Cecile A Marczinski

Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, Kentucky, United States

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Publications (40)105.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug that is approved for use in childhood psychiatric disorders such as autism. One concern regarding the use of this drug in pediatric populations is that it may interfere with social interactions that serve to nurture brain development. This study used rats to assess the impact of risperidone administration on maternal-offspring interactions and juvenile play fighting between cage mates. Mixed-sex litters received daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg of risperidone between postnatal days (PND) 14-42. Rats were weaned and housed three per cage on PND 21. In observations made between PND 14-17, risperidone significantly suppressed several aspects of maternal-offspring interactions at one-hour post-injection. At 23 hours post-injection, pups administered risperidone had lower activity scores and made fewer non-nursing contacts with their moms. In observations of play-fighting behavior made once a week between PND 22-42, risperidone profoundly decreased many forms of social interaction at one hour post-injection. At 23 hours post-injection, rats administered risperidone made more non-social contacts with their cage mates, but engaged in less social grooming. Risperidone administration to rats at ages analogous to early childhood through adolescence in humans produces a pattern of abnormal social interactions across the day that could impact how such interactions influence brain development.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 01/2015; 130. DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2015.01.007 · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • Cecile A Marczinski
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    ABSTRACT: Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
    Advances in Nutrition 01/2015; 6(1):96-101. DOI:10.3945/an.114.007393 · 4.90 Impact Factor
  • Cecile A Marczinski, Mark T Fillmore
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    ABSTRACT: Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks, the risks associated with such mixtures, and the objective laboratory data examining how the effects of their consumption differ from consuming alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks is riskier than consuming alcohol alone and constitutes a public health concern. Consumption of these mixed beverages is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers, and compared with alcohol alone, their use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks leads to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to consuming alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted in this review.
    Nutrition Reviews 10/2014; 72 Suppl 1:98-107. DOI:10.1111/nure.12127 · 5.54 Impact Factor
  • Cecile A. Marczinski
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    ABSTRACT: Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087–2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 07/2014; 38(7). DOI:10.1111/acer.12493 · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Energy drinks and energy shots are popular consumer beverages that are advertised to increase feelings of alertness. Typically, these products include high levels of caffeine, a mild psychostimulant drug. The scientific evidence demonstrating the specific benefits of energy products to users in terms of subjective state and objective performance is surprisingly lacking. Moreover, there are rising health concerns associated with the use of these products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of a popular energy shot (5-Hour Energy(®)) on subjective and objective measures that were assessed hourly for 6 hours following consumption. Methods: Participants (n=14) completed a three-session study where they received the energy shot, a placebo control, and no drink. Following dose administration, participants completed subjective Profile of Mood States ratings hourly for 6 hours. Participants also repeatedly completed a behavioral control task (the cued go/no-go task) and provided blood pressure and pulse rate readings at each hour. Results: Consumption of the energy shot did improve subjective state, as measured by increased ratings of vigor and decreased ratings of fatigue. However, the energy shot did not alter objective performance, which worsened over time. Importantly, the energy shot elevated both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Consumption of one energy shot may only result in modest benefits to subjective state. Individuals with preexisting hypertension or other medical conditions should be cautious about using these new consumer products.
    06/2014; 4(2):57-63. DOI:10.1089/jcr.2014.0005
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    ABSTRACT: Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug approved for use in children, but little is known about the long-term effects of early-life risperidone treatment. In animals, prolonged risperidone administration during development increases forebrain dopamine receptor expression immediately upon the cessation of treatment. A series of experiments was performed to ascertain whether early-life risperidone administration altered locomotor activity, a behavior sensitive to dopamine receptor function, in adult rats. One additional behavior modulated by forebrain dopamine function, spatial reversal learning, was also measured during adulthood. In each study, Long-Evans rats received daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or 1 of 2 doses of risperidone (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg per day) from postnatal Days 14 to 42. Weight gain during development was slightly yet significantly reduced in risperidone-treated rats. In the first 2 experiments, early-life risperidone administration was associated with increased locomotor activity at 1 week postadministration through approximately 9 months of age, independent of changes in weight gain. In a separate experiment, it was found that the enhancing effect of early-life risperidone on locomotor activity occurred in males and female rats. A final experiment indicated that spatial reversal learning was unaffected in adult rats administered risperidone early in life. These results indicate that locomotor activity during adulthood is permanently modified by early-life risperidone treatment. The findings suggest that chronic antipsychotic drug use in pediatric populations (e.g., treatment for the symptoms of autism) could modify brain development and alter neural set points for specific behaviors during adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 06/2013; 21(3):259-67. DOI:10.1037/a0031972 · 2.63 Impact Factor
  • Cecile A Marczinski, Mark T Fillmore
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 02/2013; DOI:10.1111/acer.12019 · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • Cecile A Marczinski, Amy L Stamates
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Limited research suggests that alcohol consumed with an artificially sweetened mixer (e.g., diet soft drink) results in higher breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) compared with the same amount of alcohol consumed with a similar beverage containing sugar. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of this effect in both male and female social drinkers and to determine if there are measureable objective and subjective differences when alcohol is consumed with an artificially sweetened versus sugar-sweetened mixer. METHODS: Participants (n = 16) of equal gender attended 3 sessions where they received 1 of 3 doses (1.97 ml/kg vodka mixed with 3.94 ml/kg Squirt, 1.97 ml/kg vodka mixed with 3.94 ml/kg diet Squirt, and a placebo beverage) in random order. BrACs were recorded, as were self-reported ratings of subjective intoxication, fatigue, impairment, and willingness to drive. Objective performance was assessed using a cued go/no-go reaction time task. RESULTS: BrACs were significantly higher in the alcohol + diet beverage condition compared with the alcohol + regular beverage condition. The mean peak BrAC was 0.091 g/210 l in the alcohol + diet condition compared with 0.077 g/210 l in the alcohol + regular condition. Cued go/no-go task performance indicated the greatest impairment for the alcohol + diet beverage condition. Subjective measures indicated that participants appeared unaware of any differences in the 2 alcohol conditions, given that no significant differences in subjective ratings were observed for the 2 alcohol conditions. No gender differences were observed for BrACs, and objective and subjective measures. CONCLUSIONS: Mixing alcohol with a diet soft drink resulted in elevated BrACs, as compared with the same amount of alcohol mixed with a sugar-sweetened beverage. Individuals were unaware of these differences, a factor that may increase the safety risks associated with drinking alcohol.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2012; 37(4). DOI:10.1111/acer.12039 · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) in social drinkers. It has been suggested that AmED beverages might lead individuals to drink greater quantities of alcohol. This experiment was designed to investigate whether the consumption of AmEDs would alter alcohol priming (i.e., increasing ratings of wanting another drink) compared with alcohol alone. METHODS: Participants (n = 80) of equal gender attended 1 session where they were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 doses (0.91 ml/kg vodka, 1.82 ml/kg energy drink, 0.91 ml/kg vodka mixed with 1.82 ml/kg energy drink [AmED], or a placebo beverage). Alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink was assessed by self-reported ratings on the Desire for Drug questionnaire. RESULTS: The priming dose of alcohol increased the subjective ratings of "desire" for more alcohol, consistent with previous research that small doses of alcohol can increase the motivation to drink. Furthermore, higher desire ratings over time were observed with AmEDs compared with alcohol alone. Finally, ratings of liking the drink were similar for the alcohol and AmED conditions. CONCLUSIONS: An energy drink may elicit increased alcohol priming. This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages may lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 06/2012; 37(2). DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01868.x · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    Cecile A Marczinski
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    ABSTRACT: Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) was first identified in North America in early 2009. The pandemic flu outbreak during the 2009-2010 influenza season demonstrated how rapidly a new strain of flu can emerge and spread. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza, and vaccination during a pandemic is critical in limiting morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, reports of vaccination rates for pH1N1 vaccines during the 2009-2010 influenza season indicated low rates for various demographic groups, including pregnant women, health care workers, child care workers, college students, and the general public. Furthermore, when asked about perceptions of pH1N1 vaccines, respondents in a variety of studies from the pH1N1 pandemic indicated common and universal misconceptions about influenza vaccines, especially in regard to perceptions of need, efficacy and safety. Therefore, if vaccination rates are to increase, an important outcome especially during pandemics, the psychological characteristics underpinning perceptions of influenza vaccines need to be understood better.
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 02/2012; 8(2):275-8. DOI:10.4161/hv.18457 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    Amy L Henges, Cecile A Marczinski
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    ABSTRACT: Impulsivity may have different facets that contribute to drinking patterns in young people. This research examined how aspects of impulse control, especially the ability to inhibit a response, predicted recent alcohol use patterns in young social drinkers. Participants (N=109) between the ages of 18 and 21 performed a cued go/no-go task that required quick responses to go targets and the inhibition of responses to no-go targets. Participants also completed several questionnaires that assessed drinking habits (TLFB) and self-reported impulsivity (BIS-11). Regression analyses revealed that both the impulsivity questionnaire scores and the inhibitory failures observed on the behavioral task predicted various aspects of recent drinking. However, only the inhibitory failures from the behavioral task, and not the impulsivity questionnaire scores, predicted the highest number of drinks consumed on one occasion during the past month. These findings are consistent with the notion that impulsivity may have different components that may be contributing the drinking patterns, and this research suggests that the inability to withhold a response is a strong predictor of the binge use of alcohol.
    Addictive behaviors 02/2012; 37(2):217-20. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.09.013 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has become a popular and controversial practice among young people. Increased rates of impaired driving and injuries have been associated with AmED consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine if the consumption of AmED alters cognitive processing and subjective measures of intoxication compared with the consumption of alcohol alone. Eighteen participants (nine men and nine women) attended four test sessions where they received one of four doses in random order (0.65 g/kg alcohol, 3.57 ml/kg energy drink, AmED, or a placebo beverage). Performance on a psychological refractory period (PRP) task was used to measure dual-task information processing and performance on the Purdue pegboard task was used to measure simple and complex motor coordination following dose administration. In addition, various subjective measures of stimulation, sedation, impairment, and level of intoxication were recorded. The results indicated that alcohol slowed dual-task information processing and impaired simple and complex motor coordination. The coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol did not alter the alcohol-induced impairment on these objective measures. For subjective effects, alcohol increased various ratings indicative of feelings of intoxication. More importantly, coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol reduced perceptions of mental fatigue and enhanced feelings of stimulation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, AmED may contribute to a high-risk scenario for a drinker. The mix of behavioral impairment with reduced fatigue and enhanced stimulation may lead AmED consumers to erroneously perceive themselves as better able to function than is actually the case.
    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 10/2011; 20(2):129-38. DOI:10.1037/a0026136 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    Cecile A Marczinski
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    ABSTRACT: This commentary discusses the paper by Rossheim and Thombs (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 35, 2011), which examined the relationship between type of alcohol mixer (regular caffeinated cola, diet caffeinated cola, energy drink, or no mixer) and breath alcohol readings in bar patrons. The significance of the findings of this study and new unaddressed questions for the field are discussed. Rossheim and Thombs (2011) reported that breath alcohol concentration readings were highest when patrons reported the consumption of caffeine mixers that were artificially sweetened (i.e., diet cola), after adjusting for potential confounds. Women were more likely to consume diet cola-caffeinated mixed drinks. The findings from this field study raise several new interesting questions. Given the reported gender difference in consumption of diet cola-caffeinated mixed drinks, more research is needed regarding gender differences in gastric emptying time for alcoholic beverages mixed with artificially sweetened versus sucrose sweetened caffeinated drinks. In addition, the recent explosion in the energy drink market has resulted in the availability of sugar-free or diet versions of most energy drink products. The implications of mixing diet energy drinks with alcohol are unknown.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 08/2011; 35(10):1729-31. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01603.x · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    Meagan A Ramsey, Cecile A Marczinski
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    ABSTRACT: College students are highly susceptible to the H1N1 virus, yet previous studies suggest that college students perceive themselves at low risk for the flu. We surveyed 514 undergraduates to assess their perceptions of H1N1 flu risk and opinions about flu vaccines. A third of respondents stated that they were not at risk of getting the H1N1 flu because they were young. Responses indicated a distrust of the safety and effectiveness of influenza vaccinations; only 15.8% of participants planned on receiving H1N1 vaccination. Top reasons for refusing the H1N1 vaccine included questioning vaccine safety and effectiveness, and concerns about potential serious and/or benign side effects. Top reasons for H1N1 vaccination acceptance included receiving a doctor recommendation for the vaccine, having previously gotten a seasonal vaccine, and being at high-risk for influenza. Our findings suggest that college students are inaccurate in assessing their risk level and are unlikely to seek vaccinations.
    Vaccine 08/2011; 29(44):7599-601. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.07.130 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    Cecile A Marczinski
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    ABSTRACT: Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers), 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 08/2011; 8(8):3232-45. DOI:10.3390/ijerph8083232 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in young people. AmED have been implicated in risky drinking practices and greater accidents and injuries have been associated with their consumption. Despite the increased popularity of these beverages (e.g., Red Bull and vodka), there is little laboratory research examining how the effects of AmED differ from alcohol alone. This experiment was designed to investigate if the consumption of AmED alters neurocognitive and subjective measures of intoxication compared with the consumption of alcohol alone. Participants (n=56) attended 1 session where they were randomly assigned to receive one of 4 doses (0.65 g/kg alcohol, 3.57 ml/kg energy drink, AmED, or a placebo beverage). Performance on a cued go/no-go task was used to measure the response of inhibitory and activational mechanisms of behavioral control following dose administration. Subjective ratings of stimulation, sedation, impairment, and level of intoxication were recorded. Alcohol alone impaired both inhibitory and activational mechanisms of behavioral control, as evidenced by increased inhibitory failures and increased response times compared to baseline performance. Coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol counteracted some of the alcohol-induced impairment of response activation, but not response inhibition. For subjective effects, alcohol increased ratings of stimulation, feeling the drink, liking the drink, impairment, and level of intoxication, and alcohol decreased the rating of ability to drive. Coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol increased self-reported stimulation, but resulted in similar ratings of the other subjective effects as when alcohol was administered alone. An energy drink appears to alter some of the objective and subjective impairing effects of alcohol, but not others. Thus, AmED may contribute to a high-risk scenario for the drinker. The mix of impaired behavioral inhibition and enhanced stimulation is a combination that may make AmED consumption riskier than alcohol consumption alone.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 07/2011; 35(7):1282-92. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01464.x · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • 03/2011; 1(1):15-21. DOI:10.1089/jcr.2011.1202
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    Meagan A Howard, Cecile A Marczinski
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    ABSTRACT: There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of glucose energy drinks (e.g., Amp, Monster, and Red Bull) in the past decade, particularly among high school and college students. However, little laboratory research has examined the acute objective and subjective effects of energy drinks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of a glucose energy drink (Red Bull) on cognitive functioning. Participants (N = 80) were randomly assigned to one of five conditions: 1.8 ml/kg energy drink, 3.6 ml/kg energy drink, 5.4 ml/kg energy drink, placebo beverage, or no drink. Participants completed a well-validated behavioral control task (the cued go/no-go task) and subjective measures of stimulation, sedation, and mental fatigue both before and 30 minutes following beverage administration. The results indicated that compared with the placebo and no drink conditions, the energy drink doses decreased reaction times on the behavioral control task, increased subjective ratings of stimulation and decreased ratings of mental fatigue. Greatest improvements in reaction times and subjective measures were observed with the lowest dose and improvements diminished as the dose increased. The findings suggest that energy drink consumption can improve cognitive performance on a behavioral control task, potentially explaining the dramatic rise in popularity of these controversial new beverages.
    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 12/2010; 18(6):553-61. DOI:10.1037/a0021740 · 2.63 Impact Factor
  • Cecile A. Marczinski, Rachel Bryant, Mark T. Fillmore
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    ABSTRACT: This research examined the relationship between self-reported cognitive preoccupation with drinking and self-reported and ad lib measures of alcohol consumption in male and female college students. Fifty undergraduates rated their degree of preoccupation with drinking using the Cognitive and Emotional Preoccupation scale and then participated in an individualized taste-rating task, an unobtrusive laboratory measure for determining ad lib alcohol consumption. Regression results showed that individual differences in emotional preoccupation with alcohol predicted self-reported consumption and actual laboratory alcohol consumption, only for women and not for men. This research shows that emotional preoccupation with alcohol appears to be an important factor in determining rates of drinking in college-age women and may be an important factor in identifying those individuals at risk of future problems with alcohol.
    Addiction Research and Theory 07/2009; 13(4):383-394. DOI:10.1080/16066350500150665 · 1.03 Impact Factor
  • Cecile A Marczinski, Mark T Fillmore
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    ABSTRACT: High rates of binge drinking and alcohol-related problems, including drinking and driving, occur among college students. Underlying reasons for the heightened impaired driving rates in this demographic group are not known. The authors hypothesized that acute tolerance to the interoceptive cues of intoxication may contribute to these maladaptive decisions to drive in binge drinkers. Groups of binge-drinking and non-binge-drinking college students (N = 28) attended sessions during which they received a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) or a placebo. The development of acute tolerance to subjective ratings of intoxication and simulated driving performance was assessed by comparing measures taken during the ascending phase and descending phases of the blood alcohol curve. Compared with placebo, alcohol increased ratings of intoxication and impaired multiple aspects of simulated driving performance in both binge and non-binge drinkers. During the descending phase of the blood alcohol curve, binge drinkers showed acute tolerance to alcohol's effect on subjective intoxication, and this effect was accompanied by an increased rating of willingness to drive. By contrast, non-binge drinkers showed no acute tolerance.
    Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 07/2009; 23(2):238-47. DOI:10.1037/a0014633 · 2.09 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
105.64 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2015
    • Northern Kentucky University
      • Department of Psychological Science
      Highland Heights, Kentucky, United States
  • 2003–2011
    • University of Kentucky
      • Department of Psychology
      Lexington, Kentucky, United States
  • 2008
    • Yale University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2004
    • McMaster University
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada