Cecile A Marczinski

Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, Kentucky, United States

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Publications (36)85.03 Total impact

  • Cecile A. Marczinski
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    ABSTRACT: Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087–2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 07/2014; 38(7). · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Energy drinks and energy shots are popular consumer beverages that are advertised to increase feelings of alertness. Typically, these products include high levels of caffeine, a mild psychostimulant drug. The scientific evidence demonstrating the specific benefits of energy products to users in terms of subjective state and objective performance is surprisingly lacking. Moreover, there are rising health concerns associated with the use of these products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of a popular energy shot (5-Hour Energy(®)) on subjective and objective measures that were assessed hourly for 6 hours following consumption. Methods: Participants (n=14) completed a three-session study where they received the energy shot, a placebo control, and no drink. Following dose administration, participants completed subjective Profile of Mood States ratings hourly for 6 hours. Participants also repeatedly completed a behavioral control task (the cued go/no-go task) and provided blood pressure and pulse rate readings at each hour. Results: Consumption of the energy shot did improve subjective state, as measured by increased ratings of vigor and decreased ratings of fatigue. However, the energy shot did not alter objective performance, which worsened over time. Importantly, the energy shot elevated both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Consumption of one energy shot may only result in modest benefits to subjective state. Individuals with preexisting hypertension or other medical conditions should be cautious about using these new consumer products.
    Journal of caffeine research. 06/2014; 4(2):57-63.
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    ABSTRACT: Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug approved for use in children, but little is known about the long-term effects of early-life risperidone treatment. In animals, prolonged risperidone administration during development increases forebrain dopamine receptor expression immediately upon the cessation of treatment. A series of experiments was performed to ascertain whether early-life risperidone administration altered locomotor activity, a behavior sensitive to dopamine receptor function, in adult rats. One additional behavior modulated by forebrain dopamine function, spatial reversal learning, was also measured during adulthood. In each study, Long-Evans rats received daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or 1 of 2 doses of risperidone (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg per day) from postnatal Days 14 to 42. Weight gain during development was slightly yet significantly reduced in risperidone-treated rats. In the first 2 experiments, early-life risperidone administration was associated with increased locomotor activity at 1 week postadministration through approximately 9 months of age, independent of changes in weight gain. In a separate experiment, it was found that the enhancing effect of early-life risperidone on locomotor activity occurred in males and female rats. A final experiment indicated that spatial reversal learning was unaffected in adult rats administered risperidone early in life. These results indicate that locomotor activity during adulthood is permanently modified by early-life risperidone treatment. The findings suggest that chronic antipsychotic drug use in pediatric populations (e.g., treatment for the symptoms of autism) could modify brain development and alter neural set points for specific behaviors during adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 06/2013; 21(3):259-67. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Cecile A Marczinski, Mark T Fillmore
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 02/2013; · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Cecile A Marczinski, Amy L Stamates
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Limited research suggests that alcohol consumed with an artificially sweetened mixer (e.g., diet soft drink) results in higher breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) compared with the same amount of alcohol consumed with a similar beverage containing sugar. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of this effect in both male and female social drinkers and to determine if there are measureable objective and subjective differences when alcohol is consumed with an artificially sweetened versus sugar-sweetened mixer. METHODS: Participants (n = 16) of equal gender attended 3 sessions where they received 1 of 3 doses (1.97 ml/kg vodka mixed with 3.94 ml/kg Squirt, 1.97 ml/kg vodka mixed with 3.94 ml/kg diet Squirt, and a placebo beverage) in random order. BrACs were recorded, as were self-reported ratings of subjective intoxication, fatigue, impairment, and willingness to drive. Objective performance was assessed using a cued go/no-go reaction time task. RESULTS: BrACs were significantly higher in the alcohol + diet beverage condition compared with the alcohol + regular beverage condition. The mean peak BrAC was 0.091 g/210 l in the alcohol + diet condition compared with 0.077 g/210 l in the alcohol + regular condition. Cued go/no-go task performance indicated the greatest impairment for the alcohol + diet beverage condition. Subjective measures indicated that participants appeared unaware of any differences in the 2 alcohol conditions, given that no significant differences in subjective ratings were observed for the 2 alcohol conditions. No gender differences were observed for BrACs, and objective and subjective measures. CONCLUSIONS: Mixing alcohol with a diet soft drink resulted in elevated BrACs, as compared with the same amount of alcohol mixed with a sugar-sweetened beverage. Individuals were unaware of these differences, a factor that may increase the safety risks associated with drinking alcohol.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2012; · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) in social drinkers. It has been suggested that AmED beverages might lead individuals to drink greater quantities of alcohol. This experiment was designed to investigate whether the consumption of AmEDs would alter alcohol priming (i.e., increasing ratings of wanting another drink) compared with alcohol alone. METHODS: Participants (n = 80) of equal gender attended 1 session where they were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 doses (0.91 ml/kg vodka, 1.82 ml/kg energy drink, 0.91 ml/kg vodka mixed with 1.82 ml/kg energy drink [AmED], or a placebo beverage). Alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink was assessed by self-reported ratings on the Desire for Drug questionnaire. RESULTS: The priming dose of alcohol increased the subjective ratings of "desire" for more alcohol, consistent with previous research that small doses of alcohol can increase the motivation to drink. Furthermore, higher desire ratings over time were observed with AmEDs compared with alcohol alone. Finally, ratings of liking the drink were similar for the alcohol and AmED conditions. CONCLUSIONS: An energy drink may elicit increased alcohol priming. This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages may lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 06/2012; · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    Cecile A Marczinski
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    ABSTRACT: Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) was first identified in North America in early 2009. The pandemic flu outbreak during the 2009-2010 influenza season demonstrated how rapidly a new strain of flu can emerge and spread. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza, and vaccination during a pandemic is critical in limiting morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, reports of vaccination rates for pH1N1 vaccines during the 2009-2010 influenza season indicated low rates for various demographic groups, including pregnant women, health care workers, child care workers, college students, and the general public. Furthermore, when asked about perceptions of pH1N1 vaccines, respondents in a variety of studies from the pH1N1 pandemic indicated common and universal misconceptions about influenza vaccines, especially in regard to perceptions of need, efficacy and safety. Therefore, if vaccination rates are to increase, an important outcome especially during pandemics, the psychological characteristics underpinning perceptions of influenza vaccines need to be understood better.
    Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 02/2012; 8(2):275-8.
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    Amy L Henges, Cecile A Marczinski
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    ABSTRACT: Impulsivity may have different facets that contribute to drinking patterns in young people. This research examined how aspects of impulse control, especially the ability to inhibit a response, predicted recent alcohol use patterns in young social drinkers. Participants (N=109) between the ages of 18 and 21 performed a cued go/no-go task that required quick responses to go targets and the inhibition of responses to no-go targets. Participants also completed several questionnaires that assessed drinking habits (TLFB) and self-reported impulsivity (BIS-11). Regression analyses revealed that both the impulsivity questionnaire scores and the inhibitory failures observed on the behavioral task predicted various aspects of recent drinking. However, only the inhibitory failures from the behavioral task, and not the impulsivity questionnaire scores, predicted the highest number of drinks consumed on one occasion during the past month. These findings are consistent with the notion that impulsivity may have different components that may be contributing the drinking patterns, and this research suggests that the inability to withhold a response is a strong predictor of the binge use of alcohol.
    Addictive behaviors 02/2012; 37(2):217-20. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has become a popular and controversial practice among young people. Increased rates of impaired driving and injuries have been associated with AmED consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine if the consumption of AmED alters cognitive processing and subjective measures of intoxication compared with the consumption of alcohol alone. Eighteen participants (nine men and nine women) attended four test sessions where they received one of four doses in random order (0.65 g/kg alcohol, 3.57 ml/kg energy drink, AmED, or a placebo beverage). Performance on a psychological refractory period (PRP) task was used to measure dual-task information processing and performance on the Purdue pegboard task was used to measure simple and complex motor coordination following dose administration. In addition, various subjective measures of stimulation, sedation, impairment, and level of intoxication were recorded. The results indicated that alcohol slowed dual-task information processing and impaired simple and complex motor coordination. The coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol did not alter the alcohol-induced impairment on these objective measures. For subjective effects, alcohol increased various ratings indicative of feelings of intoxication. More importantly, coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol reduced perceptions of mental fatigue and enhanced feelings of stimulation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, AmED may contribute to a high-risk scenario for a drinker. The mix of behavioral impairment with reduced fatigue and enhanced stimulation may lead AmED consumers to erroneously perceive themselves as better able to function than is actually the case.
    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 10/2011; 20(2):129-38. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    Cecile A Marczinski
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    ABSTRACT: This commentary discusses the paper by Rossheim and Thombs (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 35, 2011), which examined the relationship between type of alcohol mixer (regular caffeinated cola, diet caffeinated cola, energy drink, or no mixer) and breath alcohol readings in bar patrons. The significance of the findings of this study and new unaddressed questions for the field are discussed. Rossheim and Thombs (2011) reported that breath alcohol concentration readings were highest when patrons reported the consumption of caffeine mixers that were artificially sweetened (i.e., diet cola), after adjusting for potential confounds. Women were more likely to consume diet cola-caffeinated mixed drinks. The findings from this field study raise several new interesting questions. Given the reported gender difference in consumption of diet cola-caffeinated mixed drinks, more research is needed regarding gender differences in gastric emptying time for alcoholic beverages mixed with artificially sweetened versus sucrose sweetened caffeinated drinks. In addition, the recent explosion in the energy drink market has resulted in the availability of sugar-free or diet versions of most energy drink products. The implications of mixing diet energy drinks with alcohol are unknown.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 08/2011; 35(10):1729-31. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    Meagan A Ramsey, Cecile A Marczinski
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    ABSTRACT: College students are highly susceptible to the H1N1 virus, yet previous studies suggest that college students perceive themselves at low risk for the flu. We surveyed 514 undergraduates to assess their perceptions of H1N1 flu risk and opinions about flu vaccines. A third of respondents stated that they were not at risk of getting the H1N1 flu because they were young. Responses indicated a distrust of the safety and effectiveness of influenza vaccinations; only 15.8% of participants planned on receiving H1N1 vaccination. Top reasons for refusing the H1N1 vaccine included questioning vaccine safety and effectiveness, and concerns about potential serious and/or benign side effects. Top reasons for H1N1 vaccination acceptance included receiving a doctor recommendation for the vaccine, having previously gotten a seasonal vaccine, and being at high-risk for influenza. Our findings suggest that college students are inaccurate in assessing their risk level and are unlikely to seek vaccinations.
    Vaccine 08/2011; 29(44):7599-601. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    Cecile A Marczinski
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    ABSTRACT: Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers), 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 08/2011; 8(8):3232-45. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in young people. AmED have been implicated in risky drinking practices and greater accidents and injuries have been associated with their consumption. Despite the increased popularity of these beverages (e.g., Red Bull and vodka), there is little laboratory research examining how the effects of AmED differ from alcohol alone. This experiment was designed to investigate if the consumption of AmED alters neurocognitive and subjective measures of intoxication compared with the consumption of alcohol alone. Participants (n=56) attended 1 session where they were randomly assigned to receive one of 4 doses (0.65 g/kg alcohol, 3.57 ml/kg energy drink, AmED, or a placebo beverage). Performance on a cued go/no-go task was used to measure the response of inhibitory and activational mechanisms of behavioral control following dose administration. Subjective ratings of stimulation, sedation, impairment, and level of intoxication were recorded. Alcohol alone impaired both inhibitory and activational mechanisms of behavioral control, as evidenced by increased inhibitory failures and increased response times compared to baseline performance. Coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol counteracted some of the alcohol-induced impairment of response activation, but not response inhibition. For subjective effects, alcohol increased ratings of stimulation, feeling the drink, liking the drink, impairment, and level of intoxication, and alcohol decreased the rating of ability to drive. Coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol increased self-reported stimulation, but resulted in similar ratings of the other subjective effects as when alcohol was administered alone. An energy drink appears to alter some of the objective and subjective impairing effects of alcohol, but not others. Thus, AmED may contribute to a high-risk scenario for the drinker. The mix of impaired behavioral inhibition and enhanced stimulation is a combination that may make AmED consumption riskier than alcohol consumption alone.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 07/2011; 35(7):1282-92. · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Journal of caffeine research. 03/2011; 1(1):15-21.
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    Meagan A Howard, Cecile A Marczinski
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    ABSTRACT: There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of glucose energy drinks (e.g., Amp, Monster, and Red Bull) in the past decade, particularly among high school and college students. However, little laboratory research has examined the acute objective and subjective effects of energy drinks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of a glucose energy drink (Red Bull) on cognitive functioning. Participants (N = 80) were randomly assigned to one of five conditions: 1.8 ml/kg energy drink, 3.6 ml/kg energy drink, 5.4 ml/kg energy drink, placebo beverage, or no drink. Participants completed a well-validated behavioral control task (the cued go/no-go task) and subjective measures of stimulation, sedation, and mental fatigue both before and 30 minutes following beverage administration. The results indicated that compared with the placebo and no drink conditions, the energy drink doses decreased reaction times on the behavioral control task, increased subjective ratings of stimulation and decreased ratings of mental fatigue. Greatest improvements in reaction times and subjective measures were observed with the lowest dose and improvements diminished as the dose increased. The findings suggest that energy drink consumption can improve cognitive performance on a behavioral control task, potentially explaining the dramatic rise in popularity of these controversial new beverages.
    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 12/2010; 18(6):553-61. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Cecile A. Marczinski, Rachel Bryant, Mark T. Fillmore
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    ABSTRACT: This research examined the relationship between self-reported cognitive preoccupation with drinking and self-reported and ad lib measures of alcohol consumption in male and female college students. Fifty undergraduates rated their degree of preoccupation with drinking using the Cognitive and Emotional Preoccupation scale and then participated in an individualized taste-rating task, an unobtrusive laboratory measure for determining ad lib alcohol consumption. Regression results showed that individual differences in emotional preoccupation with alcohol predicted self-reported consumption and actual laboratory alcohol consumption, only for women and not for men. This research shows that emotional preoccupation with alcohol appears to be an important factor in determining rates of drinking in college-age women and may be an important factor in identifying those individuals at risk of future problems with alcohol.
    07/2009; 13(4):383-394.
  • Cecile A Marczinski, Mark T Fillmore
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    ABSTRACT: High rates of binge drinking and alcohol-related problems, including drinking and driving, occur among college students. Underlying reasons for the heightened impaired driving rates in this demographic group are not known. The authors hypothesized that acute tolerance to the interoceptive cues of intoxication may contribute to these maladaptive decisions to drive in binge drinkers. Groups of binge-drinking and non-binge-drinking college students (N = 28) attended sessions during which they received a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) or a placebo. The development of acute tolerance to subjective ratings of intoxication and simulated driving performance was assessed by comparing measures taken during the ascending phase and descending phases of the blood alcohol curve. Compared with placebo, alcohol increased ratings of intoxication and impaired multiple aspects of simulated driving performance in both binge and non-binge drinkers. During the descending phase of the blood alcohol curve, binge drinkers showed acute tolerance to alcohol's effect on subjective intoxication, and this effect was accompanied by an increased rating of willingness to drive. By contrast, non-binge drinkers showed no acute tolerance.
    Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 07/2009; 23(2):238-47. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Cecile A Marczinski, Emily L R Harrison, Mark T Fillmore
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    ABSTRACT: Binge drinking (heavy episodic alcohol use) is associated with high rates of impaired driving and myriad alcohol-related accidents. However, the underlying reasons for the heightened accident risk in this demographic group are not known. This research examined acute alcohol effects on simulated driving performance and subjective ratings of intoxication and driving ability in binge and nonbinge drinkers. Young social drinking college students (24 binge drinkers and 16 nonbinge drinkers) participated in this study. Participants attended a session during which they received a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) and a session during which they received a placebo. A simulated driving task measured participants' driving performance in response to each dose. Subjective responses to each dose were also assessed, including ratings of sedation, stimulation, and driving ability. The acute dose of alcohol impaired multiple aspects of driving performance in both binge and nonbinge drinkers. Under alcohol, all participants had greater difficulty in maintaining their lane position, maintaining the appropriate speed and made multiple driving errors compared to placebo performance. By contrast, compared with nonbinge drinkers, binge drinkers reported feeling less sedated by the alcohol and reported having a greater ability to drive following the acute dose of alcohol. Reduced subjective intoxication and perceived driving impairment in binge drinkers may account for the greater accident risk in this demographic group. Binge drinkers may lack the internal sedation cue that helps them accurately assess that they are not able to effectively drive a vehicle after drinking.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 08/2008; 32(7):1329-37. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has demonstrated that adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to experience driving-related problems, which suggests that they may exhibit poorer driving performance. However, direct experimental evidence of this hypothesis is limited. The current study involved 2 experiments that evaluated driving performance in adults with ADHD in terms of the types of driving decrements typically associated with alcohol intoxication. Experiment 1 compared the simulated driving performance of 15 adults with ADHD to 23 adult control participants, who performed the task both while sober and intoxicated. Results showed that sober adults with ADHD exhibited decrements in driving performance compared to sober controls, and that the profile of impairment for the sober ADHD group did in fact resemble that of intoxicated drivers at the blood alcohol concentration level for legally impaired driving in the United States. Driving impairment of the intoxicated individuals was characterized by greater deviation of lane position, faster and more abrupt steering maneuvers, and increased speed variability. Experiment 2 was a dose-challenge study in which 8 adults with ADHD and 8 controls performed the driving simulation task under 3 doses of alcohol: 0.65g/kg, 0.45g/kg, and 0.0g/kg (placebo). Results showed that driving performance in both groups was impaired in response to alcohol, and that individuals with ADHD exhibited generally poorer driving performance than did controls across all dose conditions. Together the findings provide compelling evidence to suggest that the cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with ADHD might impair driving performance in such a manner as to resemble that of an alcohol intoxicated driver. Moreover, alcohol might impair the performance of drivers with ADHD in an additive fashion that could considerably compromise their driving skill even at blood alcohol concentrations below the legal limit.
    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 07/2008; 16(3):251-63. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Emily L R Harrison, Cecile A Marczinski, Mark T Fillmore
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    ABSTRACT: Reports an error in "Driver training conditions affect sensitivity to the impairing effects of alcohol on a simulated driving test to the impairing effects of alcohol on a simulated driving test" by Emily L. R. Harrison, Cecile A. Marczinski and Mark T. Fillmore (Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2007[Dec], Vol 15[6], 588-598). The correct title of the article should read "Driver training conditions affect sensitivity to the impairing effects of alcohol on a simulated driving test". (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2007-18976-010.) Research shows that prior behavioral training in a challenging environment reduces alcohol-induced impairment on simple psychomotor tasks. However, no studies have examined if this relationship generalizes to driving performance. The present study examined simulated driving performance and tested the hypothesis that a challenging training history would protect against the impairing effects of alcohol on driving performance. The challenging training history involved driving in a visually-impoverished environment. Thirty adults were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Two groups were tested under alcohol (0.65 g/kg) after prior experience performing the task under either a visually-impoverished environment or a normal visual environment. The remaining group served as a control and was trained and tested under the visually-impoverished condition environment. Results showed that individuals trained in the impoverished environment displayed sober levels of performance when their performance was subsequently tested under alcohol. By contrast, volunteers trained in a normal environment showed impairment under alcohol. The findings suggest that differences in driving training history can affect a driver's sensitivity to the impairing effects of alcohol. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).
    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 05/2008; 16(2):177. · 2.55 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

644 Citations
85.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • Northern Kentucky University
      • Department of Psychological Science
      Highland Heights, Kentucky, United States
  • 2003–2009
    • University of Kentucky
      • Department of Psychology
      Lexington, KY, United States
  • 2008
    • Yale University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New Haven, CT, United States
  • 2007
    • St. Joseph's Health Care London
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2005–2006
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2004
    • McMaster University
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada