Reecha Sofat

University College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (41)406.12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We investigated causal effect of completed growth, measured by adult height, on coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and cardiovascular traits, using instrumental variable (IV) Mendelian randomization meta-analysis. We developed an allele score based on 69 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with adult height, identified by the IBCCardioChip, and used it for IV analysis against cardiovascular risk factors and events in 21 studies and 60 028 participants. IV analysis on CHD was supplemented by summary data from 180 height-SNPs from the GIANT consortium and their corresponding CHD estimates derived from CARDIoGRAMplusC4D. IV estimates from IBCCardioChip and GIANT-CARDIoGRAMplusC4D showed that a 6.5-cm increase in height reduced the odds of CHD by 10% [odds ratios 0.90; 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.78 to 1.03 and 0.85 to 0.95, respectively],which agrees with the estimate from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (hazard ratio 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91 to 0.94). IV analysis revealed no association with stroke (odds ratio 0.97; 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.19). IV analysis showed that a 6.5-cm increase in height resulted in lower levels of body mass index (P < 0.001), triglycerides (P < 0.001), non high-density (non-HDL) cholesterol (P < 0.001), C-reactive protein (P = 0.042), and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.064) and higher levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity (P < 0.001 for both). Taller individuals have a lower risk of CHD with potential explanations being that taller people have a better lung function and lower levels of body mass index, cholesterol and blood pressure. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 05/2015; DOI:10.1093/ije/dyv074 · 9.20 Impact Factor
  • David R J Owen · Raymond MacAllister · Reecha Sofat
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    ABSTRACT: Use of intravenous (IV) furosemide in preference to oral administration in acute decompensated congestive cardiac failure (ADCCF) is universally recommended in international guidelines (1, 2), although the justification is largely unreferenced. The Heart Failure Society of America guidelines (2) recommend this switch on the basis that oral bioavailability is highly variable within the same patient, and substantially reduced during cardiac decompensation. However, no evidence to support this advice is cited. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
    Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/cpt.120 · 7.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Statins increase the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to assess whether this increase in risk is a consequence of inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the intended drug target. Methods We used single nucleotide polymorphisms in the HMGCR gene, rs17238484 (for the main analysis) and rs12916 (for a subsidiary analysis) as proxies for HMGCR inhibition by statins. We examined associations of these variants with plasma lipid, glucose, and insulin concentrations; bodyweight; waist circumference; and prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes. Study-specific effect estimates per copy of each LDL-lowering allele were pooled by meta-analysis. These findings were compared with a meta-analysis of new-onset type 2 diabetes and bodyweight change data from randomised trials of statin drugs. The effects of statins in each randomised trial were assessed using meta-analysis. Findings Data were available for up to 223 463 individuals from 43 genetic studies. Each additional rs17238484-G allele was associated with a mean 0·06 mmol/L (95% CI 0·05–0·07) lower LDL cholesterol and higher body weight (0·30 kg, 0·18–0·43), waist circumference (0·32 cm, 0·16–0·47), plasma insulin concentration (1·62%, 0·53–2·72), and plasma glucose concentration (0·23%, 0·02–0·44). The rs12916 SNP had similar effects on LDL cholesterol, bodyweight, and waist circumference. The rs17238484-G allele seemed to be associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] per allele 1·02, 95% CI 1·00–1·05); the rs12916-T allele association was consistent (1·06, 1·03–1·09). In 129 170 individuals in randomised trials, statins lowered LDL cholesterol by 0·92 mmol/L (95% CI 0·18–1·67) at 1-year of follow-up, increased bodyweight by 0·24 kg (95% CI 0·10–0·38 in all trials; 0·33 kg, 95% CI 0·24–0·42 in placebo or standard care controlled trials and −0·15 kg, 95% CI −0·39 to 0·08 in intensive-dose vs moderate-dose trials) at a mean of 4·2 years (range 1·9–6·7) of follow-up, and increased the odds of new-onset type 2 diabetes (OR 1·12, 95% CI 1·06–1·18 in all trials; 1·11, 95% CI 1·03–1·20 in placebo or standard care controlled trials and 1·12, 95% CI 1·04–1·22 in intensive-dose vs moderate dose trials). Interpretation The increased risk of type 2 diabetes noted with statins is at least partially explained by HMGCR inhibition. Funding The funding sources are cited at the end of the paper.
    09/2014; DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61183-1
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    ABSTRACT: -Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzymes are considered to play a role in atherosclerosis. sPLA2 activity encompasses several sPLA2 isoenzymes, including sPLA2-V. While observational studies show strong association between elevated sPLA2 activity and CHD, no assay to measure sPLA2-V levels exists and the only evidence linking the sPLA2-V isoform to atherosclerosis progression comes from animal studies. In the absence of an assay that directly quantifies sPLA2-V levels, we used PLA2G5 mRNA levels in a novel, modified Mendelian randomization approach to investigate the hypothesized causal role of sPLA2-V in coronary heart disease (CHD) pathogenesis. -Using data from the Advanced Study of Aortic Pathology, we identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in PLA2G5 showing strongest association with PLA2G5 mRNA expression levels, as a proxy for sPLA2-V levels. We tested the association of this SNP with sPLA2 activity and CHD events in four prospective and 14 case-control studies with 27,230 events and 70,500 controls. rs525380C>A showed the strongest association with PLA2G5 mRNA expression (P=5.1x10(-6)). There was no association of rs525380C>A with plasma sPLA2 activity (difference in geometric mean of sPLA2 activity per rs525380 A-allele 0.4% (95%CI: -0.9%, 1.6%), P=0.56). In meta-analyses, the odds ratio for CHD per A allele was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.04; P=0.20). -This novel approach for SNP selection for this modified Mendelian randomization analysis showed no association between rs525380 (the lead SNP for PLA2G5 expression, a surrogate for sPLA2-V levels) and CHD events. The evidence does not support a causal role for sPLA2-V in CHD.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics 02/2014; 7(2). DOI:10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.113.000271 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims To investigate the causal role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides in coronary heart disease (CHD) using multiple instrumental variables for Mendelian randomization. Methods and results We developed weighted allele scores based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with established associations with HDL-C, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). For each trait, we constructed two scores. The first was unrestricted, including all independent SNPs associated with the lipid trait identified from a prior meta-analysis (threshold P < 2 × 10−6); and the second a restricted score, filtered to remove any SNPs also associated with either of the other two lipid traits at P ≤ 0.01. Mendelian randomization meta-analyses were conducted in 17 studies including 62,199 participants and 12,099 CHD events. Both the unrestricted and restricted allele scores for LDL-C (42 and 19 SNPs, respectively) associated with CHD. For HDL-C, the unrestricted allele score (48 SNPs) was associated with CHD (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.70), per 1 mmol/L higher HDL-C, but neither the restricted allele score (19 SNPs; OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.42, 1.98) nor the unrestricted HDL-C allele score adjusted for triglycerides, LDL-C, or statin use (OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.44, 1.46) showed a robust association. For triglycerides, the unrestricted allele score (67 SNPs) and the restricted allele score (27 SNPs) were both associated with CHD (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.11 and 1.61; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.59, respectively) per 1-log unit increment. However, the unrestricted triglyceride score adjusted for HDL-C, LDL-C, and statin use gave an OR for CHD of 1.01 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.75). Conclusion The genetic findings support a causal effect of triglycerides on CHD risk, but a causal role for HDL-C, though possible, remains less certain.
    European Heart Journal 01/2014; 36(9). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/eht571 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Substantial advances have been made in identifying common genetic variants influencing cardiometabolic traits and disease outcomes through genome wide association studies. Nevertheless, gaps in knowledge remain and new questions have arisen regarding the population relevance, mechanisms, and applications for healthcare. Using a new high-resolution custom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array (Metabochip) incorporating dense coverage of genomic regions linked to cardiometabolic disease, the University College-London School-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB) consortium of highly-phenotyped population-based prospective studies, aims to: (1) fine map functionally relevant SNPs; (2) precisely estimate individual absolute and population attributable risks based on individual SNPs and their combination; (3) investigate mechanisms leading to altered risk factor profiles and CVD events; and (4) use Mendelian randomisation to undertake studies of the causal role in CVD of a range of cardiovascular biomarkers to inform public health policy and help develop new preventative therapies.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(8):e71345. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071345 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is an urgent need to identify risk factors for sporadic intracranial aneurysm (IA) development and rupture. A genetic component has long been recognized, but firm conclusions have been elusive given the generally small sample sizes and lack of replication. Genome-wide association studies have overcome some limitations, but the number of robust genetic risk factors for IA remains uncertain. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of all genetic association studies (including genome-wide association studies) of sporadic IA, conducted according to Strengthening the Reporting of Genetic Association Studies and Human Genome Epidemiology Network guidelines. We tested the robustness of associations using random-effects and sensitivity analyses. Sixty-one studies including 32,887 IA cases and 83,683 controls were included. We identified 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with IA. The strongest associations, robust to sensitivity analyses for statistical heterogeneity and ethnicity, were found for the following single nucleotide polymorphisms: on chromosome 9 within the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B antisense inhibitor gene (rs10757278: odds ratio [OR] 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-1.38; and rs1333040: OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.20-1.29), on chromosome 8 near the SOX17 transcription regulator gene (rs9298506: OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.15-1.27; and rs10958409: OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.13-1.26), and on chromosome 4 near the endothelin receptor A gene (rs6841581: OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.14-1.31). Our comprehensive meta-analysis confirms a substantial genetic contribution to sporadic IA, implicating multiple pathophysiologic pathways, mainly relating to vascular endothelial maintenance. However, the limited data for IA compared with other complex diseases necessitates large-scale replication studies in a full spectrum of populations, with investigation of how genetic variants relate to phenotype (e.g., IA size, location, and rupture status).
    Neurology 06/2013; 80(23):2154-65. DOI:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318295d751 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: -The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), a possible risk factor for coronary heart disease, has an estimated heritability of over 60%, but to date few genetic variants influencing IL-6 levels are known. METHODS AND RESULTS: -We used the IBC HumanCVD BeadChip in the Whitehall II (WHII, N=4,911) and British Women's Heart and Health Studies (BWHHS, N=3,445) to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with circulating IL-6 levels. Twenty-two SNPs from seven loci (IL6R/TDRD10, HLA-DRB1, BUD13, SEZ6L, IL1RN, TRIB3 and ABO) were associated with IL-6 (p<10(-5)), though none were in the IL6 gene itself. With the exception of TRIB3, all loci have been previously reported in genome-wide association studies for autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen SNPs in the IL6R region in high linkage disequilibrium (r(2)>0.9) with a non-synonymous variant, rs2228145, were also associated with IL-6 and CRP concentration (p<10(-5)). An IL-6 specific weighted allele score explained 2% of the variance of log IL-6 levels (p = 2.44 x 10(-22)) in WHII and 1% (p = 1.9 x 10(-8)) in BWHHS. CONCLUSIONS: -Multiple common genetic variants of modest effect influence IL-6 concentration. Several loci contain SNPs exhibiting overlapping associations with autoimmune and cardiovascular disorders and other circulating biomarkers. Genetic variants associated with IL-6 provide important tools for probing the causal relevance of IL-6 signalling in a range of cardiometabolic diseases.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics 03/2013; 6(2). DOI:10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.112.964254 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Research on complement factor H (fH) in human disease is hampered by lack of an assay suitable for use in large-scale epidemiological studies. We describe the development and validation of a high throughput nephelometric assay for fH. METHODS: Reagents from a commercial radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay (The Binding Site) were adapted for use on the Siemens BNII high throughput nephelometric instrument. The assay was calibrated with a highly purified human fH preparation with rigorously determined concentration, and assay performance was comprehensively evaluated using samples from healthy human volunteers, with the commercial RID assay as a comparator. The distribution and determinants of circulating fH concentration in humans were then investigated in a large representative population sample. RESULTS: The nephelometric assay had recovery close to 100%, was reproducible with intra- and inter-assay CV's of 11% and 5-15% respectively, and had a wider operating range than the RID assay. fH values were unaffected after multiple freeze-thaw cycles demonstrating that it is evidently a stable analyte for immunoassay. fH concentration was unaltered by an acute inflammatory stimulus. The population study showed that plasma fH concentration is associated with circulating lipids and indices of body fat. CONCLUSION: We present the first high throughput assay for circulating fH; the assay is accurate and reliable with reproducible measures from stored samples. It has established the distribution of fH values at a population level and demonstrated important associations with circulating lipids and indices of body fat, thus providing an important reference for future clinical and epidemiological investigations.
    Journal of immunological methods 01/2013; 390(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jim.2013.01.009 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimsTo evaluate the comparative efficacy (50% reduction in seizure frequency) and tolerability (premature withdrawal due to adverse events) of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) for refractory epilepsy. Methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library 2009, issue 2) including Epilepsy Group's specialized register, MEDLINE (1950 to March 2009), EMBASE (1980 to March 2009), and Current Contents Connect (1998 to March 2009) to conduct a systematic review of published studies, developed a treatment network and undertook a network meta-analysis. ResultsForty-three eligible trials with 6346 patients and 12 interventions, including placebo, contributed to the analysis. Only three direct drug comparator trials were identified, the remaining 40 trials being placebo-controlled. Conventional random-effects meta-analysis indicated all drugs were superior in efficacy to placebo (overall odds ratio (OR] 3.78, 95% CI 3.14, 4.55) but did not permit firm distinction between drugs on the basis of the efficacy or tolerability. A Bayesian network meta-analysis prioritized oxcarbazepine, topiramate and pregabalin on the basis of short term efficacy. However, sodium valproate, levetiracetam, gabapentin and vigabatrin were prioritized on the basis of short-term efficacy and tolerability, with the caveat that vigabatrin is recognized as being associated with serious visual disturbance with chronic use. Conclusion Of the wide range of AEDs licensed for the treatment of refractory epilepsy, sodium valproate, levetiracetam and gabapentin demonstrated the best balance of efficacy and tolerability. Until regulators mandate greater use of active comparator trials with longer term follow-up, network meta-analysis provides the only available means to quantify these clinically important parameters.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 01/2013; 76(5). DOI:10.1111/bcp.12083 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To study associations between severity stages of early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and genetic variations in age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) and complement factor H (CFH) and to investigate potential interactions between smoking and ARMS2. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional European Eye Study in 7 countries in Europe. PARTICIPANTS: Four thousand seven hundred fifty participants, 65 years of age and older, recruited through random sampling. METHODS: Participants were classified on the basis of the more severely affected eye into 5 mutually exclusive AMD severity stages ranging from no AMD, 3 categories of early AMD, and late AMD. History of cigarette smoking was available and allowed classification into never, former, and current smokers, with the latter 2 groups combined into a single category of ever smokers for analysis. Genotyping was performed for single nucleotide polymorphisms rs10490924 and rs4146894 in ARMS2 and rs1061170 in CFH. Associations were analyzed by logistic regression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratios (ORs) for stage of AMD associated with genetic variations in ARMS2 and CFH and interactions between ARMS2 and smoking status. RESULTS: Early AMD was present in 36.4% and late AMD was present in 3.3% of participants. Data on both genotype and AMD were available for 4276 people. The ORs for associations between AMD stage and ARMS2 increased monotonically with more severe stages of early AMD and were altered little by adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with persons with no AMD, carriers of the TT genotype for rs10490924 in ARMS2 had a 10-fold increase in risk of late AMD (P<3×10(-20)). The ORs for associations with CFH were similar for stage 3 early AMD and late AMD. Interactions between rs10490924 in ARMS2 and smoking status were significant in both unadjusted and adjusted models (P = 0.001). The highest risk was observed in those doubly homozygous for rs10490924 and rs1061170 in CFH (OR, 62.3; 95% confidence interval, 16-242), with P values for trend ranging from 0.03 (early AMD, stage 1) to 1×10(-26) (late AMD). CONCLUSIONS: A strong association was demonstrated between all stages of AMD and genetic variation in ARMS2, and a significant gene-environment interaction with cigarette smoking was confirmed. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
    Ophthalmology 10/2012; 120(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.08.004 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimsThe aim of this study was to quantify the collective effect of common lipid-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on blood lipid levels, cardiovascular risk, use of lipid-lowering medication, and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events.Methods and resultsAnalysis was performed in two prospective cohorts: Whitehall II (WHII; N = 5059) and the British Women's Heart and Health Study (BWHHS; N = 3414). For each participant, scores were calculated based on the cumulative effect of multiple genetic variants influencing total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). Compared with the bottom quintile, individuals in the top quintile of the LDL-C genetic score distribution had higher LDL-C {mean difference of 0.85 [95% confidence interval, (CI) = 0.76-0.94] and 0.63 [95% CI = 0.50-0.76] mmol/l in WHII and BWHHS, respectively}. They also tended to have greater odds of having 'high-risk' status (Framingham 10-year cardiovascular disease risk >20%) [WHII: odds ratio (OR) = 1.36 (0.93-1.98), BWHHS: OR = 1.49 (1.14-1.94)]; receiving lipid-lowering treatment [WHII: OR = 2.38 (1.57-3.59), BWHHS: OR = 2.24 (1.52-3.29)]; and CHD events [WHII: OR = 1.43 (1.02-2.00), BWHHS: OR = 1.31 (0.99-1.72)]. Similar associations were observed for the TC score in both studies. The TG score was associated with high-risk status and medication use in both studies. Neither HDL nor TG scores were associated with the risk of coronary events. The genetic scores did not improve discrimination over the Framingham risk score.Conclusion At the population level, common SNPs associated with LDL-C and TC contribute to blood lipid variation, cardiovascular risk, use of lipid-lowering medications and coronary events. However, their effects are too small to discriminate future lipid-lowering medication requirements or coronary events.
    European Heart Journal 09/2012; 34(13). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehs243 · 14.72 Impact Factor
  • European Heart Journal 07/2012; 33(18):2258-64. DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehs168 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background A high circulating concentration of interleukin 6 is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. Blockade of the interleukin-6 receptor (IL6R) with a monoclonal antibody (tocilizumab) licensed for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis reduces systemic and articular infl ammation. However, whether IL6R blockade also reduces risk of coronary heart disease is unknown. Methods Applying the mendelian randomisation principle, we used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene IL6R to evaluate the likely effi cacy and safety of IL6R inhibition for primary prevention of coronary heart disease. We compared genetic fi ndings with the eff ects of tocilizumab reported in randomised trials in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Findings In 40 studies including up to 133 449 individuals, an IL6R SNP (rs7529229) marking a non-synonymous IL6R variant (rs8192284; p.Asp358Ala) was associated with increased circulating log interleukin-6 concentration (increase per allele 9·45%, 95% CI 8·34–10·57) as well as reduced C-reactive protein (decrease per allele 8·35%, 95% CI 7·31–9·38) and fi brinogen concentrations (decrease per allele 0·85%, 95% CI 0·60–1·10). This pattern of eff ects was consistent with IL6R blockade from infusions of tocilizumab (4–8 mg/kg every 4 weeks) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis studied in randomised trials. In 25 458 coronary heart disease cases and 100 740 controls, the IL6R rs7529229 SNP was associated with a decreased odds of coronary heart disease events (per allele odds ratio 0·95, 95% CI 0·93–0·97, p=1·53×10 – ⁵). Interpretation On the basis of genetic evidence in human beings, IL6R signalling seems to have a causal role in development of coronary heart disease. IL6R blockade could provide a novel therapeutic approach to prevention of coronary heart disease that warrants testing in suitably powered randomised trials. Genetic studies in popu lations could be used more widely to help to validate and prioritise novel drug targets or to repurpose existing agents and targets for new therapeutic uses.
    The Lancet 03/2012; 379:1214. · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Variation in the complement factor H gene (CFH) is associated with risk of late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previous studies have been case-control studies in populations of European ancestry with little differentiation in AMD subtype, and insufficient power to confirm or refute effect modification by smoking. To precisely quantify the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1061170, 'Y402H') with risk of AMD among studies with differing study designs, participant ancestry and AMD grade and to investigate effect modification by smoking, we report two unpublished genetic association studies (n = 2759) combined with data from 24 published studies (26 studies, 26,494 individuals, including 14,174 cases of AMD) of European ancestry, 10 of which provided individual-level data used to test gene-smoking interaction; and 16 published studies from non-European ancestry. In individuals of European ancestry, there was a significant association between Y402H and late-AMD with a per-allele odds ratio (OR) of 2.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.10-2.45; P = 1.1 x 10(-161)]. There was no evidence of effect modification by smoking (P = 0.75). The frequency of Y402H varied by ancestral origin and the association with AMD in non-Europeans was less clear, limited by paucity of studies. The Y402H variant confers a 2-fold higher risk of late-AMD per copy in individuals of European descent. This was stable to stratification by study design and AMD classification and not modified by smoking. The lack of association in non-Europeans requires further verification. These findings are of direct relevance for disease prediction. New research is needed to ascertain if differences in circulating levels, expression or activity of factor H protein explain the genetic association.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 01/2012; 41(1):250-62. DOI:10.1093/ije/dyr204 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reecha Sofat and colleagues argue that prescribing advice needs updating in the light of recent evidence that all classes of blood pressure lowering drugs are broadly equivalent
