[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemia/reperfusion injury of lower extremities and associated lung damage may result from thrombotic occlusion, embolism, trauma, or surgical intervention with prolonged ischemia and subsequent restoration of blood flow. This clinical entity is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Deprivation of blood supply leads to molecular and structural changes in the affected tissue. Upon reperfusion inflammatory cascades are activated causing tissue injury. We therefore tested preoperative treatment for prevention of reperfusion injury by using C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH).
Wistar rats systemically pretreated with C1 INH (n = 6), APT070 (a membrane-targeted myristoylated peptidyl construct derived from human complement receptor 1, n = 4), vehicle (n = 7), or NaCl (n = 8) were subjected to 3h hind limb ischemia and 24h reperfusion. The femoral artery was clamped and a tourniquet placed under maintenance of a venous return. C1 INH treated rats showed significantly less edema in muscle (P<0.001) and lung and improved muscle viability (P<0.001) compared to controls and APT070. C1 INH prevented up-regulation of bradykinin receptor b1 (P<0.05) and VE-cadherin (P<0.01), reduced apoptosis (P<0.001) and fibrin deposition (P<0.01) and decreased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas deposition of complement components was not significantly reduced in the reperfused muscle.
C1 INH reduced edema formation locally in reperfused muscle as well as in lung, and improved muscle viability. C1 INH did not primarily act via inhibition of the complement system, but via the kinin and coagulation cascade. APT070 did not show beneficial effects in this model, despite potent inhibition of complement activation. Taken together, C1 INH might be a promising therapy to reduce peripheral ischemia/reperfusion injury and distant lung damage in complex and prolonged surgical interventions requiring tourniquet application.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e72059. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An anti-inflammatory effect of reconstituted High Density Lipoprotein (rHDL) has been demonstrated in atherosclerosis and in sepsis models. An increase of adhesion molecules as well as tissue factor expression on endothelial cells in response to inflammatory or danger signals are attenuated by the treatment with rHDL. Here we show the inhibitory effect of rHDL on the activation of human leukocytes in a whole blood assay as well as on monocyte-derived human dendritic cells (DC). Multiplex analysis of human whole blood showed that phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12(p40), IL-15 and IFN-α was inhibited. Furthermore, an inhibitory effect on the production of the chemokines CCL-2, CCL-4, CCL-5, CXCL-9 and CXCL-10 was observed. Activation of granulocytes and CD14(+) monocytes by PHA is inhibited dose-dependently by rHDL shown as decreased up-regulation of ICAM-1 surface expression. In addition, we found a strong inhibitory effect of rHDL on toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)- and TLR4-mediated maturation of DC. Treatment of DC with rHDL prevented the up-regulation of cell surface molecules CD80, CD83 and CD86 and it inhibited the TLR-driven activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. These findings suggest that rHDL prevents activation of crucial cellular players of cellular immunity and could therefore be a useful reagent to impede inflammation as well as the link between innate and adaptive immunity.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e71235. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease is a complex disorder involving multiple pathophysiological processes, several of which involve activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system. As sentinels of innate immunity TLRs are nonclonally germline-encoded molecular pattern recognition receptors that recognize exogenous as well as tissue-derived molecular dangers signals promoting inflammation. In addition to their expression in immune cells, TLRs are found in other tissues and cell types including cardiomyocytes, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. TLRs are differentially regulated in various cell types by several cardiovascular risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia and may represent a key mechanism linking chronic inflammation, cardiovascular disease progression, and activation of the immune system. Modulation of TLR signaling by specific TLR agonists or antagonists, alone or in combination, may be a useful therapeutic approach to treat various cardiovascular inflammatory conditions such as atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease, secondary microvascular complications of diabetes, autoimmune disease, and ischemia reperfusion injury. In this paper we discuss recent developments and current evidence for the role of TLR in cardiovascular disease as well as the therapeutic potential of various compounds on inhibition of TLR-mediated inflammatory responses.
Cardiology research and practice. 01/2012; 2012:181394.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NK cells express toll-like receptors (TLR) that recognize conserved pathogen or damage associated molecular patterns and play a fundamental role in innate immunity. Low molecular weight dextran sulfate (DXS), known to inhibit the complement system, has recently been reported by us to inhibit TLR4-induced maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC). In this study, we investigated the capability of DXS to interfere with human NK cell activation triggered directly by TLR2 agonists or indirectly by supernatants of TLR4-activated MoDC. Both TLR2 agonists and supernatants of TLR4-activated MoDC activated NK cells phenotypically, as demonstrated by the analysis of NK cell activation markers (CD56, CD25, CD69, NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, DNAM-1 and NKG2D), and functionally as shown by increased NK cell degranulation (CD107a surface expression) and IFN-gamma secretion. DXS prevented the up-regulation of NK cell activation markers triggered by TLR2 ligands or supernatants of TLR4-activated MoDC and dose-dependently abrogated NK cell degranulation and IFN-gamma secretion. In summary our results suggest that DXS may be a useful reagent to inhibit the direct and indirect TLR-mediated activation of NK cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that represent an important link between innate and adaptive immunity. Danger signals such as toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists induce maturation of DC leading to a T-cell mediated adaptive immune response. In this study, we show that exogenous as well as endogenous inflammatory stimuli for TLR4 and TLR2 induce the expression of HIF-1alpha in human monocyte-derived DC under normoxic conditions. On the functional level, inhibition of HIF-1alpha using chetomin (CTM), YC-1 and digoxin lead to no consistent effect on MoDC maturation, or cytokine secretion despite having the common effect of blocking HIF-1alpha stabilization or activity through different mechanisms. Stabilization of HIF-1alpha protein by hypoxia or CoCl(2) did not result in maturation of human DC. In addition, we could show that TLR stimulation resulted in an increase of HIF-1alpha controlled VEGF secretion. These results show that stimulation of human MoDC with exogenous as well as endogenous TLR agonists induces the expression of HIF-1alpha in a time-dependent manner. Hypoxia alone does not induce maturation of DC, but is able to augment maturation after TLR ligation. Current evidence suggests that different target genes may be affected by HIF-1alpha under normoxic conditions with physiological roles that differ from those induced by hypoxia.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(6):e0010983. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is mainly secreted by endothelial cells and acts as a potent vasoconstrictor. In addition ET-1 has also been shown to have pleiotropic effects on a variety of other systems including adaptive immunity. There are two main ET-1 receptors, ET(A) and ET(B), which have different tissue and functional distributions. Dendritic cells (DC) are pivotal antigen-presenting cells linking the innate with the adaptive immune system. DC are sentinels expressing pattern-recognition receptors, e.g. the toll-like receptors (TLR) for detecting danger signals released from pathogens or tissue injury. Here we show for the first time that stimulation of human monocyte-derived DC with exogenous as well as endogenous selective TLR4 and TLR2 agonists induces the production of ET-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. 'Alternative' activation of DC in the presence of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) results in a marked potentiation of the endothelin response, whereas prostaglandin E(2) or dexamethasone do not increase ET-1 production. Furthermore, chetomin, an inhibitor of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha), prevents TLR-mediated secretion of ET-1. Surprisingly, stimulation of human monocytes with LPS does not lead to secretion of detectable amounts of ET-1. These results suggest a role of ET-1 as an important player in human DC biology and innate immunity in general.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complement is an essential part of the innate immune system and plays a crucial role in organ and islet transplantation. Its activation, triggered for example by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), significantly influences graft survival, and blocking of complement by inhibitors has been shown to attenuate I/R injury. Another player of innate immunity are the dendritic cells (DC), which form an important link between innate and adaptive immunity. DC are relevant in the induction of an immune response as well as in the maintenance of tolerance. Modulation or inhibition of both components, complement and DC, may be crucial to improve the clinical outcome of solid organ as well as islet transplantation. Low molecular weight dextran sulfate (DXS), a well-known complement inhibitor, has been shown to prevent complement-mediated damage of the donor graft endothelium and is thus acting as an endothelial protectant. In this review we will discuss the evidence for this cytoprotective effect of DXS and also highlight recent data which show that DXS inhibits the maturation of human DC. Taken together the available data suggest that DXS may be a useful reagent to prevent the activation of innate immunity, both in solid organ and islet transplantation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low molecular weight dextran sulfate (DXS) has been reported to inhibit the classical, alternative pathway as well as the mannan-binding lectin pathway of the complement system. Furthermore, it acts as an endothelial cell protectant inhibiting complement-mediated endothelial cell damage. Endothelial cells are covered with a layer of heparan sulfate (HS), which is rapidly released under conditions of inflammation and tissue injury. Soluble HS induces maturation of dendritic cells (DC) via TLR4. In this study, we show the inhibitory effect of DXS on human DC maturation. DXS significantly prevents phenotypic maturation of monocyte-derived DC and peripheral myeloid DC by inhibiting the up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, ICAM-1, and HLA-DR and down-regulates DC-SIGN in response to HS or exogenous TLR ligands. DXS also inhibits the functional maturation of DC as demonstrated by reduced T cell proliferation, and strongly impairs secretion of the proinflammatory mediators IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-12p70, and TNF-alpha. Exposure to DXS leads to a reduced production of the complement component C1q and a decreased phagocytic activity, whereas C3 secretion is increased. Moreover, DXS was found to inhibit phosphorylation of IkappaB-alpha and activation of NF-kappaB. These findings suggest that DXS prevents TLR-induced maturation of human DC and may therefore be a useful reagent to impede the link between innate and adaptive immunity.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2008; 181(2):878-90. · 5.52 Impact Factor