[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated large vessel function in lean Goto-Kakizaki diabetic rats (GK) and Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty diabetic rats (OLETF) with possible roles of hyperglycemia/hyperosmolarity and insulin. Both young and old GK showed marked hyperglycemia with normal insulin level and well-preserved endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation in aorta and carotid artery. There were significant elevations in endothelial/inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/iNOS) and inducible/constitutive heme oxygenase (HO-1/HO-2) in GK. The endothelium-dependent vasodilation in GK was inhibited partly by NOS blockade and completely by simultaneous blocking of HO and NOS. In contrast, OLETF showed hyperinsulinemia and mild hyperglycemia but significant endothelium dysfunction beginning at early ages with concomitantly reduced eNOS. Insulin injection corrected hyperglycemia in GK but induced endothelium dysfunction and intima hyperplasia. Hyperglycemia/hyperosmolarity in vitro enhanced vessel eNOS/HO. We suggest that hyperinsulinemia plays a role in endothelium dysfunction in obese diabetic OLETF, while hyperglycemia/hyperosmolarity-induced eNOS/HO upregulation participates in the adaptation of endothelium function in lean diabetic GK.
Experimental Diabetes Research 01/2012; 2012:429020. · 1.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of sodium danshensu on vessel function in isolated rat aortic ring.
Thoracic aortae from normal rats were isolated and equilibrated in organ bath with Krebs-Henseleit buffer and ring tension was recorded. Effects of sodium danshensu on basal tonus of the vessel and its effects on vessel contraction and relaxation with or without endothelium were observed.
In thoracic arteries under basal tonus, sodium danshensu (0.3-3 g/L) produced a dose-dependent transient contraction. In phenylephrine-precontracted thoracic arteries with or without endothelium, low concentration (0.1-0.3 g/L) of sodium danshensu produced a weak contraction, while high concentrations (1-3 g/L) produced a pronounced vasodilator after a transient vasocontraction. Pre-incubation with sodium danshensu could inhibit vessel contraction induced by phenylephrine and potassium chloride in a concentration-dependent way. Sodium danshensu inhibited phenylephrine- and CaCl(2)-induced vasoconstriction in Ca(2+)-free medium. Pre-incubation with tetraethylammonium, a non-selective K(+) channel blocker, and apamin, a small-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channel blocker partially antagonized the relaxation response induced by sodium danshensu. However, iberiotoxin (big-conductance calcium-sensitive K(+) channel blocker), barium chloride (inward rectifier K(+) channel blocker), and glibencalmide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker) had no influence on the vasodilation effect of sodium danshensu.
Sodium danshensu showed a biphasic effects on vessel tension. While low dosage of sodium danshensu produced small contraction possibly through transient enhancement of Ca(2+) influx, high dosage produced significant vasodilation mainly through promoting the opening of non-selective K(+) channels and small-conductance calcium-sensitive K(+) channels in the vascular smooth muscle cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes a sensitive, specific and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of curcumin in rat plasma. After a simple step of protein precipitation in 96-well format using acetonitrile containing the internal standard (IS), emodin, plasma samples were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC. Curcumin and the IS emodin were separated on a Diamonsil C(18) analytical column (4.6 x 100 mm, 5 microm) using acetonitrile-5% acetic acid (75:25, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The method was sensitive with a lower limit of quantitation of 1 ng/mL, with good linearity (r(2) >or= 0.999) over the linear range 1-500 ng/mL. All the validation data, such as accuracy and precision, were within the required limits. A run time of 3.0 min for each sample made high-throughput bioanalysis possible. The assay method was successfully applied to the study of the pharmacokinetics of curcumin liposome in rats.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst (Scrophulariaceae), a reputed Ayurvedic medicinal plant of India, has been widely used as a brain tonic for centuries. In the present study, the methanol extract and different fractions of B. monniera were evaluated for antidepressant activity in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. The results showed that the methanol extract, EtOAc fraction, and n-BuOH fraction significantly reduced the immobility times both in FST and TST in mice after being administrated orally for 5 consecutive days. All tested samples, in the effective doses for FST and TST, showed no inhibitory effect against locomotor activity (LA) in mice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two new flavanone glycosides have been isolated from the water soluble part of Veratrum nigrum L., belonging to the family Lilica. The structures of 3',4'-dimethoxyl-quercitrin and 4'-methoxyl-glucotricin have been established with the aid of extensive NMR spectroscopic studies.
Natural product research 02/2009; 23(2):122-6. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The barks and roots of Edgeworthia chrysantha LINDL., which have been used as the folk medicine "Zhu shima" in southern China due to their detumescence and acesodyne effects, were investigated for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities using a xylene-induced ear edema assay in mice and Freund's complete adjuvant-induced paw edema as inflammation models, and the acetic acid-induced writhing test as an analgesic model. Fractions effective in terms of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities were obtained from E. chrysantha. The chloroform-soluble fraction (CHF) showed significant anti-inflammatory (p<0.01-0.001) and analgesic (p<0.01) effects. On further purification by silica gel, three major coumarins, edgeworin (EdN), edgeworosides A and C (EdeA and EdeC), were isolated from the chloroform fraction and both anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities were evaluated. EdN and EdeA had anti-inflammatory (p<0.05-0.01) and analgesic (p<0.001) effects, while EdeC only showed an analgesic effect. The results of this study thus demonstrated that the coumarins EdN, EdeA and EdeC in this plant may be active constituents that contribute to the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chloroform (AGC), ethyl acetate (AGE) and n-butanol (AGB) extracts of Abies georgei were investigated for anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory activities in-vitro and in-vivo. AGC exhibited potent antiproliferative effects against A549, LOVO, QGY-7703 and 6T-CEM tumour cells, with EC50 values of 77.5, 7.8, 11.1 and 32.8 microg mL(-1), respectively. It also inhibited the growth of S180 sarcoma implanted into mice; tumour growth inhibition ratios were 46.7, 53.1 and 31.0% of controls at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mgkg(-1), respectively. AGE showed significant anti-inflammatory activities in the carrageenin-induced acute pedal oedema model in rats and dimethylbenzene-induced ear oedema in mice at doses of 140 mgkg(-1) and 200 mgkg(-1) p.o., respectively. Primary mechanism studies in-vitro showed that AGE inhibited platelet aggregation induced in rabbits by arachidonic acid (AA), with an IC50 of 14.4 microg mL(-1). Its effect on AA metabolism was also studied in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated by A23187. Formation of prostaglandin E(2), leukotriene B(4) and 5S-hydroxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, AGE inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW246.7 macrophages and nuclear factor kappaB activation induced in 293 cells by tumour necrosis factor alpha.
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 08/2008; 60(7):937-41. · 2.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An LC-MS-MS method was revised and validated for simultaneous determination of icariin and its active metabolite icariside
II in human plasma. The analytes and daidzein (IS) were extracted by liquid–liquid extraction and analyzed by LC-MS-MS. The
separation was performed by a Zorbax SB-C18 column (3.5μm, 2.1×100mm) with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of methanol–water–formic acid (65:35:0.035, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.25mLmin−1. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrum by multiple reaction monitoring mode using the electrospray
ionization technique in positive mode. The method had lower limits of quantitation 0.2 and 0.1ngmL−1 for icariin and icariside II, respectively, using 500μL plasma sample. The linear calibration curves were obtained in the
concentration range of 0.2–100ngmL−1 for icariin and 0.1–100ngmL−1 for icariside II. The RSD values of intra- and inter-day precision calculated from quality control (QC) samples were less
than 7.2% for icariin and less than 6.5% for icariside II. The accuracy as determined from QC samples was within 3.8% for
each analyte. The method has been applied to determine and evaluate the pharmacokinetic of icariin and its metabolite icariside
II in volunteers following oral administration of icariin and extract of Epimedium, respectively.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A method, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS), was developed to qualitatively identify and quantitatively determine the 10 major active coumarins of Zushima. The analysis was performed by using a ZORBAX SB-C18 analytical column (250 mm x 4.6 mm ID, 5 microm) at gradient elution of 0.5% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile with diode array detection (325 nm). The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection and quantification. The proposed method was successfully applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of 10 coumarins in five different species of Zushima which had great variation on the contents of investigated coumarins.
Journal of chromatography. A 07/2008; 1216(11):2111-7. · 4.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the protective effects of dehydrocavidine (DC), a main active ingredient of Corydalis saxicola Bunting (Yanhuanglian), on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity and the possible mechanisms involved in male Sprague-Dawley rats.
Acute hepatotoxicity was induced by CCl4 intoxication in rats. Serum biological analysis, lipid peroxides and antioxidants estimation, histopathological studies were carried out.
Both pre-treatment with DC prior to CCl4 administration and post-treatment with DC after CCl4 administration significantly prevented increases in serum enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (TBIL). In addition, pre- and post-treatment with DC also significantly prevented formation of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), depletion of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and depression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the liver of CCl4-intoxicated rats. ALT, AST, LDH, ALP and TBILL levels, as well as MDA, SOD and GPx activities were unaffected in normal rats by treatment with DC alone. GST, a phase II enzyme, had no significant changes during our experiments. Histopathological changes induced by CCl4 were also significantly attenuated by DC treatment in both preventive and curative experiments.
DC has a potent hepatoprotective effect on CCl4-induced liver injury in rats through its antioxidant activity.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 06/2008; 117(2):300-8. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eight protoberberine-type alkaloids and two indole alkaloids were isolated from the MeOH extracts of the herb Corydalis saxicola Bunting (Papaveraceae). Their structures were identified as dehydrocavidine (1), dehydroapocavidine (2), dehydroisoapocavidine (3), berberine (4), dehydroisocorypalmine (5), coptisine (6), tetradehydroscoulerine (7), berbinium (8), 1-formyl-5-methoxy-6-methylindoline (9), and 1-formyl-2-hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methylindoline (10). Compounds 3, 9, and 10 are new alkaloids. All compounds were tested for anti-HBV activity against the 2.2.15 cell line in vitro. Dehydrocavidine (1), dehydroapocavidine (2), and dehydroisoapocavidine (3) exhibited inhibitory activity against HBsAg and HBeAg, but no cytotoxicity against the 2.2.15 cell line.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phytochemical studies on Veratrum nigrum L., collected in Shanxi, P. R. China, resulted in the isolation of two new steroidal alkaloids, 23-methoxycyclopamine (1) and 15-O-(2-methylbutanoyl)-3-O-veratroylprotoverine (2). The structures of the two new compounds were established by means of extensive NMR spectroscopic studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabonomics, as a newly developed technique, is expected to be a powerful technique in clinical diagnosis. Metabonomics-based diagnosis involves the global metabolic analysis of body-fluids, determination of biomarkers by multivariate statistic analysis, and establishemen of mathematic models for clinical diagnosis with the aid of pattern recognition. This article reviews the adoption of various analytical and computational strategies, application of metabonomics in clinical diagnosis, and potential challenges and development trends.
Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae 01/2008; 29(6):811-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fourteen new norditerpenoids (abiesanordines A–N, 1–14), including a novel podocarpene bearing a rare enolic structure (abiesanordine A, 1), were isolated from Abies georgei together with eight known ones. Their structures were determined mainly by detailed analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data including HSQC, DQF COSY, HMBC, and NOESY. All the isolates were tested for inhibitory activities against LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages, abiesanordine I (9) showed the strongest activity with the IC50 value of 17.0 μg/mL. Furthermore, it exhibited no cytotoxicity against RAW264.7 macrophages under the concentration of 50 μg/mL.Graphical abstractA novel podocarpene bearing a rare enolic structure (abiesanordine A, 1) together with 13 new and 8 known norditerpenes were isolated from the aerial part of Abies georgei.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new phenolic compound was isolated from the ethanol extract of the bulbs of Crinum asiaticum L. var. sinicum Baker. Its structure was defined as 1-(2-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl)phenyl-6-O-caffeoyl-β-d-gluco-pyranoside on the basis of spectroscopic evidences.
Chinese Chemical Letters - CHIN CHEM LETT. 01/2008; 19(4):447-449.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel biflavanol with unique six connective hexacyclic rings, abiesanol A (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Abies georgei together with four known flavanols. The structure of new compound was elucidated mainly by the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. In addition, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis was adopted to confirm the structure of abiesanol A (1). In biological assay for inhibitory activities against LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages, abiesanol A (1) showed potent effects at 50μg/mL with the inhibition rate of 43.0%. Under the same concentration, abiesanol A (1) did not show any cytotoxicity against RAW264.7 macrophages.
Tetrahedron Letters - TETRAHEDRON LETT. 01/2008; 49(19):3042-3044.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three new flavanols, 5-p-hydroxybenzoxy-7-hydroxyl-8-ethoxycarbonyl-( - )-afzelechin (1), 5-p-hydroxybenzoxy-7-(2, 3, 5-trihydroxybenzoxy)-8-ethoxycarbonyl-( - )-afzelechin (2), and 5-p-hydroxybenzoxy-7-(2, 3, 5-trihydroxybenzoxy)-8-methoxycarbonyl-( - )-afzelechin (3), were isolated from Daphne giraldii Nitsche and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, especially by 2D-NMR and MS analyses.
Journal of Asian Natural Products Research 01/2008; 10(5-6):547-50. · 0.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel and sensitive HPLC-UV method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of five major flavonoids in Hypericum japonicum hydroalcoholic extract. The chemical profile of five flavonoids, including taxfolin-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (1), isoquercitrin (2), quercitrin (3), quercetin-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (4) and quercetin (5) was acquired by using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector coupled to an electrospray tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS). The analysis was performed on a ZORBAX SB-C18 analytical column (5 microm, 250 mm x 4.6 mm, i.d.) with a gradient solvent system of acetonitrile-0.5% aqueous formic acid. The validation was carried out and the linearities (r(2)>0.9997) and recoveries (ranged from 98.4% to 99.8%) were acceptable. The limits of detection (LOD) of these flavonoids ranged from 0.5 to 7.5 ng. The results indicated that the contents of investigated flavonoids in H. japonicum varied significantly from habitat to habitat with contents ranging from 2.00 to 34.18 mg/g. The proposed method is simple, effective and suitable for the quality control of this traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 01/2008; 46(2):342-8. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new cafferic ester, (+)-2-(1-hydroxyl-4-oxocyclohexyl) ethyl caffeate, was isolated from the 80% ethanol extract of the whole plants of Incarvillea mairei var. granditlora (Wehrhahn) Grierson. The structure of the compound was established by spectroscopic methods.
Chinese Chemical Letters - CHIN CHEM LETT. 01/2008; 19(7):829-831.