    BMJ (online) 01/2012; 344:d8078. DOI:10.1136/bmj.d8078 · 16.38 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Epidemiology 01/2012; · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of incurable visual impairment in high-income countries. Previous studies report inconsistent associations between AMD and apolipoprotein E (APOE), a lipid transport protein involved in low-density cholesterol modulation. Potential interaction between APOE and sex, and smoking status has been reported. We present a pooled analysis (n = 21,160) demonstrating associations between late AMD and APOε4 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.72 per haplotype; confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-0.74; P = 4.41×10(-11) ) and APOε2 (OR = 1.83 for homozygote carriers; CI: 1.04-3.23; P = 0.04), following adjustment for age group and sex within each study and smoking status. No evidence of interaction between APOE and sex or smoking was found. Ever smokers had significant increased risk relative to never smokers for both neovascular (OR = 1.54; CI: 1.38-1.72; P = 2.8×10(-15) ) and atrophic (OR = 1.38; CI: 1.18-1.61; P = 3.37×10(-5) ) AMD but not early AMD (OR = 0.94; CI: 0.86-1.03; P = 0.16), implicating smoking as a major contributing factor to disease progression from early signs to the visually disabling late forms. Extended haplotype analysis incorporating rs405509 did not identify additional risks beyond ε2 and ε4 haplotypes. Our expanded analysis substantially improves our understanding of the association between the APOE locus and AMD. It further provides evidence supporting the role of cholesterol modulation, and low-density cholesterol specifically, in AMD disease etiology.
    Human Mutation 08/2011; 32(12):1407-16. DOI:10.1002/humu.21577 · 5.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The MTHFR 677C→T polymorphism has been associated with raised homocysteine concentration and increased risk of stroke. A previous overview showed that the effects were greatest in regions with low dietary folate consumption, but differentiation between the effect of folate and small-study bias was difficult. A meta-analysis of randomised trials of homocysteine-lowering interventions showed no reduction in coronary heart disease events or stroke, but the trials were generally set in populations with high folate consumption. We aimed to reduce the effect of small-study bias and investigate whether folate status modifies the association between MTHFR 677C→T and stroke in a genetic analysis and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. We established a collaboration of genetic studies consisting of 237 datasets including 59,995 individuals with data for homocysteine and 20,885 stroke events. We compared the genetic findings with a meta-analysis of 13 randomised trials of homocysteine-lowering treatments and stroke risk (45,549 individuals, 2314 stroke events, 269 transient ischaemic attacks). The effect of the MTHFR 677C→T variant on homocysteine concentration was larger in low folate regions (Asia; difference between individuals with TT versus CC genotype, 3·12 μmol/L, 95% CI 2·23 to 4·01) than in areas with folate fortification (America, Australia, and New Zealand, high; 0·13 μmol/L, -0·85 to 1·11). The odds ratio (OR) for stroke was also higher in Asia (1·68, 95% CI 1·44 to 1·97) than in America, Australia, and New Zealand, high (1·03, 0·84 to 1·25). Most randomised trials took place in regions with high or increasing population folate concentrations. The summary relative risk (RR) of stroke in trials of homocysteine-lowering interventions (0·94, 95% CI 0·85 to 1·04) was similar to that predicted for the same extent of homocysteine reduction in large genetic studies in populations with similar folate status (predicted RR 1·00, 95% CI 0·90 to 1·11). Although the predicted effect of homocysteine reduction from large genetic studies in low folate regions (Asia) was larger (RR 0·78, 95% CI 0·68 to 0·90), no trial has evaluated the effect of lowering of homocysteine on stroke risk exclusively in a low folate region. In regions with increasing levels or established policies of population folate supplementation, evidence from genetic studies and randomised trials is concordant in suggesting an absence of benefit from lowering of homocysteine for prevention of stroke. Further large-scale genetic studies of the association between MTHFR 677C→T and stroke in low folate settings are needed to distinguish effect modification by folate from small-study bias. If future randomised trials of homocysteine-lowering interventions for stroke prevention are undertaken, they should take place in regions with low folate consumption. Full funding sources listed at end of paper (see Acknowledgments).
    The Lancet 08/2011; 378(9791):584-94. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60872-6 · 45.22 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

759 Citations
406.12 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2015
    • University College London
      • • Division of Medicine
      • • Centre for Clinical Pharmacology and Theraputics
      • • Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • UCL Eastman Dental Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • British Heart Foundation
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom