Peter Ganz

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, WA, United States

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Publications (113)823.28 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A posterior myocardial infarction (PMI) is associated with significant morbidity and delays in recognition may prevent the timely revascularization of these patients. The present study sought to evaluate the reperfusion times and in-hospital outcomes among patients with an isolated PMI. Clinical characteristics and reperfusion times were compared between those with an isolated PMI and those with all other ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) in the NCDR ACTION-GWTG Registry from 2007 to 2012. Logistic generalized estimating equations were used to examine risk-adjusted mortality. Among 117,739 subjects with a STEMI, 824 (0.7%) had evidence of an isolated PMI. The median time between patient arrival and initial electrocardiogram was similar between those with an isolated PMI and those with a non-PMI STEMI (6 vs. 6 minutes, P = .48). However, the median time from initial electrocardiogram to percutaneous coronary intervention was significantly longer among subjects with a PMI (69 vs 61 minutes, P < .01) and fewer patients achieved a door-to-balloon time less than 90 minutes (83% vs 89%, P < .01). After multivariable adjustment, in-hospital mortality was similar for PMI patients compared to those with a non-PMI STEMI (AOR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.83-1.50). The door-to-balloon times are significantly longer for those with an isolated PMI resulting in fewer patients receiving reperfusion within the guideline recommended time period. Ongoing educational initiatives to increase recognition of a PMI are needed to improve the reperfusion times and outcomes associated with this condition.
    American heart journal 03/2014; 167(3):350-4. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the relationship between asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). HIV infection is an independent risk factor for PAH, but the underlying pathogenesis remains unclear. Chronic inflammation resulting in nitric oxide-mediated endothelial dysfunction is a key mechanism underlying other types of PAH. ADMA is an endogenous inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Among uninfected individuals, ADMA is associated with PAH and predicts disease-related mortality. We measured ADMA, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), D-dimer, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) using echocardiography in HIV-infected individuals. Right heart catheterization (RHC) was performed in individuals with a PASP at least 30 mmHg. We performed multivariable analysis to identify factors associated with high PASP by echocardiogram and PAH by RHC. Among 214 HIV-infected individuals, the median age was 50 years, 82% were men, 71% were on antiretroviral therapy, and 4.2% carried a prior diagnosis of PAH. ADMA and IL-6 were associated with increased values of PASP following multivariable adjustment (7.2% per 0.1 μmol/l, P = 0.0049 and 3.9% per doubling, P = 0.027, respectively). In adjusted analysis among the 85 participants who underwent RHC, ADMA and IL-6 were associated with higher values of mean PAP (14.2% per 0.1 μmol/l, P = 0.0014 and 5.8% per doubling, P = 0.038, respectively). However, only ADMA was associated with PAH (prevalence ratio = 1.74, P = 0.029). Elevated levels of ADMA are independently associated with PAH among HIV-infected individuals. Our findings suggest that chronic HIV-associated inflammation leading to an accumulation of ADMA and subsequent nitric oxide-mediated endothelial dysfunction may represent a novel mechanism for HIV-associated PAH.
    AIDS (London, England) 01/2014; · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An association between erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease has long been recognized, and studies suggest that erectile dysfunction is an independent marker of cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore, assessment and management of erectile dysfunction may help identify and reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events, particularly in younger men. The initial erectile dysfunction evaluation should distinguish between predominantly vasculogenic erectile dysfunction and erectile dysfunction of other etiologies. For men believed to have predominantly vasculogenic erectile dysfunction, we recommend that initial cardiovascular risk stratification be based on the Framingham Risk Score. Management of men with erectile dysfunction who are at low risk for cardiovascular disease should focus on risk-factor control; men at high risk, including those with cardiovascular symptoms, should be referred to a cardiologist. Intermediate-risk men should undergo noninvasive evaluation for subclinical atherosclerosis. A growing body of evidence supports the use of emerging prognostic markers to further understand cardiovascular risk in men with erectile dysfunction, but few markers have been prospectively evaluated in this population. In conclusion, we support cardiovascular risk stratification and risk-factor management in all men with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction.
    The American journal of medicine 11/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current guidelines advocate primary percutaneous coronary intervention as the therapy of choice for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) when available. Little is known about the outcomes of patients without a culprit lesion after referral for primary percutaneous coronary intervention for a presumed STEMI. Subjects were identified within a registry containing consecutive patients who underwent emergent angiography for a potential STEMI from October 2008 to July 2012. Vital status was obtained from the medical record and Social Security Death Index. Cox proportional hazards models were created to evaluate the relation between the angiographic findings and cardiovascular outcomes, including major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and mortality. Among 539 patients who underwent emergent angiography, 65 (12%) had no coronary artery disease (CAD), 110 (20%) had CAD without a culprit lesion, and 364 (68%) had a culprit lesion. Kaplan-Meier analysis of MACE demonstrated that patients with CAD who lack a culprit lesion had a similar rate of MACE to those with a culprit lesion (p = 0.64), and both groups had significantly increased risk compared with those with no CAD (hazard ratio [HR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 3.41 and HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.54, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis of mortality illustrated a nonsignificant trend toward increased mortality in patients having a culprit lesion (HR 1.7, 95% CI 0.59 to 4.80) and those having CAD without a culprit lesion (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.39 to 3.81) compared with those with no CAD. In conclusion, patients found to have CAD without a culprit lesion in emergent angiography after a presumptive STEMI diagnosis have similar long-term rates of MACE compared with those requiring emergent revascularization.
    The American journal of cardiology 09/2013; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An isolated posterior myocardial infarction (PMI) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Because physicians often fail to recognize this diagnosis, there may be delays in the timely revascularization of these patients. The present study sought to identify the clinical characteristics and reperfusion times among patients presenting with isolated PMI. We identified subjects with isolated PMI within a registry of all catheterization laboratory activations for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) from 2008 to 2012. Association between PMI and revascularization within 90 minutes was evaluated by logistic regression. Among 318 patients who underwent revascularization for STEMI, a total of 20 (6%) had electrocardiographic evidence of an isolated PMI. Compared to non-PMI STEMI, subjects with PMI were more often female (45% vs 22%; P=.02) and less likely to have chest pain (40% vs 75%; P<.01). The median door-to-activation (25.5 min vs 12 min; P<.01), activation-to-laboratory (36.5 min vs 29 min; P<.01) and door-to-balloon times (107 min vs 72 min; P<.01) were longer among subjects with PMI, with fewer patients achieving reperfusion within 90 minutes (30% vs 71%; P<.01). After multivariable adjustment, individuals with PMI had 82% lower odds (adjusted odds ratio, 0.18; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.50) of achieving coronary reperfusion within 90 minutes. Door-to-activation time accounted for 96% of variation in the total revascularization time (R²=0.96; P<.0001). Door-to-activation time was prolonged for those with PMI, resulting in longer door-to-balloon times and fewer patients revascularized within the recommended time. An isolated PMI should be considered among individuals presenting with symptoms consistent with myocardial infarction.
    The Journal of invasive cardiology 08/2013; 25(8):371-5. · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    International journal of cardiology 07/2013; · 7.08 Impact Factor
  • Peter Ganz, Priscilla Y Hsue
    European Heart Journal 06/2013; · 14.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To compare asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) among HIV-infected and uninfected individuals and to evaluate predictors of ADMA in HIV infection. BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals have high rates of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction is central to atherogenesis and is one possible mechanism underlying this increased cardiovascular risk. ADMA is an endogenous inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Among uninfected individuals, higher ADMA levels predict cardiovascular events and mortality. The association between HIV infection, HIV-related factors, and ADMA has not been well described. METHODS: We compared ADMA in 248 HIV-infected individuals and 50 uninfected controls. We performed multivariable analysis using traditional cardiovascular and HIV-specific factors as covariates to identify factors associated with ADMA. RESULTS: HIV-infected men were older, less often Caucasian, more hypertensive, and had lower HDL than uninfected men. The median duration of HIV infection was 13 years, median CD4+ count was 592 cells/μL, 76% had an undetectable viral load, and 76% were on antiretroviral therapy. ADMA levels were modestly higher in HIV-infected individuals than controls [median (IQR): 0.46 μM (0.41-0.52) vs. 0.44 μM (0.38-0.46), p = 0.019], but the association lost statistical significance after controlling for cardiovascular risk factors (+0.028 μM, p = 0.054). Lower CD4+ count and both detectable and higher viral load were independently associated with increased ADMA. CONCLUSIONS: ADMA levels were modestly elevated in the setting of HIV infection. Notably, a greater HIV-associated inflammatory burden, as evidenced by lower CD4+ counts and higher viral loads, was associated with increased ADMA levels. Our findings suggest that HIV infection impairs endothelial function and predisposes to atherosclerosis through chronic inflammation and subsequent accumulation of ADMA.
    Atherosclerosis 04/2013; · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prompt percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with improved survival in patients presenting with cardiac arrest. Few studies, however, have focused on patients with cardiac arrest not selected for coronary angiography. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with cardiac arrest denied emergent angiography. Patients with cardiac arrest were identified within a registry that included all catheterization laboratory activations from 2008 to 2012. Logistic regression and proportional-hazards models were created to assess the clinical characteristics and mortality associated with denying emergent angiography. Among 664 patients referred for catheterization, 110 (17%) had cardiac arrest, and 26 of these patients did not undergo emergent angiography. Most subjects (69%) were turned down for angiography for clinical reasons and a minority for perceived futility (27%). After multivariate adjustment, pulseless electrical activity as the initial arrest rhythm (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 13.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.76 to 100.12), <1.0 mm of ST-segment elevation (AOR 10.26, 95% CI 1.68 to 62.73), female gender (AOR 4.45, 95% CI 1.04 to 19.08), and advancing age (AOR 1.10 per year, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.16) were associated with increased odds of withholding angiography. The mortality rate was markedly higher for patients who were denied emergent angiography (hazard ratio 3.64, 95% CI 2.05 to 6.49), even after adjustment for medical acuity (hazard ratio 2.29, 95% CI 1.19 to 4.41). In conclusion, older subjects, women, and patients without ST-segment elevation were more commonly denied emergent angiography after cardiac arrest. Patients denied emergent angiography had increased mortality that persisted after adjustment for illness severity.
    The American journal of cardiology 02/2013; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In acute coronary syndromes, C-reactive protein (CRP) strongly relates to subsequent death, but surprisingly not to recurrent myocardial infarction. Other biomarkers may reflect different processes related to these outcomes. We assessed 8 inflammatory and vascular biomarkers and the risk of death and recurrent nonfatal cardiovascular events in the 16 weeks after an acute coronary syndrome. We measured blood concentrations of CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), E-selectin, P-selectin, and tissue plasminogen activator antigen (tPA) 24 to 96 hours after presentation with acute coronary syndrome in 2925 subjects participating in a multicenter study. Biomarkers were related to the risk of death, and recurrent nonfatal acute coronary syndromes (myocardial infarction or unstable angina) over 16 weeks using Cox proportional hazard models. On univariate analyses, baseline CRP (P=0.006), SAA (P=0.012), and IL-6 (P<0.001) were related to death, but not to recurrent nonfatal acute coronary syndromes. VCAM and tPA related to the risk of death (P<0.001, P=0.021, respectively) and to nonfatal acute coronary syndromes (P=0.021, P=0.049, respectively). Adjusting for significant covariates reduced the strength of the associations; however, CRP and SAA continued to relate to death. In acute coronary syndromes, the CRP inflammatory axis relates to the risk of death and may reflect myocardial injury. VCAM and tPA may have greater specificity for processes reflecting inflammation and thrombosis in the epicardial arteries, which determine recurrent coronary events.
    Journal of the American Heart Association. 01/2013; 2(1):e003103.
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    ABSTRACT: The association of prediabetic states with endothelial dysfunction measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) or endothelial biomarker levels remains controversial. We examined data from 5 ethnic groups to determine the association between glucose categories and FMD or endothelial biomarkers. We determined whether these associations vary by ethnic group or body mass index. We used data from 3516 participants from 5 race/ethnic groups with brachial FMD, endothelial biomarkers, and glucose category (normal, impaired fasting glucose [IFG], and diabetes) measures. There were significant ethnic differences in FMD, biomarker levels, and the prevalence of IFG and diabetes. However, all 5 ethnic groups showed similar patterns of higher FMD for the IFG group compared with the normal glucose and diabetes groups, which was most significant among whites and Asian Indians. Associations between glucose categories and endothelial biomarkers were more uniform, with the IFG and diabetes groups having higher biomarker levels than the normal glucose group. These associations did not change with further adjustment for fasting insulin levels. Whites with normal BMI had higher FMD values with higher glucose levels, but those with BMI in the overweight or obese categories had the inverse association (P for interaction=0.01). The discordance of IFG being associated with higher FMD but more abnormal endothelial biomarker levels is a novel finding. This higher FMD for the IFG group was most notable in whites of normal BMI. The higher FMD among those with impaired fasting glucose may reflect differences in insulin signaling pathways between the endothelium and skeletal muscle.
    Journal of the American Heart Association. 01/2013; 2(1):e004283.
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    ABSTRACT: With adoption of telemedicine, physicians are increasingly asked to diagnose ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) based on electrocardiograms (ECGs) with minimal associated clinical information. We sought to determine physicians' diagnostic agreement and accuracy when interpreting potential STEMI ECGs. A cross-sectional survey was performed consisting of 36 deidentified ECGs that had previously resulted in putative STEMI diagnoses. Emergency physicians, cardiologists, and interventional cardiologists participated in the survey. For each ECG, physicians were asked, "based on the ECG above, is there a blocked coronary artery present causing a STEMI?" The reference standard for ascertaining the STEMI diagnosis was subsequent emergent coronary arteriography. Responses were analyzed with generalized estimating equations to account for nested and repeated measures. One hundred twenty-four physicians interpreted a total of 4392 ECGs. Among all physicians, interreader agreement (kappa) for ECG interpretation was 0.33, reflecting poor agreement. The sensitivity to identify "true" STEMIs was 65% (95% CI: 63 to 67) and the specificity was 79% (95% CI: 77 to 81). There was a 6% increase in the odds of accurate ECG interpretation for every 5 years of experience since medical school graduation (OR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.10, P=0.01). After adjusting for experience, there was no significant difference in the odds of accurate interpretation by specialty-Emergency Medicine (reference), General Cardiology (AOR 0.97, 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.2, P=0.80), or Interventional Cardiology physicians (AOR 1.24, 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.7, P=0.15). There is significant physician disagreement in interpreting ECGs with features concerning for STEMI. Such ECGs lack the necessary sensitivity and specificity to act as a suitable "stand-alone" diagnostic test.
    Journal of the American Heart Association. 01/2013; 2(5):e000268.
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    ABSTRACT: Background- Little is known about the components of door-to-balloon time among patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. We assessed the role of time from hospital arrival to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction diagnosis (door-to-activation time) on door-to-balloon time in contemporary practice and evaluated factors that influence door-to-activation times. Methods and Results- Registry data on 347 consecutive patients diagnosed with a ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the emergency department over 30 months at 2 urban primary percutaneous coronary intervention centers were analyzed. The primary study end point was the time from hospital arrival to catheterization laboratory activation by the emergency department physician, and we assessed factors associated with this period. Door-to-balloon time and its other components were secondary study end points. The median door-to-activation time was 19 minutes (interquartile range, 9-54). Variation in door-to-activation times explained 93% of the variation in door-to-balloon times and demonstrated the strongest correlation with door-to-balloon times (r=0.97). Achieving a door-to-activation time of ≤20 minutes resulted in an 89% chance of achieving a door-to-balloon time of ≤90 minutes compared with only 28% for patients with a door-to-activation time >20 minutes. Factors significantly associated with door-to-activation time include the following: prehospital ECG use (61% shorter, 95% confidence interval, -50 to -72%; P<0.001) and computed tomography scan use in the emergency department (245% longer, 95% confidence interval, +50 to +399%; P=0.001). Conclusions- The interval from hospital arrival to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction diagnosis and catheterization laboratory activation (door-to-activation time) is a strong driver of overall door-to-balloon times. Achieving a door-to-activation time ≤20 minutes was key to achieving a door-to-balloon time ≤90 minutes. Delays in door-to-activation time are not associated with delays in other aspects of the primary percutaneous coronary intervention process.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 09/2012; 5(5):672-9. · 5.66 Impact Factor
  • Circulation 08/2012; 126(6):753-67. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Princeton Consensus (Expert Panel) Conference is a multispecialty collaborative tradition dedicated to optimizing sexual function and preserving cardiovascular health. The third Princeton Consensus met November 8 to 10, 2010, and had 2 primary objectives. The first objective focused on the evaluation and management of cardiovascular risk in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and no known cardiovascular disease (CVD), with particular emphasis on identification of men with ED who may require additional cardiologic work-up. The second objective focused on reevaluation and modification of previous recommendations for evaluation of cardiac risk associated with sexual activity in men with known CVD. The Panel's recommendations build on those developed during the first and second Princeton Consensus Conferences, first emphasizing the use of exercise ability and stress testing to ensure that each man's cardiovascular health is consistent with the physical demands of sexual activity before prescribing treatment for ED, and second highlighting the link between ED and CVD, which may be asymptomatic and may benefit from cardiovascular risk reduction.
    Mayo Clinic Proceedings 08/2012; 87(8):766-78. · 5.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple published studies have established erectile dysfunction (ED) as an independent risk marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In fact, incident ED has a similar or greater predictive value for cardiovascular events than traditional risk factors including smoking, hyperlipidemia, and family history of myocardial infarction. Here, we review evidence that supports ED as a particularly significant harbinger of CVD in 2 populations: men <60 years of age and those with diabetes. Although addition of ED to the Framingham Risk Score only modestly improved the 10-year predictive capacity of the Framingham Risk Score for myocardial infarction or coronary death data in men enrolled in the Massachusetts Male Aging Study, other epidemiologic studies suggest that the predictive value of ED is quite strong in younger men. Indeed, in the Olmstead County Study, men 40 to 49 years of age with ED had a 50-fold higher incidence of new-incident coronary artery disease than those without ED. However, ED had less predictive value (5-fold increased risk) for coronary artery disease in men 70 years and older. Several studies, including a large analysis of more than 6300 men enrolled in the ADVANCE study, suggest that ED is a particularly powerful predictor of CVD in diabetic men as well. Based on the literature reviewed here, we encourage physicians to inquire about ED symptoms in all men more than 30 years of age with cardiovascular risk factors. Identification of ED, particularly in men <60 years old and those with diabetes, represents an important first step toward CVD risk detection and reduction.
    American heart journal 07/2012; 164(1):21-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with electrocardiographic (ECG) left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) have repolarization abnormalities of the ST segment that may be confused with an ischemic current of injury. We analyzed the ACTIVATE-SF database, a registry of consecutive emergency department ST-segment elevation (STE) myocardial infarction diagnoses from 2 medical centers. Univariate analysis was performed to identify ECG variables associated with presence of an angiographic culprit lesion. Recursive partitioning was then applied to identify a clinical decision-making rule that maximizes sensitivity and specificity for presence of an angiographic culprit lesion. Seventy-nine patients with ECG LVH underwent emergency cardiac catheterization for primary angioplasty. Patients with a culprit lesion had greater magnitude of STE (3.0 ± 1.8 vs 1.9 ± 1.0 mm, p = 0.005), more leads with STE (3.1 ± 1.6 vs 2.0 ± 1.8 leads, p = 0.002), and a greater ratio of STE to R-S-wave magnitude (median 25% vs 9.2%, p = 0.003). Univariate application of ECG criteria had limited sensitivity and a high false-positive rate for identifying patients with an angiographic culprit lesion. In patients with anterior territory STE, using a ratio of ST segment to R-S-wave magnitude ≥25% as a diagnostic criteria for STE myocardial infarction significantly improved specificity for an angiographic culprit lesion without decreasing sensitivity (c-statistic 0.82), with a net reclassification improvement of 37%. In conclusion, application of an ST segment to R-S-wave magnitude ≥25% rule may augment current criteria for determining which patients with ECG LVH should undergo primary angioplasty.
    The American journal of cardiology 06/2012; 110(7):977-83. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to a range of relatively low concentrations of aged secondhand smoke (SHS), similar to those encountered commonly in the community, would impair endothelial function in a concentration-dependent manner. Exposure to SHS impairs endothelial function in humans. The concentration-dependent relationship for aged SHS effects on endothelial function after an exposure of short duration is unknown. Thirty-three healthy nonsmokers were exposed to 1 of 2 low levels of aged SHS or to conditioned filtered air for 30 min. The primary end point was change in maximal percent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation after exposure. In a linear regression model for each increase in SHS exposure by 100 μg/m(3) respirable suspended particles, the absolute maximal percent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was reduced by 0.67%. We did not find evidence of a threshold for the effect of SHS on flow-mediated dilation. Short-term exposure to real-world levels of aged SHS for 30 min resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in endothelial function as measured by flow-mediated dilation.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 05/2012; 59(21):1908-13. · 14.09 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1k Downloads
823.28 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Division of Cardiology
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2012
    • University of California, Davis
      • Division of Cardiovascular Medicine
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Division of Cardiology
      Boston, MA, United States
    • Northwestern University
      • Division of Cardiology (Dept. of Medicine)
      Evanston, IL, United States
  • 1995–2012
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • Center for Brain Mind Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • New England Research Institutes
      Watertown, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Division of Cardiology
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1996–2010
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • Partners HealthCare
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Public Health and Primary Care
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2004
    • Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Boston University
      • Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute
      Boston, MA, United States