT2;4 and to a lesser degree TaHKT2;1 mediate Mg(2+) transport. Interestingly, cation competition analyses demonstrate that the selectivity of both of these class II HKT transporters for K(+) is dominant over divalent cations, suggesting that Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) transport via OsHKT2;4 may be small and would depend on competing K(+) concentrations in plants.
    Plant physiology 05/2011; 156(3):1493-507. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although aquaporins have been known to transport hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) across cell membranes, the H(2)O(2)-regulated expression patterns and the permeability of every family member of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) toward H(2)O(2) have not been determined. This study investigates the H(2)O(2)-regulated expression levels of all plasma membrane aquaporins of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPIPs), and determines the permeability of every AtPIP for H(2)O(2) in yeast. Hydrogen peroxide treatment of Arabidopsis down-regulated the expression of AtPIP2 subfamily in roots but not in leaves, whereas the expression of AtPIP1 subfamily was not affected by H(2)O(2) treatment. The growth and survival of yeast cells that expressed AtPIP2;2, AtPIP2;4, AtPIP2;5, or AtPIP2;7 was reduced in the presence of H(2)O(2), while the growth of yeast cells expressing any other AtPIP family member was not affected by H(2)O(2). These results show that only certain isoforms of AtPIPs whose expression is regulated by H(2)O(2) treatment are permeable for H(2)O(2) in yeast cells, and suggest that the integrated regulation of aquaporin expression by H(2)O(2) and the capacity of individual aquaporin to transport H(2)O(2) are important for plant response to H(2)O(2).
    Journal of Plant Research 03/2011; 125(1):147-53. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Water homeostasis is crucial to the growth and survival of plants under water-related stress. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) have been shown to be primary channels mediating water uptake in plant cells. Here we report the water transport activity and mechanisms for the regulation of barley (Hordeum vulgare) PIP aquaporins. HvPIP2 but not HvPIP1 channels were found to show robust water transport activity when expressed alone in Xenopus laevis oocytes. However, the co-expression of HvPIP1 with HvPIP2 in oocytes resulted in significant increases in activity compared with the expression of HvPIP2 alone, suggesting the participation of HvPIP1 in water transport together with HvPIP2 presumably through heteromerization. Severe salinity stress (200 mM NaCl) significantly reduced root hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)) and the accumulation of six of 10 HvPIP mRNAs. However, under relatively mild stress (100 mM NaCl), only a moderate reduction in Lp(r) with no significant difference in HvPIP mRNA levels was observed. Sorbitol-mediated osmotic stress equivalent to 100 and 200 mM NaCl induced nearly identical Lp(r) reductions in barley roots. Furthermore, the water transport activity in intact barley roots was suggested to require phosphorylation that is sensitive to a kinase inhibitor, staurosporine. HvPIP2s also showed water efflux activity in Xenopus oocytes, suggesting a potential ability to mediate water loss from cells under hypertonic conditions. Water transport via HvPIP aquaporins and the significance of reductions of Lp(r) in barley plants during salinity stress are discussed.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 03/2011; 52(4):663-75. · 4.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Natural rubber is synthesized in laticifers in the inner liber of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). Upon bark tapping, the latex is expelled due to liber turgor pressure. The mature laticifers are devoid of plasmodesmata; therefore a corresponding decrease in the total latex solid content is likely to occur due to water influx inside the laticifers. Auxins and ethylene used as efficient yield stimulants in mature untapped rubber trees, but, bark treatments with abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) could also induce a transient increase latex yield. We recently reported that there are three aquaporin genes, HbPIP2;1, HbTIP1;1 and HbPIP1;1, that are regulated differentially after ethylene bark treatment. HbPIP2;1 was up-regulated in both the laticifers and the inner liber tissues, whereas HbTIP1;1 was up-regulated in the latex cells, but very markedly down-regulated in the inner liber tissues. Conversely, HbPIP1;1 was down-regulated in both tissues. In the present study, HbPIP2;1 and HbTIP1;1 showed a similar expression in response to auxin, ABA and SA, as seen in ethylene stimulation, while HbPIP1;1 was slightly regulated by auxin, but neither by ABA nor SA. The analysis of the HbPIP1;1 promoter region indicated the presence of only ethylene and auxin responsive elements. In addition, the poor efficiency of this HbPIP1;1 in increasing plasmalemma water conductance was confirmed in Xenopus oocytes. Thus, an increase in latex yield in response to all of these hormones was proposed to be the major function of aquaporins, HbPIP2;1 and HbTIP1;1. This study emphasized that the circulation of water between the laticifers and their surrounding tissues that result in latex dilution, as well as the probable maintenance of the liber tissues turgor pressure, favor the prolongation of latex flow.
    Journal of plant physiology 02/2011; 168(3):253-62. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In one of the most important crops, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), gene expression and physiological roles of most major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) remained to be elucidated. Here we studied expression of five tonoplast intrinsic protein isoforms (HvTIP1;2, HvTIP2;1, HvTIP2;2, HvTIP2;3 and HvTIP4;1), a NOD26-like intrinsic protein (HvNIP2;1) and a plasma membrane intrinsic protein (HvPIP2;1) by using the quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Five-day-old seedlings were exposed to abiotic stresses (salt, heavy metals and nutrient deficiency), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) for 24 h. Treatment with 100 mM NaCl, 0.1 mM ABA and 1 mM GA differentially regulated gene expression in roots and shoots. Nitrogen and prolonged P-deficiency downregulated expression of most MIP genes in roots. Intriguingly, gene expression was restored to the values in the control three days after nutrient supply was resumed. Heavy metals (0.2 mM each of Cd, Cu, Zn and Cr) downregulated the transcript levels by 60-80% in roots, whereas 0.2 mM Hg upregulated expressions of most genes in roots. This was accompanied by a 45% decrease in the rate of transpiration. In order to study the physiological role of the MIPs, cDNA of three genes (HvTIP2;1, HvTIP2;3 and HvNIP2;1) have been cloned and heterologous expression was performed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Osmotic water permeability was determined by a swelling assay. However, no water uptake activity was observed for the three proteins. Hence, the possible physiological role of the proteins is discussed.
    Comptes rendus biologies 02/2011; 334(2):127-39. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Barley varieties, K305 and I743, which are sodium chloride (NaCl) tolerant and sensitive respectively, were hydroponically grown to determine the short-term effects of NaCl on the cell water relations in roots using a cell pressure probe, and on the transcript levels of 10 barley PIP aquaporin genes (HvPIPs) in roots. Stomatal conductance, as an indicator of sensitivity to NaCl, was decreased to less than half values of control upon exposure to 100 mmol L NaCl for 24 h in I743 whereas tolerant variety, K305, was able to maintain original conductance. Osmotic half-times of water exchange in cortical cells allowed for a clear distinction between the two varieties up to 200 mmol L NaCl. With treatment duration of up to 12 h with 100 mmol L NaCl, the elastic modulus was reduced in I743 but increased in K305. Hydrostatic half-times of water exchange in K305 increased rapidly, whereas this value remained unchanged in I743. Application of abscisic acid (ABA) after 1 h NaCl treatment restored the hydraulic conductivity of cells (Lp) in K305 but not in I743 whereas the opposite results were obtained when mercury chloride (HgCl2) was applied, verifying the contrasting gating response of aquaporins in two varieties. Reduced expression of HvPIPs was consistent with the reduction of hydraulic conductivity of both varieties after 24 h NaCl, but without any significant differences between them, indicating the importance of the activities of existing aquaporins rather than de novo synthesis to cope with short-term effects of salt stress.
    Soil Science and Plant Nutrition - SOIL SCI PLANT NUTR. 01/2011; 57(1):50-60.
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    ABSTRACT: Potassium ion (K(+)) plays vital roles in many aspects of cellular homeostasis including competing with sodium ion (Na(+)) during potassium starvation and salt stress. Therefore, one way to engineer plant cells with improved salt tolerance is to enhance K(+) uptake activity of the cells, while keeping Na(+) out during salt stress. Here, in search for Na(+)-insensitive K(+) transporter for this purpose, bacterial expression system was used to characterize two K(+) transporters, OsHAK2 and OsHAK5, isolated from rice (Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare). The two OsHAK transporters are members of a KT/HAK/KUP transporter family, which is one of the major K(+) transporter families in bacteria, fungi and plants. When expressed in an Escherichia coli K(+) transport mutant strain LB2003, both OsHAK transporters rescued the growth defect in K(+)-limiting conditions by significantly increasing the K(+) content of the cells. Under the condition with a large amount of extracellular Na(+), we found that OsHAK5 functions as a Na(+)-insensitive K(+) transporter, while OsHAK2 is sensitive to extracellular Na(+) and exhibits higher Na(+) over K(+) transport activities. Moreover, constitutive expression of OsHAK5 in cultured-tobacco BY2 (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bright Yellow 2) cells enhanced the accumulation of K(+) but not Na(+) in the cells during salt stress and conferred increased salt tolerance to the cells. Transient expression experiment indicated that OsHAK5 is localized to the plant plasma membrane. These results suggest that the plasma-membrane localized Na(+) insensitive K(+) transporters, similar to OsHAK5 identified here, could be used as a tool to enhance salt tolerance in plant cells.
    Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 11/2010; 111(3):346-56. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cucumber aquaporin gene, CsPIP1;1 and figleaf gourd aquaporin gene CfPIP2;1 were injected to Xenopus oocytes in order to study water transport activity. While CsPIP1;1 did not transport any water and was not responsive to mercury, oocyte injected with CfPIP2;1 rapidly increased their volume without saturation indicating active water transport. Calculation of water permeability of oocytes clearly distinguished the two genes. In response to exogenous application of H2O2, only CfPIP2;1 responded, reducing osmotic water permeability. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing aquaporin genes did not respond to applied H2O2. Additional key words: hydraulic conductivity, osmotic water permeability, Xenopus oocyte Hort. Environ. Biotechnol. 51(3):167-172. 2010.
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    ABSTRACT: A highly specific, high throughput-amenable bacterial biosensor for chemically induced cellular oxidation was developed using constitutively expressed redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein roGFP2 in E. coli (E. coli-roGFP2). Disulfide formation between two key cysteine residues of roGFP2 was assessed using a double-wavelength ratiometric approach. This study demonstrates that only a few minutes were required to detect oxidation using E. coli-roGFP2, in contrast to conventional bacterial oxidative stress sensors. Cellular oxidation induced by hydrogen peroxide, menadione, sodium selenite, zinc pyrithione, triphenyltin and naphthalene became detectable after 10 seconds and reached the maxima between 80 to 210 seconds, contrary to Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+) and sodium arsenite, which induced the oxidation maximum immediately. The lowest observable effect concentrations (in ppm) were determined as 1.0 × 10(-7) (arsenite), 1.0 × 10(-4) (naphthalene), 1.0 × 10(-4) (Cu(2+)), 3.8 × 10(-4) (H(2)O(2)), 1.0 × 10(-3) (Cd(2+)), 1.0 × 10(-3) (Zn(2+)), 1.0 × 10(-2) (menadione), 1.0 (triphenyltin), 1.56 (zinc pyrithione), 3.1 (selenite) and 6.3 (Pb(2+)), respectively. Heavy metal-induced oxidation showed unclear response patterns, whereas concentration-dependent sigmoid curves were observed for other compounds. In vivo GSH content and in vitro roGFP2 oxidation assays together with E. coli-roGFP2 results suggest that roGFP2 is sensitive to redox potential change and thiol modification induced by environmental stressors. Based on redox-sensitive technology, E. coli-roGFP2 provides a fast comprehensive detection system for toxicants that induce cellular oxidation.
    Sensors 01/2010; 10(7):6290-306. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis are crucial for plant growth and development. Two HKT transporter/channel classes have been characterized that mediate either Na(+) transport or Na(+) and K(+) transport when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and yeast. However, the Na(+)/K(+) selectivities of the K(+)-permeable HKT transporters have not yet been studied in plant cells. One study expressing 5' untranslated region-modified HKT constructs in yeast has questioned the relevance of cation selectivities found in heterologous systems for selectivity predictions in plant cells. Therefore, here we analyze two highly homologous rice (Oryza sativa) HKT transporters in plant cells, OsHKT2;1 and OsHKT2;2, that show differential K(+) permeabilities in heterologous systems. Upon stable expression in cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright-Yellow 2 cells, OsHKT2;1 mediated Na(+) uptake, but little Rb(+) uptake, consistent with earlier studies and new findings presented here in oocytes. In contrast, OsHKT2;2 mediated Na(+)-K(+) cotransport in plant cells such that extracellular K(+) stimulated OsHKT2;2-mediated Na(+) influx and vice versa. Furthermore, at millimolar Na(+) concentrations, OsHKT2;2 mediated Na(+) influx into plant cells without adding extracellular K(+). This study shows that the Na(+)/K(+) selectivities of these HKT transporters in plant cells coincide closely with the selectivities in oocytes and yeast. In addition, the presence of external K(+) and Ca(2+) down-regulated OsHKT2;1-mediated Na(+) influx in two plant systems, Bright-Yellow 2 cells and intact rice roots, and also in Xenopus oocytes. Moreover, OsHKT transporter selectivities in plant cells are shown to depend on the imposed cationic conditions, supporting the model that HKT transporters are multi-ion pores.
    Plant physiology 11/2009; 152(1):341-55. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    Ayalew Ligaba, Maki Katsuhara
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    ABSTRACT: Although barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a salt-tolerant crop, the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance remain to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the response of salt-tolerant (K305) and salt-sensitive (I743) cultivars to salt stress at both physiological and molecular levels. Salt treatment increased xylem sap osmolarity, which was attributed primarily to a rise in Na(+) and Cl(-) concentration; enhanced accumulation of the ions in shoots; and reduced plant growth more severely in I743 than K305. The concentration of K(+) in roots and shoots decreased during 8 h of salt treatment in both cultivars but with no marked difference between cultivars. Hence, the severe growth reduction in I743 is attributed to the elevated levels of (mainly) Na(+) in shoots. Analysis of gene expression using quantitative RT-PCR showed that transcripts of K(+)-transporters (HvHAK1 and HvAKT1), vacuolar H(+)-ATPase and inorganic pyrophosphatase (HvHVA/68 and HvHVP1) were more abundant in shoots of K305 than in shoots of I743. Expression of HvHAK1 and Na(+)/H(+) antiporters (HvNHX1, HvNHX3 and HvNHX4) was higher in roots of K305 than in I743 with prolonged exposure to salt. Taken together, these results suggest that the better performance of K305 compared to I743 during salt stress may be related to its greater ability to sequester Na(+) into sub-cellular compartments and/or maintain K(+) homeostasis.
    Journal of Plant Research 11/2009; 123(1):105-18. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Natural rubber is synthesized in specialized articulated cells (laticifers) located in the inner liber of Hevea brasiliensis. Upon bark tapping, the laticifer cytoplasm (latex) is expelled due to liber tissue turgor pressure. In mature virgin (untapped) trees, short-term kinetic studies confirmed that ethylene, the rubber yield stimulant used worldwide, increased latex yield, with a concomitant decrease in latex total solid content, probably through water influx in the laticifers. As the mature laticifers are devoid of plasmodesmata, the rapid water exchanges with surrounding liber cells probably occur via the aquaporin pathway. Two full-length aquaporin cDNAs (HbPIP2;1 and HbTIP1;1, for plasma membrane intrinsic protein and tonoplast intrinsic protein, respectively) were cloned and characterized. The higher efficiency of HbPIP2;1 than HbTIP1;1 in increasing plasmalemma water conductance was verified in Xenopus laevis oocytes. HbPIP2;1 was insensitive to HgCl(2). In situ hybridization demonstrated that HbPIP2;1 was expressed in all liber tissues in the young stem, including the laticifers. HbPIP2;1 was up-regulated in both liber tissues and laticifers, whereas HbTIP1;1 was down-regulated in liber tissues but up-regulated in laticifers in response to bark Ethrel treatment. Ethylene-induced HbPIP2;1 up-regulation was confirmed by western-blot analysis. The promoter sequences of both genes were cloned and found to harbor, among many others, ethylene-responsive and other chemical-responsive (auxin, copper, and sulfur) elements known to increase latex yield. Increase in latex yield in response to ethylene was emphasized to be linked with water circulation between the laticifers and their surrounding tissues as well as with the probable maintenance of liber tissue turgor, which together favor prolongation of latex flow.
    Plant physiology 09/2009; 151(2):843-56. · 6.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
240.22 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • Kyoto Institute of Technology
      • Graduate School of Science and Technology
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan
    • Akita Prefectural University
      • Graduate School of Bioresource Sciences
      Akita-shi, Akita, Japan
  • 2000–2013
    • Okayama University
      • Institute of Plant Sciences and Resources
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
  • 2012
    • Assam University
      • Department of Life Science & Bioinformatics
      Silchar, State of Assam, India
  • 2009
    • Cornell University
      • Agricultural Research Service
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Isfahan
      • Department of Biology
      Eşfahān, Ostan-e Esfahan, Iran